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Australian race 




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THE AUSTEALIAI EACE: 

ITS ORIGIN, LANGUAGES, 

CUSTOMS, 
PLACE OF LANDING IN AUSTRALIA, 

AND 

THE ROUTES BY WHICH IT SPREAD ITSELF OVER 
THAT CONTINENT. 



BY 

ED^VARD M. CTJRR, 

Author of "Pure Saddle Horses," and "Recollections of Squatting in Victoria." 



IN FOUR VOLUMES. 



VOLUME II. 



MELBOUENE : JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PEINTEK. 
LONDON: TRUBNER AND CO., LUDGATE HILL. 

1 8 S 6 . 



n> 






CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



■ PAGE 

List of Illustrations --...---. vi 



BOOK .THE SIXTH. 

No. 

Prefatory Remarks - - - - ' 3 

40. Streaky Bay (D. K. Richardson \ g 

I. O. Provis J 

41. Port Lincoln fA. A. O. Le Souef] _ g 

I R. W. Holdm I 

42. Peake Telegraph Station - - • O. Todd - - - 10 

43. North-weat of Lake Eyre - - - F.E.Jacobs- - - 12 

44. North Shore of Lake Byre - - F.E.Jacobs- - 14 

45. West of Lake Eyre - - - JJoM Warren ) . ^ 

I John Hogarth > 

46. Warburtoji River - - - . - W. J. Paull - - - 18 

47. Warburton River - - - W. H. Cornish - 22 

48. Cooper's Creek, to the eastward of\ 

its Northern Branch ; also Koongi I ^- 5' 5'°™**" } - 24 

T , \ H. G. Salmon ) 
Lake - - - - - -J 

49. Cooper's Creek in the neighbourhood 

where Burke and Wills died - Alfred Howitt . ■ 30 . 

50. Cooper's Creek near the Booloo River {''„,. i - 32 

( Ernest Eghnton ) 

51. Nockatoonga, Wilson River . - - T. W. Foott - - - 34 

52. Thargomiuda, BuUoo River - - F. W. Myles - - - 36 

53. Lower BuUoo River - - - - A. F. Sullivan ■ - 42 

54. A Tribe to the east of Strzelecki's 

Creek- - - - - - - - - - - ** 

55. Prom Mount Preeling to Pirigundi 

Lake Samuel Oason - - 44 

56. Kopperamana - . - - - - F. E. Jacobs - - - 108 

57. Strangway Springs - - - - John Warren - - 110 

58. Umbertana - - - - - N. E. Phillipson - - 112 

59. Mount Serle - - - - - Charles Wills - - 116 

60.Belta|.a - - . - - -IJlf^^^^M ' "« 

61. Wonoka W- M. Green - - 124 

62. Eastern Shore of Lake Torrens- - W.M.Green - 126 

63. Gawler Range - - - - A. D. Sawers - - ,130 

64. Maraohowie - - - - - H. L. Beddom£ - - 132 

65. Mount Remarkable - - - - J. C. Valentine - - 136 

66. Port Pirie, 40 miles east of • • S. he Brun - • - - 140 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



No. 



67. Yorke's Peninsula, South Australia 



69, 



. ( Wilhel 
^^' \w. Fo 



BOOK THE SIXTR— continued. 

Wilhel/m Kuhn ) 
Fowler ' > 

Teichelmann and 
68. Adelaide and its neighbourhood - -j Schurmmn 

W. Wyatt 
I TT 1 r v I ^- Gromer I 

'. \ A, Dewhurst > 

69a. Near • the North-west Corner of " 

New South Wales - " - - A. W. Morton 



PAGE 

143 

148 
152 
158 



BOOK THE SEVENTH. 

Prefatory Remarks ------- 

70. Country North-west of the Barrier 

Range - Anonymous - 

71. Country about 60 miles North-west 

from a point on the Darling 
midway between Menindie and 
Wiloannia - - - - ' - W. Haines . 

72. Boolcoomatta - - - - - W, J. Lake Dix 

73. Torrowotto J. A. Reid - 

74. Lower portions of the Paroo and 

Warrego Rivers - - - ■ G. Scrivener ■ 

75. Bourke, Darling River - - - Q. N. Teuton 

76. Fifty miles below Bourke on the ( Sir S. Wilson ] 

Darling River - - - -l W. Henderson I 

77. Wilcannia M. Sogers 

78. Tintinaligi - - - - The Author - 

79. Weinteriga - - - -A. McLennan 

80. Menindie, Darling River - - - — Mair 

81. Tolarno Station -' - - - O. W.Shaw - 

82. Junction of the Darling and Murray 

Rivers JohnBulmer- 

83. From the Banks of the Murray River, 

where it enters Lake Alexandrina 
to the embouchure of that river 
and Laoepede Bay - - - Qeorge Taplin 

84. Prom Wellington, on the Murray 

River, to the North-west Bend - M. Moorehowse 

85. North-west Bend of the Murray 

Ri'^^er .F. W.Fulford 

86. Ned's Corner - - - - - A. H. Pegler 

87. From the Mallee Cliffs to Weutworth — McFarlane 

88. Prom the Junction of the Lachlan 

and Murray to the Junction of 

the Darling and Murray - - J. A. Macdonald 



165 
173 



174 

176 

178 

182 
186 

224 

226 
230 
232 
234 
236 

238 



242 

274 

278 
280 

282 

285 



faqe 



326 



CONTENTS. 
BOOK THE EIGHTH. 

So. 

Prefatory Remarks ---■-..... 293 

89. Eastward of the Nicholson River and 

between that river and the coast Edward Curr - - 296 

90. Burketown - - - - ■ T. Ooward - - - 298 

91. The Mouth of the Leichardt River - W. E. Armit - - 300 

92. Mouth of the Norman River - - W. E. Armit - - 306 

93. Middle Norman . - - - W. E. Armit - - 310 

94. On the West Bank of the Leichardt 

River, near the sea - - - Edward Curr - - 314 

95. Leichardt River, twenty miles below 

Kamilaroi Station - - - Edward Curr ■ - 316 

. 96. Kamilaroi Station, Leichardt River - Montagu Curr - - 318 

97. Betweeft the Gregory and Leichardt 

Rivers . - - - • M. S. Lamoiid - - 322 

98. Seymour, Templeton, and Clonourry jF. Urquhart \ 

Rivers iJ. O'BeiUey I 

99. The Cloncurry River - - . . [^- P<^i"^er a,id ) _ 33^ 

I Anonymous > 

100. The Flinders and Cloncurry Rivers - A. MacGUliway - - 340 

101. The Burke River - - - - E. Eglinton - - 346 
( The Hamilton River - - - W. Blair . - - 350 

,n2 J The Lower Georgiua River - - R. N. Collins - - 354 

j Between the Georgina and Burke (/. Craigie - - - 356 

( Rivers - - - - -\a. McLean - - • - 358 

103. Head of the Hamilton River - - E. Eglinton - - - 360 

104. On the Hamilton River near Boulia E. Eglinton - - - 364 

105. Junction of King's Creek and the f J. 0. Machattie \ 

Georgina River - - - - I J. S. Little 1 

106. Lower Diamantina - - - - Anonymous - - - 371 

107. Junction of Thomson and Barcoo j "^^ ^^S^ey \ 

Rivers, also the Whitula Creek - i ■"■ ^'"'^^f- \ " ^"* 

I Edward Curr > 



BOOK THE NINTH. 

Prefatory Remarks - - . - ----- 389 

108. Princess Charlotte's Bay, North 

Queensland W. 0. Hodghinson - 389 

109. Endeavour River - - - -l'^^"!. } - '392 

I P. P. Ktng ! 

110. Weary Bay ----- 2', Hughes - - - 393 

111. Akoonkoon, Pahner River - - E. Palmer - - - 396 

112. The Lynd River - - - - W. 0. K. Hill - - 400 

113. Granite Range, close to the Head of 

the Mitchell River and east of 

the Hodgkinson Goldfields - ■ H. M. Mowhray - - 402 



366 



VI CONTENTS. 

BOOK THE HINTH.— continued. 

So. . PAGE 

114. Near the Head of the Walsh River- J._ Atherton - - - 408 

115. Country about Thornborough 

Diggings, and near the Head of 

the Mitchell .- - - - W. 0. HodgUnson - 412 

116. Granite Range at the Head of the 

Walsh River - - - - E. R. Davidson - - 414 

117. Head of the Gilbert - - - M. Curr - - - 416 

118. Hinchinbrook Island and the Maia- j M. Armstrong I _ ^jg 

land adjacent - . - -iJ. Murray ' 

119. Herbert River . - - - W.S.Stephen - -422 

120. Halifax Bay iJ. Cassady ) . ^24 

I S. Johnstone i 

121. Head-waters of the Burdekin River TV. 0. HodgUnson - 432 

122. Clarke River . - - - - p" -^"*'" [ - 436 

I— Beta Tour ) 

123. Top of the Range near Dalrymple - W. E. Armit - - 440 

124. Cleveland Bay - - - 5 A. R. Johnstone } . ^^ 

IM. Gurr ) 

125. Mount Elliott - - - - - E. Gregory - - - 448 

126. Mouths of the Burdekin River - /. O'Connor - - 454 

127. Porter's Range - - - - M. Gurr - - ■ 456 

128. Charters Towers - - - \GUef Grnnmissiwier \ _ ^^g 

I of Pohce, Brisbane i 

129. Upper Blinders, Hughenden, Button JJl/^, CttT-r 1 .„. 

River, &o. \ E. Gurr ) 

130. The Watershed and Upper Portion 

of the Cape River - - M. Armstrong - - 464 

131. Natal Downs Station, Cape River - I •'*'■ -^^ ^°™^T i '. 468 

I W. Chatfield > 

132. Ravenswood, Upper Burdekin - W. H. Kent - - 484 

133. Mount Black Government of Queensland 486 

134. Lower Burdekin - - . - P" Ounningham ] _ 

I F. J. Gorton f 

135. Burdekin River, various tribes - J. Hall Scott - - 492 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, VOLUME II. 



PAGE 



Kopi, or Mourning Cap of Gypsum - - . . . 238 

A Tree on the Diamantina River, Queensland. Record of a Fight 

which took' place in the locality - - - . . . 433 



BOOK THE SIXTH 



VOL. II. 



^k^ ^ttsttaliatt ^aa. 



BOOK THE SIXTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

The tribes whose manners and languages form the subject 
of this book belong to the Central Division, like those 
treated of in the two preceding books. In many of these 
tribes the principal article of food was a sort of flour, 
obtained by grinding grass-seeds, which was made into 
unleavened bread or mixed with water and eaten uncooked. 
With these tribes we come to the termination (in this 
neighbourhood) of the practices of circumcision and the 
terrible rite, a fact which is referred to at length in the 
prefatory remarks to Book VII. 

In the languages of this book it is interesting to find 
paroo and booloo, the two equivalents for fish, also the 
names of rivers. The explanation probably is that tribes 
which used these words (the Peake Telegraph vocabulary, 
for instance, contains both), having become the discoverers 
of these rivers, which abound in fish, named them respec- 
tively Paroo and Bulloo from this circumstance. 

In some of these languages barkoola means 2 and in 
others 3. 



No. 40.— STREAKY BAY. 

By D. K. Richardson, Esq., and C. Pkovis, Esq. 

Feom the Streaky Bay district I have received two 
vocabularies, both of which I have thought it desirable to 
insert; for though for the most part they agree, they 

A2 



4 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



have also many points of difference. Indeed the two 
equivalents of Blackfellow lead to the inference that they 
represent the dialects of two distinct (though neighbouring) 
tribes. The first of the two vocabularies, forwarded by 
Mr. D. K. Richardson, gives in addition the following 
names of persons: — Men: Moongulta, Koongulta, Moonaga. 
Women: Koomilya, Tchoonbilla, Noobillia. For the second 
vocabulary I am indebted to Mr. Charles Provis, who gives 
the following names of persons, one of which is given by 
Mr. Eichardson: — Men: Yaljulta, Thangil. Women: 
Koomilya and Koobillya. 



No. 40.— STREAKY BAY. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - - - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 
PeUoan 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - - - 
Swan - 

Egg - - - 
Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - - 
Snake - - - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow - 
A Black woman - 
Nose - - - 



warroo. 

pilta. 

yelka. 

kurlea. 



weely. 



By D. K. Richardson, Esq. 

Hand -. 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four (many) 
Father 



yongona. 

wungara. 

koorti 

namboo. 

tchinna. 



koonaboonjeloo. 

yoombera. 

djoono. 

niunga. 

uiunga. 

weeinna. 

moola. 



Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 

,, Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 

Head - - - 
Eye - 
Ear - 



murra, 

kootera niunga. 

karboo niunga. 

kooma 

kootera. 

karboo. 

yalkata. 

mumma. 

weea. 

konky. 



wannoo. 

chilby. 

kooroo. 

walboo. 

kooba. • 

yarpo kardo. 

kurka. 

meil. 

yooree. 



STREAKY BAY. 



No. 40. — Streaky Bay — continued. 



Mouth 


- neemy. 


Teeth - 


- yira. 


Hair of the heao 


- ngooro. 


Beard - 


- ngangwin. 


Thunder ■• 


- toondooga. 


Grass - 


- kurroo. 


Tongue 


- kyaling. 


Stomach - 


- choorda. 


Breasts 


- moondundoo. 


Thigh 


- kanty. 


Foot - 


- tcheena. 


Bone - 


- moolallie. 


Blood - 


- yaildo. 


Skin - 


- imba. 


Fat - 


- mainby. 


Bowels 


- 


Excrement - 


- galling. 


War-spear - 


- keea. 


B«ed-spear - 


- 


Wommera - 


- meela. 


Shield 


- 


Tomahawk - 


- 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- cheeando. 


Moon - 


- peea. 


Star - 


- kulka. 


Light - 


- 


Dark - 


- moabu. 


Cold - 


- miniaroo. 


Heat - 


- ngunera. 


Day - 


- perria. 


Night - 


- maltie. 


Fire - 


- kulla. 


Water 


- kaaby. 


Smoke 


- pooyoo. 


Ground 


- poordo. 


Wind - 


- eeneroo. 


Rain - 


- waiuburoo. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- pokobidney. 



Boomerang - 


- 


Hill - - 


- 


Wood - 


- kulla. 


Stone - 


- poonda. 


Camp - 


- ngoora. 


Yes - - 


- yooa. 


No - - 


- mukka. 


I 


- ngunna. 


You - 


- tchanna. 


Bark - 


- piltera. 


Good - 


- yardoo. 


Bad - - 


- nunta. 


Sweet - 


- morogo. 


Food - - 


- ma. 


Hungry 


- meamukka. 


Thirsty 


- mungarra. 


Eat - 


- ngaal. 


Sleep - 


- yango. 


Drink - 


- mungarra. 


Walk - 


- wayn. 


See - - 


- ngakoon. 


Sit - 


- ngeedin. 


Yesterday - 


- wilyoodo. 


To-day 


- pynyiayee. 


To-morrow - 


- maalduloo. 


Where are the 


Blacks? 




I don't know 


- tchalla mindy 


Plenty 


- moona. 


Big - - 


- willaroo. 


Little - 


- minyardo. 


Dead - 


- pilunabeena 


By-and-by - 


- wuneroo. 


Come on 


- panni winni. 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 40.— STREAKY BAY. 



Bt C. Provis, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- waroo. 


Opossum - 


- pirlta. 


Tame dog 


- yelga. 


Wild dog - 


- 


Emu 


- warritcha. 


Black duck - 


- murrara. 


Wood duck- 


- 


Pelican 


- weele. 


Laughing jackass 


Native companion 


White cockatoo 


- yungana. 


Crow - 


- wamkara 


Swan " 


- kowerte. 


Egg - - 


- peepee. 


Track of a foot 


- tchinna. 


Fish - 


- kooya. 


Lobster 


- 


Crayfish 


- 


Mosquito - 


- koonaboonjeloo 


Fly - -• 


- yoonberra. 


Snake - 


- wobma. 


The Blacks - 


- kurda. 


A Blackfellow 


- kurda. 


A Black woman 


- kore. 


Nose •■ 


- mootla. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 


- koothera kurda 


3 Blacks - 


- kaboo kurda. 


One - 


- kooma. 


Two - 


- koothera. 


Three - 


- kaboo. 


Pour - 


- wima. 


Father 


- mamma. 


Mother 


- weeya. 


Sister-Elder 


- konbee. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- yoonga. 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- wilyara. 


An old man 


- poorlka. 


An old woman 


- weeya. 


A baby 


- kaitoha. 


A White man 


- koopa. 


Children - 


- keetchaba. 


Head - 


- koka. 


Eye - 


- meena. 


Ear - 


- yoore. 



STREAKY BAY. 



No. 40. — Streaky Bay — continued. 



Mouth 


- meeme. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- yeera. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- ngoora. 


Wood - 


- kurla. 


Beard - 


- ngomka. 


Stone - 


- pamta. 


Thunder - 


- kooroona. 


Camp - 


- ngoora. 


Grass - 


- korra. 


Yes - 


- ya. 


Tongue 


- kyaking. 


No - 


- mukka. 


Stomach 


- warna. 


I 


- ngie. 


Breasts 


- ebee. 


You - 


- noone. 


-Thigh 


- wiitha. 


Bark - 


- yoolthe. 


Foot - 


- tcheena. 


Good - 


- yatto. 


Bone - 


- moolale. 


Bad - 


- ngontha. 


Blood - 


- yaildo. 


Sweet - 


- morrogo. 


Skin - 


- eemba. 


Food - 


- ma. 


Tat - 


- mainbe. 


Hungry 


- karnpa. 


Bowels 


- warna. 


Thirsty 


- mungarra. 


Excrement - 


- kurta. 


Bat - 


- mungee. 


War-spear - 


- keeya. 


Sleep - 


- ngarbiroya. 


Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield - 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 


- konde. 

- tchinta. 

- peera. 

- kulka 


Drink- - - algoona. 
Walk - - - ngomema. 
See - - - meena. 
Sit - - - neena. 
Yesterday - - wiltchera. 
To-day - - pynea. 
To-morrow - - molthaloo. 
Where are the intha kurda ? 


Dark - 


- moaba. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- pyala. 


I don't know 


- yaminthe. 


Heat - 


- pookara. 


Plenty 


- murna. 


Day - 


- pu-rea. 


Big - 


- murna. 


Night - 


- molthe. 


Little - 


- meenya. 


Fire - 


- kurla. 


Dead - 


- kukabuk. 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind- 
Rain - 
God - 


- koppe. 

- pooya. 

- mietlea. 

- warre. 

- wainbaroo. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
WUd turkey 


- karree. 

- pemee. 


Ghosts 


- poorkabidue. 


Wife - 


- 



8 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 41.— PORT LINCOLN. 

By a. A. 0. Le SouBF, Esq., aud the Revd. R. W. Holden. 
Vocabularies of the Parnkalla language, whicli is spoken 
at Port Lincoln and along the western shores of Spencer's 
Gulf, have been sent to me by A. A. 0. Le Souef, Esq., and 
the Revd. R. W. Holden. Of this language a dictionary of 
about 2,200 words, prefaced by a grammar, was published 
in Adelaide, 1844, by the Revd. C. W. Shurmann. From 
these sources I have filled up the following vocabulary. It 
is to be noticed that in the Revd. Mr. Shurmann's work 
there is but one word which begins with the letter a, and 
the sound of ck is entirely wanting, but that my two 
contributors both give kitcha as the equivalent of hahy. 
Circumcision prevails in this tribe. 





No. 41.— PORT LINCOLN. 




By a. a. C 


. Lb Soubf, Esq., and the Revd. R. 


W. HOLDBN. 


Kangaroo - 


bulka, warru. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


piUa. 


2 Blacks - 


■ kallpille toora. 


Tame dog - 


wilga. 


3 Blacks - 


- koolperrie toora 


WUddog - 


kurdniimi. 


One - - 


- kubmanna. 


Emu - 
Black duck 


warraitya. 
murrarra. 


Two - 


- kallpille. 


Wood duck 




Three - 


- koolperrie. 


Pelican 


widli. 


Four - 


- ngerla. 


Laughing jackass 


kookark. 


Father 


- pappi. 


Native companion 




Mother ' - 


- ngan:uni. 


White cockatoo - 




Sister-Elder 


- yakka. 


Crow - 

Swan - 


wornkarra. 
kooti. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - 


peepee, bebi. 


Brother-Elder 


- yunga. 


Track of a foot - 


yedna, weedla. 


„ Younger ngaityaba. 


Fish - 


kuya. 


A young man 


- mooltappa. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- meetta, pulka. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- moodalli. 


Mosquito - 


kunnutyuUu, 


A baby 


- kitcha. 


Fly - 


yuwunu. 
yumbarra. 


A White man 


- koopa. 


Snake - 


wamba. 


Children - 


- boolyoo, mur- 


The Blacks 


yoora, toora. 




dalyi. 


A Blackfellow - 




Head 


- kaka. 


A Black woman - 


pallara. 


Eye - 


- mena. 


Nose - 


moodla. 


Ear - 


- yoori. 



PORT LINCOLN. 





No. 41.— PoKT L 


INCOLN — continued 




Mouth 


- ya, narpartra. 


Boomerang '- 


. 


Teeth 


- yerra, ira. 


Hill - 


- purri. 


Hair of the head- kakaputti, kurni' 


Wood-. - 


- gadla. 


Beard - 


- ngarnka. 


Stone - 


- kanya. 


Thunder 


- kooranna. 


Camp - 


- koornkoo. 


Grass - 


- kurra, uthera. 


Yes - 


- ia, ya, a, nga, 


Tongue 


- yarli. 




yooa. 


Stomach 


- pompe ngan- 


No - 


- mukka, madia. 




kalla. 


I 


- ngai. 


Breasts 


- ngamma. 


You - 


- neena. 


Thigh 


- yatla. 


Bark - 


- yoolthi. 


Foot - 


- idna. 


Good - 


- munjarri, mar- 


Bone 


- winma, wurlpool. 




niti. 


Blood - 


- kartintye. 


Bad - 


- milla. 


Skin - 


_ 


Sweet - 


- ngaltya. 


Fat - 


- mame, ngappata. 


Food - 


- ma, mai. 


Bowels 


- kudna. 


Hungry 


- karnba, kurnpa. 


Excrement - 


- kudna. 


Thirsty 


- yurne. 


War-spear - 


- kia, kaya. 


Eat - 


- ngalgutu. 


Reed-spear - 


_ 


Sleep - 


- meya, wanniti. 


Wommera - 


- midla, kundi. 


Drink - 


- yappaka. 


Shield 


- 


Walk - 


- ngukata, pad- 


Tomahawk - 


- kanti. 




nata. 


Canoe - 


. 


See - 


- nakkuttu, nak- 


Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 


- yumo. 

- pirra. 

- purdli. 


Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 


koo. 

- yikketha. 

- willjenna. 

- yatha. 


Light - 
Dark - 


- multhi. 


To-morrow - 
Where are the 


- wilcherpani. 
J wanna toora ? 


Cold - 


- paialla, pila. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- kallalla. 


I don't know 


- ya-kood-la. 


Day - 


- wallina, marka. 


Plenty 


- nurla. 


Night - 


- 


Big - - 


- yoodlu, mur- 


Fire - - 


- gadla, kurdla. 




nundo. 


Water 


- kapi, kauo. 


Little - 


- bulya, peelyoo. 


Smoke 


r puyu, pooya. 


Dead - 


- kunya, paruntu 


Ground 


- yurra. 


By-and-by - 


- kani. 


Wind - 


- wirra. 


Come on 


- purdni. 


Rain - 


- kattari, koorun- 


Milk - 


- 




na-kowi. 


Eaglehawk - 


- yamu. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- walla. 


Ghosts 


- nara, wilya. 


Wife - 


- yungara. 



10 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 42.— PEAKE TELEGRAPH STATION. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum 
Tame dog - ' 


- koongoora. 

- womboola. 

- murdla. 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 


- erlea. 


Black duck- 


- oodla-oodla. 


Wood duck- 
Pelican 


- yarkalto. 

- warrunto. 


Laughing jackass 
Native companion mulpa. 
White cockatoo - 


Crow - 


- wokkoola. 


Swan - 


- kute. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


- papoo. 

- wimba. 


Fish - 
Lobster 


- paroo, booloo 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- ooiuya. 


Fly . 
Snake - 


- oringore. 

- wobma. 


The Blacks - 


- nulla. 


A Blackf ellow 


- nulla. 


A Black woman 


- miiTikera. 


Nose - 


- media. 



By Charles Todd, Esq., C.M.G. 

Hand - - - murra. 

2 Blacks - - parakuUa nuUa. 

3 Blacks - - kulpura nulla. 
Cue - - - weyoo. 
Two - - - parakuUa. 
Three - - - kulpura. 
Four - - - nooyoo. 
Father - - meeya. 
Mother - - alooka. 
Sister-Elder - karkoo. 

„ Younger - 

Brother-Elder - noota. 

,, Younger 

A young man - yawonka. 

An old man - waroo. 

An old woman - wittoola. 

A baby - - marchi. 

A White man - koopia woonka. 

Children - - koopakurdli. 

Head - - kurty. 

Eye - - - milchi. 

Ear - - _ yeari. 



PEAKE TELEGRAPH STATION. 



11 



No. 42. — Peake Telbgkaph Station — continued. 



Mouth 


- muma. 


Teeth - 


- yakkara. 


Hair of the head 


- wilpoora. 


Beard - 


- numka. 


Thunder - 


- mungaunda. 


Grass - 


- kunchara. 


Tongue 


- tardli. 


Stomach 


- yarrakoora. 


Breasts 


- nama. 


Thigh - 


- walpoo(?) 


Foot - 


- peedna. 


Bone - 


- walpoo(?) 


Blood - 


- koobmara. 


Skin - 


- maramakoo. 


Fat - 


- punga, marri. 


Bowels 




Excrement - 


- koodna. 


War-spear - 


- 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Wommera - 


- 


Shield- •- 


- 


Tomahawk - 


- 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- yarro. 


Moon - 


- parralla. 


Star - 


- kartepela. 


Light - 


- poorinda. 


Dark - 


- wonga. 


Cold - 


- madlera. 


Heat - 


- alpa. 


Day - 


- wolta. 


Night - 


- woogna. 


Fire - 


- mukka. 


Water 


- koota. 


Smoke 


- ukurta. 


Ground 


•■ yoopella. 


Wind - 


- wohnurra. 


Rain - 


- chilta. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- 



Boomerang - 


- 


HUl - 


- 


Wood - 


- nartanda. 


Stone - 


- kardna, opata. 


Camp - 


- nura. 


Yes - 


- arri. 


No - 


- myella. 


I 


- aupa. 


You - 


- autoo. 


Bark - 


- peeta. 


Good - 


- 


Bad - 


- tetalla. 


Sweet - 


- 


Food - 


- chalpa. 


Hungry 


- wodla. 


Thirsty 


- yunkurta. 


Eat - 


- tanera. 


Sleep - 


- koortana. 


Drink - 


- poontara. 


Walk - - 


- ukandanda. 


See - 


- yungunda. 


Sit - 


- tunkanna. 


Yesterday - 


- ukunta. 


To-day 


■ chalpa. 


To-morrow - 


- wongara. 


Where are 1 


;he weterla nulla 


Blacks ? 


paraka ? 


I don't know 


- anakoli. 


Plenty 


- nooka. 


Big - 


- paranda. 


Little - 


- pekammaroo. 


Dead - 


- pooranda. 


By-and-by - 


- uta. 


Come on 


- karwona wee. 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- 



12 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 43.— NORTH-WEST OF LAKE EYRE. 

By F. E. Jacobs, Esq. 

The following vocabulary from the language of the trihe 
which dwells to the north-west of Lake Eyre was kindly 
forwarded to me by Mr. F. E. Jacobs, a German gentleman 
resident at the Lutheran Mission Station at Kopperamana. 
I have thought it necessary to call attention to the nation- 
ality of my correspondent, as in many cases the spelling of 
the words of his vocabulary, taken from an English point 
of view, represents sounds which it would be impossible for 
an Australian Black to utter. The sth, which occurs so 
frequently, I take to represent the nasal sound which is 
generally expressed by ng. 



No. 


43.— NORTH-WEST OF LAKE EYRE. 




By F. E. Jacobs, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


kungara. 


Hand - 


masra. 


Opossum - 


pilda. 


2 Blacks - 


tua parakulu. 


Tame dog - 


madia. 


3 Blacks - 


tua kulpari. 


Wild dog - 




One - 


sthuja. 


Emu - 


wurrukotti. 






Black duck - 


dummi. 


Two - 


parakulu. 


Wood duck 




Three - 


kulpari. 


Pelican 


■ tampanpara. 


Pour - 


parakulu-para- 


Laughing jackass 






kulu. 


Native companion puralka. 


Father 


ainja. 


White cockatoo 


nardnanpn. 


Mother 


stharluka. 


Crow - 


■ wokkala. 


Sister-Elder 


kuppali. 


Swan - 


■ kurti. 


„ Younger ■ 




Egg - 


pappu. 


Brother-Elder 


sthutti. 


Track of a foot 


- tidna. 


„ Younger 




Fish - 


- worri. 


A young man 


tarinka. 


Lobster 


kurukudirri. 






Crayfish 




An old man 


muttupurdu. 


Mosquito - 


tudinma. 


An old woman 


wuljula. 


Fly - - 


- sthurrinhurri. 


A baby 


sthallua. 


Snake - 


titta. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


- tua. 


ChUdren - 


sthallua. 


A Blackfellow 


tuachuju. 


Head - 


kartapu. 


A Black woman 


- boku. 


Eye - 


mUkikardi. 


Nose - 


- milla. 


Ear - 


turri. 



NORTH-WEST OF LAKE EYRE. 



13 



No. 


43. — North-west oi 


Lake Eyee — continued. 


Mouth 


■ moma. 


Boomera.ng - 


- 


Teeth - 


- tuckara. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head 


- whirri. 


Wood - 


- sthalpa. 


Beard - 


- stharukats- 
charda. 


Stone - 


- kadna. 






Camp - 

Yes - 


- sthura. 


Thunder - 
Grass - 


- pUdri-pildri. 

- kutu. 


- kau. 


Tongue 


- tanjama. 


No - 


- banni. 


Stomach 


- kunnakardi. 


I 


- sthanna. 


Breasts 


- sthamma. 


You - 


- andrugundree 


Thigh - 


- tarra. 


Bark - 


- pitjamurru. 


Foot - 


- tidna. 


Good - 


- sthurku. 


Bone - 


- wolpu. 


Bad - 


- madia. 


Blood - 


- giimTnari. 


Sweet - 


- murdu. 


Skin - 


- batta. 


Food - 


- workana. 


Fat ■ - ■ 


- mami. 


Hungry 


- wordlara. 


Bowels 


- kunmateiri. 


Thirsty 


- sthalparia. 


Excrement - 


- kunna. 










Eat - 


- tarumda. 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 


- pirrimpara. 


Sleep - 


- kurmala. 


Wommera - 


. 


Drink 


- puntarda. 


Shield- ■- 


- mudluworru. 


Walk - 


- tuckanda. 


Tomahawk - 


- karlara. 


See - 


- sthanninda 


Oanoe - 




Sit - 


- tankarda. 


Sun - 


- muju. 


Yesterday - 


- woldapurta. 


Moon - 


- purtu. 


To-day 


- amti. 


Star - 


- kardipilla. 


To-morrow - 


- wongara. 


Light - 


- paredscM. 


Where are the 


tua tiara ? 


Dark - 


- sthalpuru. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- backala. 


I don't know 


- sthannago. 


Heat - 


- karrara. 










Plenty- 


- sthadla. 


Day - 


- muju. 


Big - 


- kartuwirri. 


Night 


- wompa. 






Fire - 


- macka. 


Little - 


- stharra. 


Water 


- kutta. 


Dead - 


- kumpirra. 


Smoke 


- mackatupu. 


By-and-by - 


- thaeinni. 


Ground 


- wodlu. 


Come on 


- kaua. 


Wind - 


- wonunara. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kurraworra. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



14 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No, 44.— THE NORTH SHORE OP LAKE EYRE. 



By p. E. Jacobs, Esq. 
Per remarks on the spelling of this vocabulary see No. 43. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum - 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - - . 
Black duck 
Wood duck 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow 

Swan - - - 
Egg - 
Track of a foot 
Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Ply . - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 
A Black woman 
Nose - 



yshuckuru. 

pilka. 

tirrita. 

workatji. 
durnmi. 

worrantjuma. 

puralku. 

wauwacka. 

pampu. 



pirtipupu. 

dritji. 

tipamakatu. 

karna. 

karmaehunara. 

widla. 

mudla. 



Hand - 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 

One - - 
Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 

Pather 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„ Younger 
Brother-Elder 

,, Younger 

A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 
Head 
Bye - 
Ear - 



- karna parukulu, 

- karna paraku- 
auna. 

- sthunara. 

- parukulu. 

- parakuauna. 

- parakulu-para- 
kulu. 

- stharrapi. 

- sthandri. 

- sthuttari. 

- sthuju. 

woUunku. 
kurkaru. 
wildapirna. 
kubanaukatu. 



sthurdutandra, 

milki. 

turpa. 



THE NORTH SHORE OF LAKE EYRE. 



15 



No. 44. — The North Shobe of Lake Eybx.— continued. 



Mouth 


- morna. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- mornatirri. 


Hill - 


- 


Hah- of the heac 


- wuilpuru. 


Wood 


- pinta. 


Beard 


_ 


Stone - 


- marda. 


Thunder - 




Camp - 


- 






Yes - 


_ 


Grass - 


- kuttu. 










No - 


- 


Tongue 


- tarlimaukatu. 


I 




Stomach 


- tundru. 








You - 


- tidni. 


Breasts 


- 










Bark - 


- pitji. 


Thigh - 


- 






Foot - 




Good - 


- tampa. 






Bad - 


- manna. 


Bone - 


- worrupu. 










Sweet - 


- mardu. 


Blood - 


- 










Food - 


_ 


Skin - 


- kadla. 






Pat - 




Hungry 


- mauanu. 


Bowels 


- kunnaworla. 


Thirsty 


- tardinu. 


Excrement - 


- 


Eat - 


- taiima. 


War- spear - 


- kuju. 


Sleep - 


- mokaparrena 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- tubburra. 


Thro wing-stick 


- 


Walk - 


- wappema. 


Shield 


- stharranamma 


See - 


- sthirkana. 


Tomahawk - 


- 


Sit - 


- sthammana. 


Canoe - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- woldra. 


Sun - 


- ditji. 


To-day . - 


- karikura. 


Moon - 


- stharra. 










To-morrow - 


- wonganuUi. 


Star - 


- ditjinaukata. 










Where are ■ 


the 


Light - 


- 






Dark - 


- 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- backala. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- whitta. 


Day - 


- ditji. 


Big - - 


- pirma. 


Night 


- palkara. 


Little - 


- wolka. 


Fire - 


- ture. 


Dead - - 


- naccri. 


Water 


- sthappa. 


By-and-by - 


- karra. 


Smoke 


- turotupu. 


Come on 


- phuila. 


Ground 


- woiliu. 










Milk - 


- 


Wmd- 


- 






Rain - 


- kurrara. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - 


_ 


WUd turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



16 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 45.— WEST OP LAKE EYRE. 



By John Wabkbn, Esq., and John Hogarth, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- koongaroo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- wombla. 


2 Blacks - 


- nulla parakula. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck 
Wood duck 
Pelican 


- mudlu. 

- wilki. 

• warrewotti. 

- mulchawaroo. 

- worandoo. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four - 


- nulla kulparte. 

- oyoo. 

- parakula. 

- kulparte. 

- parakula-para- 


Laughing jackass 
Native companion wooroo. 
White cockatoo - kadaroonga. 
Crow - - - wakilla. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


kula. 

- neia. 

- looka. 

- kakoo. 


Swan - 


- kooti. 


,, Younger 


- koobakoo. 


Egg - 


- bapoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- nooto. 


Track of a foot 


- darri. 


,, Younger koobakoo. 


Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - 


- paroo. 

- koongideri. 

- ueni. 

- yoorgoori. 


A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 


r kulpi. 

- warroo. 

- willula. 

- koopa-koopa. 


Snake 


- wabina. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


- nulla. 


Children - 


- 


A Blackfellow 


- nulla. 


Head - 


- kardiapoo. 


A Black woman 


- bookoo. 


Bye - 


- miltekurte. 


Nose - 


- meetla. 


Ear - 


- yerri. 



WEST OP LAKE EYRE. 



17 



No. 45.- 



Mouth 


- murna. 


Teeth 


- yakkara. 


Hair of the head- yarree. 


Beard - 


- minga. 


Thunder - 


- pulpa. 


Grass - 


- komgara. 


Tongue 


- tarli. 


Stomach 


- koodnakurte. 


Breasts 


- ngumma. 


Thigh - 


- 


Foot - 


- tidna. 


Bone - 


- walpoo. 


Blood - 


- kooabmarri. 


Skin - 


- pelta-nooree. 


Fat - 


- mumi. 


Bowels 


- kunakurri. 


Excrement - 


- koodna 


War-spear - 


- peremboora. 


Reed-spear - 


- katchi. 


Wommera or 




throwing-stick 




Shield 


- moodlawarroo 


Tomahawk - 


- kaudi. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- mooyoo. 


Moon - 


- burilla. 


Star - 


- kardikilla. 


Light - 


- arka. 


Dark - 


- milooroo. 


Cold - 


- mudli. 


Heat - - . 


- warontoha. 


Day - 


- wudla. 


Night - 


- alboonoo. 


Fire - 


- mukka. 


Water 


- koota. 


Smoke 


- toopo. 


Ground 


- wodla. 


Wind - 


- wobnera. 


Rain - 


- chaili. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


_ 



SB Eyrs— continued. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Hill - 


- 


Wood - 


- mukka. 


Stone - 


- kadna. 


Camp - 


- oo-oo-oor-roo. 


Yes - 


- pee, yarra. 


No . 


- padne. 


I 


- outu. 


You - - 


- anpa. 


Bark - 


- 


Good - 


- oo-oo-koo. 


Bad - 


- mudlante. 


Sweet - 


- 


Food - 


- chalpa. 


Hungry - 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


Eat - 




Sleep - 


- koodnuUana. 


Drink - 


- poontarda. 


Walk - 


- ukunda. 


See - 


- nangenda. 


Sit - 


- tonkuima. 


Yesterday - 


- kulkara. 


To-day 


- woldarapoota 


To-morrow - 


- wongara. 


Where are 


the wetiara nulla 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- wijero. 


Plenty 


- nooka. 


Big - 


■■ burra-burra. 


Little - 


- kooparkoopa. 


Dead - 


- boorunda. 


By-and-by - 


- yadnai. 


Come on 


- kowana. 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- 



VOL. II. 



18 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 46.-WAEBURTON EIVER. 

By W. J. Paull, Esq. 

The following vocabulary of the language of tlie Ominee 
tribe was forwarded to me by Mr. W. J. Paull, if I read 
the signature correctly. That gentleman informs me that 
the marches of the lands of the Ominee, Wongonooroo, 
Kuranyooroo, and Yarleeyandee tribes, all intimately con- 
nected, meet on the Warburton Eiver, at Oowarie head- 
station. This country, my correspondent goes on to say, 
was first occupied by the Whites in 1876, at which time 
these tribes amounted in the aggregate to between six 
and eight hundred souls, at which number they still 
remain. No clothes are worn by them ; the women go 
quite naked, and the men have only a belt made of 
human hair round the waist, from which a fringe spun 
from the fur of rats hangs in front. The men also 
smear the skin with grease, and daub the body with 
red and yellow ochre, and the women sometimes wear 
a bone through the septum of the nose, which is pierced 
for the purpose. Most of the males have two teeth 
extracted, but not all of them. Several sorts of nets 
are in use, made of rushes or human hair. This tribe 
use no tomahawks, properly speaking; but for tomahawk 
purposes a flint fixed chisel-fashion on to the end of 
a piece of wood by means of a compound of water, 
sand, and the ashes of a bush called mindree. This 
instrument is, as the reader has seen, in extensive use 
on the west coast. Their weapons are clubs, boomerangs, 
and spears thrown by hand. The chief articles of food 
are nardoo, fish, wild-fowl, eggs, rats, and snakes of 
various sorts. 

Cannibalism exists amongst them, but is not com- 
monly practised. Sometimes when a Black dies from 
natural causes, his relations eat portions of the body; 
but if a death happens in a piny a or war party, any 
of the tribe who are present partake of the fiesh of the 



WARBURTON RIVER. 19 

deceased. The reason of these differences probably is 
that in camp a person might by magic take the life 
of one not nearly related to him for the sake of a 
meal; that relatives would never commit such an act; and 
that none would do it whilst on the war-path, when every 
combatant is of consequence. They say the human flesh 
tastes much like that of the iguana. Mr. PauU gives 
me the following names of persons: — Men: Yanchillina, 
Pirrillina, Tarrallina, Nalkallina. Women: Yinkeetarrina, 
Ithapappina, Waunillina, Koorakookanea. 

The men marry women of other tribes. Polygamy is 
in force, but my informant says that neither widows nor 
widowers marry again, in which I think he must be 
mistaken. He also remarks that most of the women who 
have children seem to be between 28 and 40 years of age, 
and that children are not numerous. These tribes scar the 
body extensively by way of ornament. Most of the males 
are admitted at about fifteen years of age to the rank of 
young man by means of the terrible rite. Some, how- 
ever, undergo circumcision only, and these are said to be 
the fathers of the children in the tribe. Weighing the 
facts, that the women rear no children until well on in 
life, that the great majority of the males are rendered 
incapable of begetting children and others not, and that 
only some of them have teeth knocked out, I have no 
doubt that these practices are the results of precise laws 
the particulars of which have not reached me, the object 
of which is to limit population. In connection with this 
subject the reader is referred to the account of the Birria 
tribe, near the junction of the Thompson and Barcoo. 

Pitcheree is chewed by these tribes, and Mr. PauU 
remarks that some of the Whites who have smoked it, 
when tobacco has been scarce, say that it puts them to 
sleep. 

Around places where emu are known to be, the grass 
is set on fire, and by this means they are driven into 
nets or waterholes and killed. Kangaroo are hardly 

B Z 



20 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



found in this country. As usual, the hair of these tribes 
is long, sometimes straight, and at others wavy and 
curly. When a man dies, it is often thought to be the 
result of a hone having been pointed at him by the 
doctor of another tribe, and then an expedition to revenge 
his death follows. Messengers are sometimes sent to 
absent friends bearing a string saturated with the blood of 
the sender, as an intimation to come to him speedily. 
Friends- embrace each other on meeting after a long 
absence. No signs of government or distinction of rank 
exist in these tribes. 

Mr. PauU's account is full of interest, and one cannot 
help regretting that he had not materials to make it 
more complete. 



No. 46.— WARBURTON RIVER. 
By W. J. Paull, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum - 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - - - 
Swan - - - 
Egg - 

Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - . 
Snake 
The Blacks 
A Blackfellow 
A Black woman 
Nose - 



chookeroo. 

marloo. 

kinthalla. 

(the same). 

warroogatty. 

pia. 

- toompingaroo. 



pooralco. 

karrong. 

kowilka. 

kootee. 

kaapee. 

dinna. 

paroo. 

koonkoodirri. 

koontie, koinyee. 

moonchow. 

toothoo. 

marroopoo. 

kanna. 

willa, 

moola. 



Hand - - .. 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three 

Four - - - 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 

,, Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 

Head - - . 
Eye - 
Ear - 



koono. 
mandroo. 
parrakoolo. 
mandroo-man- 
droo. 
appurree. 
andree 
karkoo. 

naatatta. 

tarree. 
pinaroo. 
widleepena. 
wakka-wakka. 

primna-primna. 
mungatundra. 
milkee. 
talpa. 



WARBURTON EIVER. 



2] 



No. 46. — Wabbukton 'Riveb.— continued. 

Boomerang - 
Hill, if rocky 
„ if sand 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - 

No - - ■ 
I - - 

You - 
Bark - 
Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 
Food - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 

Sit - - - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are the 
Blacks ? 
I don't know - anacoo. 
Plenty - - murrapoo. 
Big - - - piarree. 
Little - - - waddawak. 
Dead - - - palHna. 
By-and-by - - wallyea. 
Come on - - kopperow. 
Milk - - - namma. 
Baglehawk - - karrawurra. 
Wild turkey - kallatoora. 
Wife - . - nooa. 



Mouth 


- muma. 


Teeth - 


- munathundra. 


Hair of the head- parra. 


Beard - 


- nanka. 


Thunder - 


- pildree-pildree. 


Grass - 


- kanta. 


Tongue 


- tarlee. 


Stomach 


- mandree. 


Breasts 


- mamma. 


Thigh - 


- noora. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Bone - 


- mookoo. 


Blood - 


- koomarree. 


Skin - 


- dalla. 


Fat - 


- marnee. 


Bowels 


- kippera. 


Excrement - 


- koodna. 


War-spear - 


- kaltee. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Wommera or 


preeta. 


thro wing-stick 




Shield 


- pirramurra. 


Tomahawk - 


- toola. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- ditchee. 


Moon - 


- pirra. 


Star - 


- ditchee (?) 


Light - 


- marroo. 


Dark - 


- warroo-warroo. 


Cold - 


- killpolee. 


Heat - 


- waldra. 


Day - 


- karrarree. 


Night - 


- melyarroo. 


Fire - 


- tooroo. 


Water 


- appa. 


Smoke 


- topoo. 


Ground 


" meta. 


Wind - 


- wattara. 


Rain - 


- tallarra. 


God - 


- mooroo-moora. 


Ghosts 


- koochee. 



keera. 

murda. 

dakko. 

raoolyea. 

murda. 

nooia. 

yow. 

pannee, 

akannee. 

inkannee. 

pitchee. 

nkoma. 

moontohoo. 

mardoopinna. 

boaka. 

mowallee. 

tardeeallee. 

tina. 

moka. 

tapooinna. 

wappina. 

nina. 

nammerna. 

waldrawirtee. 

kurraree. 

tunkapuma. 

widderee kanna? 



22 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 47.— WARBURTON RIVER. 



By W. H. Cornish, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


chookooroo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


wampala. 


2 Blacks - 


- yoo-oo parakoo- 


Tame dog - 


muUa. 




loo. 


Wild dog - 




3 Blacks - 


- yoo-ou koolparie 


Emu - 


waraguita. 


One - 


. 


Black duck - 




Two - 


- parakooloo. 


Wood duck- 












Three - 


- koolparie. 


Pellcan 
Laughing jackass 


tumpunara. 


Four - 




Native companion pooralkoo. 


Father 


- anya. 


White cockatoo - 


kudaroonka. 


Mother 


- umma. 


Crow - 


wackalla. 


Sister-Elder 


- karkoo. 


Swan - 


koodie. 


„ Younger 


- koopalie. 


Egg - - 


parpoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- nutie-nutie. 


Track of a foot 


tidna. 


,, Younger koopalie. 


Fish - 


warrie. 


A young man 


- kerna. 


Lobster 








Crajrflsh 


koonkooderie. 


An old man 


- matapoota. 


■ 




An old woman 


- willula. 


Mosquito 


yoowinya. 






Fly - 


ooringoorie. 


A baby 


- nara-nara. 


Snake (carpet) 


wonungunnie. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


yoo-oo-oodla. 


Children 


- nara naroo-o-la. 


A Blackfellow 


yoo-oo. 


Head 


- kardappoo. 


A Black woman 


moncurra. 


Eye - 


- milkey. 


Nose - 


meedla. 


Ear - 


- yarrie, 



WARBURTON RIVER. 



23 



No. 47. — Wabbubton Riveb — continued. 



Mouth 


- murna. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- yackarra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- wirrie. 


Wood- 


- muoka. 


Beard 


- unka. 


Stone - 


- kadna. 


Thunder 


- moonkarda. 


Camp - 


- ooria. 


Grass - 


- chilpa. 


Yes - 


- kowina. 


Tongue 


- tanjauna. 


No - - 


- panie. 


Stomach 


- koona-kuddie. 


I 


- unta. 


Breasts 


- umma. 






Thigh 


- tarra. 


You - 


- umpa. 


Foot - 


- tidna. 


Bark - 


- pitchamooroo. 


Bone - 


- walpoo. 


Good - 


- oorkoo. 


Blood - 


- koomarie. 


Bad - 


- mudla. 


Skin - 


- putta. 


Sweet - 


- oorkoo. 


Fat - 


- monnie. 


Food - 


- kartie. 


Bowels 


- koonaturie. 


Hungry 


- wadlara. 


Excrement - 


- 


Thirsty 


- aparra. 


War-spear - 


- wonna. 


Eat - 


- tuninda. 


Reed-spear - 


- kutchie. 


Sleep - 


- koonalunda. 


Wommera or 


munkoorara. 


Drink - 


- poontada. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- ukunda. 


Shield - 


- mooloowarroo. 






Tomahawk - 




See - 


- nuninda. 


Canoe - 


_ 


Sit - 


- tunkada. 


Sun - 


- mooyoo. 


Yesterday - 


- kulkawarra. 


Moon - 


- arkunnie. 


To-day 


- untie. 


Star - 


- kerdie-billa. 


To-morrow - 


- wongara. 


Light - 


- bukkie. 


Where are 


the yoo-too teara? 


Dark - 


- wona. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- muUara. 


I don't know 


- ina koo. 


Heat - 


- kuna-kuUa. 










Plenty 


- udla. 


Day - 


- 


Big - 


- kirtiewirrie. 


Night - 


- wonga. 




Fire - 


- mukka. 


Little - 


- nara-nara. 


Water 


- koola. 


Dead - 


- wonchada. 


Smoke 


- toopoo. 


By-and-by - 


- woolya. 


Ground 


- wadlea. 


Come on 


- kowanarie. 


Wind- 


- womara. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- koorowara. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


God - 


-- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 





Wife - 


- 



24 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 48.— COOPER'S CREEK, TO THE EASTWARD OF 
ITS NORTHERN BRANCH ; ALSO KOONGI LAKE. 

By W. H. Coknish, Esq., and Henky G. Salmon, Esq. 

In connection with this portion of the Cooper's Creek 
country, I have received vocabularies from W. H. Cornish, 
Esq., and Henry G. Salmon, Esq. The one supplied by 
the first of these gentlemen is from the language of the 
Yowerawoolka tribe, and Mr. Salmon's from Koongi 
(usually &pelt Coongy) Lake Station, lat. 27° south, long. 
140° east, or thereabouts. 

With his vocabulary, Mr. Salmon has also sent me some 
particulars concerning the plant called pitcheree, which is 
very extensively used in this portion of Australia. As the 
weed is not found near Koongi (dry) Lake, long journeys 
are made periodically to the north-west by the men of the 
tribe to procure it. It is said to be a mild narcotic. 
Women use it, but less frequently than men. The specimen 
sent me by Mr. Salmon consisted of small sticks about the 
thickness of rye-grass stems. "The Blacks'' — says this 
gentleman — " first chew it into a mass, then mix it with the 
ashes of gum-tree leaves, making a paste ball. This, when 
kept in the mouth for some time, has a highly stimulating 
effect." Mr. Salmon gives the following additional words : — 



Quick - 


- pukkulli. 


Forehead - 


- unda. 


Knee - 


- punta. 


Feather 


- kootya. 


Gum-tree - 


- yallawarroo. 


Box-tree 


- kulparoo. 


SandhiU - 


- merree. 


Plain - 


- yumburri. 


Creek - 


- kurrari. 



Lake - 


- ngappa-puina, or 




big water. 


Clouds 


- parraweelpa. 


Centipede - 


- thinga-thinga. 


Lizard - 


- kupa. 


Fishulg-net- 


- peerly. 


Ashes - 


- toorpa. 


Sick - 


- woodiawarra. 



COOPER'S CREEK. 25 

Bring a fire-stiok - - - mukka arrangunoo. 

Bring water ngappa arramundratulka. 

Which way shall we go ? - - iilanda towmahatohi ? 

Where are you sick? or In what part iilanoonoo woodiwarra inganitchi ? 

do you feel amiss ? 

It is going to rain - - - - mura (or unyara) towara. 

In the vocabulary and Additional Words of this language 
the reader may compare the equivalents of The Blacks; 
Where are the Blacks? Where shall we go? and Where 
are you sick? The termination hatchi, itchi, &c., in con- 
nection with iilanda, &c. = where is remarkable. 



26 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 48.— COOPER'S CREEK. 



By H. G. Salmon, 



Kangaroo - 


- chookooroo. 


Hand - 


- 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- murloo. 


2 Blacks 


- 


- kooroo barkoola. 


Tame dog - 


- pandi. 


3 Blacks 


. 


- kooroo barkoola 


Wild dog - 


- 






goona. 


Emu - 


- warrawidgee. 


One - 


_ 


- goona. 


Black duck 


- dickeri. 


Two - 




- barkoola. 


Wood duck 


- goornabrinna. 


Three - 




- barkoola goona. 


Pelican 


- dookamerri. 










Four - 


. 


- barkoola-bar- 


Laughing jackass 






koola. 


Native companion koodri. 
White cockatoo - nerrapitita. 


Father 
Mother 


- 


- appari. 

- undri. 


Crow - 


- kaoolika. 












Sister-Elder 


- kako. 


Swan - 


- kurrawatti. 








Egg - 


- pampo. 


,, Younger 


- 


Track of a foot 


- palto. 


Brother-Elder 


- mooto. 


Fish - 


- kooya 


j» 


Young 


er 


Lobster 


_ 


A young 


man 


- poolya. 


Crayfish 


- narramiuyeh. 


An old man 


- kooroo-kooroo. 


Mosquito - 


- koonti. 


An old woman 


- gooroolpo. 


Fly - 


- moondyoo. 


A baby 


- 


- tiddari. 


Snake - 


- parday. 


A White 


man 


- purloo. 


The Blacks - 


- kooroo. 


Children 


. 


- murrowa. 


A Blackfellow 


- koornoo. 


Head - 


- 


- koka. 


A Black woman 


- yewa. 


Eye - 


- 


- meetyee. 


Nose - 


- kinta. 


Ear - 


- 


- tulpa. 



COOPER'S CREEK. 



27 



No. 48. — Cooper's Creek — continued. 



Mouth 


- murna. 


Boomerang - 


- yarrakoodakoo 


Teeth - 


- nurruko. 




dari. 


Hair of the head- oolparoo. 


Hill - 


- 


Beard 


- unga. 


Wood 


- wottee. 


Thunder - 


- unnera. 


Stone - 


- muddra. 


Grass • 


- poka. 


Camp - 


- noora. 


Tongue 


- pulpa. 


Yes - 


- kow. 


Stomach 


- toondroo. 


No - 


- pannee. 


Breasts 


- umma. 


I 


- unnyi. 


Thigh 


- wondakilla. 


You - 


- yeanyi. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bark - 


- dallamurroo. 


Bone - 


- moko. 


Good - 


- pytchi. 


Blood - 


- purrutera, yanga- 


Bad - 


- murlundi. 




rungooroo. 


Sweet - 


- palyunginee. 


Skin - 


- durla. 


Food - 


- tyinunga. 


Fat - 


- munni. 


Hungry 


- moaly. 


Bowels 


- koornaduUa. 


Thirsty 


- tatipalla. 


Excrement - 


- kooma. 


Bat - 


- boorta, kur- 


War-spear - 


- windra. 




nunga. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- toorungariati. 


Wommera - 


- yarra. 


Drink - 


- tappernunga. 


Shield 


- narratitta. 


Walk - 


- tooarnunga. 


Tomahawk - 


- mudramoodipa. 


See - - 


- wooranunga. 


Canoe - 


- ukobichi. 


Sit - - 


- ninanunga. 


Sun - 


- trlchi. 


Yesterday - 


- ananinna nook 


Moon - 


- prira. 




dra. 


Star - 


- trichi poolya. 


To-day 


- kaiiri. 


Light - 


- minda. 


To-morrow - 


- murrawinka. 


Dark - 


- murree. 


Where are 


;he iilatunna koor- 


Cold - 


- multee. 


Blacks? 


natohi? 


Heat - 


- murpununga. 


I don't know 


- kareel atunna. 


Day - 


- mindii. 


Plenty 


- mulkuri. 


Night 


- murilla. 


Big - 


- uli. 


Fire - 


- mukka. 


Little - 


- poolya. 


Water 


- ngappa. 


Dead - 


- puldringunna. 


Smoke 


- toopo. 


By-and-by - 


- mini. 


Ground 


- purla. 


Come on 


- kupparow. 


Wind- 


- tyiri. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- unyara. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



28 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 48.— COOPER'S CREEK. 



By W. H. CoKNiSH, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


chookooroo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


mulloo. 


2 Blacks - 


- kerna parakoola 


Tame dog - 


pandi. 


3 Blacks - 


- kerna parakoola 


Wild dog - 






koornoo 


Emu - 


quarra. 


One - 


- koornoo. 


Black duck - 




Two - 


- parakoola. 


Wood duck- 




Three - 


- parakoola 


Pelican 


dukkamirri. 




koornoo. 


Laugking jackass 




Pour - 


- 


Native companion pooralko. 


Pather 


- appardi. 


White cockatoo 


koodrnnkoo. 


Mother 


- undri. 


Crow - 


kowulka. 


Sister-Elder 


- karoo. 


Swan - 


koodri. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - 


pompoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- ootoo. 


Track of a foot ■ 


tidna. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


paroo. 


A young man 


- karroo. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- karroo-karroo (?) 


Crayfish - 


kidneykooderi. 


An old woman 


- kooroopoo. 


Mosquito - 


kunti. 


A baby 


- poola-poola. 


Ply . - - 


moonohoo. 


A White man 


- 


Snake - 


wooma. 


Children - 


- poolung malkeri 


The Blacks - 


kerna. 




(many). 


A Blackfellow - 


kerna, koornoo. 


Head - 


- koonkoo. 


A Black woman - 


moukurra. 


Eye - - 


- mitchie. 


Nose - 


kitita. 


Ear 


koochara, 



COOPER'S CREEK. 



29 



No. 48. — Cooper's Creek — continued. 



Mouth 


- muma. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- mundrakoo. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- koonkoo. 


Wood - 


- mukka. 


Beard 


- unga. 


Stone - 


- murdra. 


Thunder 


- yinki, indie. 


Camp - 


- ooria. 


Grass 


- kuntha. 


Yes - - 


- kowina. 


Tongue 


- perpa. 


No - 


- hii panni. 


Stomach 


- koonanewa. 


I 


- ini. 


Breasts 


- umma. 


You - 


- yinni. 


Thigh 


- wondakilla. 


Bark - 


- delamooroo. 


Foot - 


- tidna. 


Good - 


- wotchi. 


Bone - 


- mookoo. 


Bad - 


- munamerla. 


Blood - 


- yoongooroo- 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- dulla(bark?) 


Food - 


- booka. 


Fat - 


- monni. 


Hungry 


- mooalli. 


Bowels 


- koonakuUi. 


Thirsty 


- moorrelli. 


Excrement - 


- koodna. 


Eat - 


- taindri. 


War-spear - 


- winara. 


Sleep - 


- mookapiari. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- tupendri. 


Wommera - 


- munkoorara. 


Walk- - 


- towindri. 


Shield- - 


- narateta 


See - 


- wowindri. 


Tomahawk - 


- 


Sit - 


- ninindri. 


Canoe - 


_ 






Sun - 


- kooti. 


Yesterday - 


- kulkunni. 


Moon - 


- pirra. 


To-day 


- kiari. 


Star - 


- koolipoolya. 


To-morrow - 


- mumatunka. 


Light - 


- karumha. 


Where are 


the kerna ilakarri ? 


Dark - 


- murri. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- poondrali. 


I don't know 


- ha koo. 


Heat - 


- mukkalla. 


Plenty 


- mulkirri. 


Day - 


- karumba. 


Big - - 


■• puma. 


Night - 


- murri. 


Little - 


- poolya. 


Fire - 


- mukka. 










Dead - 


- nari. 


Water 


- apa. 


By-and-by - 


- minni. 


Smoke 


- toopoo. 










Come on 


- kaparow. 


Ground 


- pudla. 






Wmd - 


- tiarri. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- unjara. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 


- 



30 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



No. 49.— COOPER'S CREEK, IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD WHERE 
BURKE AND WILLS DIED. 

By Alfred Howitt, Esq., P.M. 



Kangaroo - 


tchukuro. 


Hand - 


- mirra. 


Opossum 




2 Blacks - 


- mandra kurna. 


Tame dog - 


kintalla. 


3 Blacks - 


- barcolo kurna. 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- coono. 


Emu - 


warrawatty. 


Two - 


- mandro. 


Black duck - 


tarralko. 






Wood duck - 




Three - 


- barcolo. 


Pelican 


tampangra. 


Four ■ - 


- mandro-mandro 


Laughing jackass 




Father 


- 


Native companion 


bouralko. 


Mother 


- 


White cockatoo - 




Sister-Elder 


. 


Crow - 




,, Younger 




Swan - 


cotee. 


Brother-Elder 


_ 


Egg - - - 
Track of a foot - 


capee. 
palto. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


paroo. 


A young man 


- carra-wallee, 


Lobster 






coopa. 


Crayfish 




An old man 


- pinnaroo. 


Mosquito - 




An old woman 


- 


Ply - 




A baby 


- 


Snake - 


tuohu. 


A White man 


- pirri-wirri. 


The Blacks - 


kurna. 


Children - 


. 


A Blaokfellow 


kurna. 


Head - 


_- 


A Black woman - 


noa. 


Eye - 


- milkee. 


Nose - 




Ear - 


. 



COOPER'S CREEK. 



31 



No. 49. — Cooper's Greek — continued. 



Mouth 


- 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- 


Wood - 


- pattara. 


Beard - 


- 


Stone - 


- murda. 


Thunder 




Camp - 


- gnoura (ngoora?) 


Grass - 


- 


Yes - - 


- aho. 


Tongue 


- 


No - 


- watta. 


Stomach 


. 






Breasts 


. 


I 


- gnannee, gnatto 


Thigh - 


. 


You - 


- yennee. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bark - 


- 


Bone - 


. 


Good - 


- gnomo. 


Blood - 


- 


Bad - 


- malinkee. 


Skin - 




Sweet - 


- ngomo. 


Fat - 


- 


Food - 


- mowalley. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- minalley. 


Excrement - 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- tyena. 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep 


- ngourana. 


Throwing-stick 
Shield - 


- 


Drink 


- tappena. 






Walk 


- balkala, taykana. 


Tomahawk - 


- bomaiko. 










See - 


- milkelee. 


Canoe - 


- (none). 






Sun - 


■ deekee. 


Sit - 


- ningeea. 


Moon - 


- peera. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Star - 


- peera warka- 


To-day 


- 




warka. 


To-morrow - 


- tanko-burna. 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


uhe kurna woordary? 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- puldralee. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 


- deekee. 


Big - - 


- pinna. 


Night - 


- 


Little - 


- warka-warka. 


Fire - 


- tooroo. 


Dead - 


- nandrena. 


Water 


- appa. 


By-and-by - 


- minny-miniiy. 


Smoke 


- toopoo. 






Ground 


- mitta. 


Come on 


■ - ooperow. 


Wind- 


_ 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- tallera. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



32 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 50.— COOPER'S CREEK, NEAR THE BOOLOO RIVER. 
Bt a. F. Sullivan, Esq., and Ernest Eolinton, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


thaldara. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum - 


murrathurra. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


thit-the. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 


watohualie. 


Emu - 


koolbaree. 


Two - 


barcoola. 


Black duck 


willunga. 


Three - 


barcoola ther- 


Wood duck 


ngowera. 




watchoo. 


Pelican 




Four - 


barcoola tra bar- 


Laughing jackass 






coola. 


Native companion koonthurra. 


Father 


umacher. 


White cockatoo 


thirindhella. 


Mother 


ummaldja. 


Crow - 


worgaritchee. 


Sister-Elder 


kurrunni. 


Swan - 


kootooroo. 


,, Younger 


koorkane. 


Egg - - - 


kupiuya. 


Brother-Elder 


koortchie. 


Track of a foot 


thinna. 


, , Younger 


karkuudi. 


Fish - - 


kooa. 


A young man 


buloabit-thee. 


Lobster 


thandoola. 


An old man 


kurroo. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


bootchoo, minna 


Mosquito - 


eurie. 


A baby 


warniwah. 


Fly - 


mooginger. 


A White man 


■ birrie. 


Snake - 


ngoothe. 


Children 


warrawarra min 


The Blacks - 


kurna. 




gee. 


A Blackfellow - 


kurna. 


Head - 


kooka. 


A Black woman - 


walga. 


Eye - 


bootharoo. 


Nose - - - 


moola. 


Ear - 


ngurramunda. 



COOPER'S CREEK. 



33 



No. 50. — Cooper's Ckeek, neae, the Booloo Eivbe — continued. 



Mouth 


- thiga, thaia. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- dthiga. 


Hill - 


, 


Hair of the head 


■ konkooroo. 


Wood - 


- muckoora. 


Beard - 


- unkooroonka. 






Thunder - 


- malloo. 


Stone 


- yundera. 


Grass 


- koola. 


Camp - 


- ngoora. 


Tongue 


- thulgunya. 


Yes - 


- kow. 


Stomach 


- i-e-mulla. 


No - - 


- walya. 


Breasts 


- umma. 


I 


- ngoocha. 


Thigh 


- thoorka. 


You - ■- 


■• unnee. 


Foot 


- thinna. 


Bark - 


- wombo. 


Bone - 


- moko. 






Blood - 


- mundalga. 


Good - 


- thallie. 


Skin - 


• nuncheenia. 


Bad - 


- mepa. 


Fat - 


- murnee. 


Sweet - 


- 


Bowels 


- goonabulga- 


Pood - 


- thalthurra. 




bulga. 


Hungry 


- unga. 


Excrement - 


- koona. 


Thirsty 


- ungegula. 


War-spear - 


- yungoo. 


Eat - 


- thalthagurra 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 


" 


Sleep 


- walgurra. 


throwing-stick 




Drink 


- ungegula. 


Shield- 


- bur-o-goo. 


Walk - 


- yanthegurra. 


Tomahawk - 


. 


See - 


- yaddegurra. 


Canoe - 


- ngumboo. 


Sit - 


- koolagurra. 


Sun - 


- milla. 


Yesterday - 


- neela. 


Moon - 


- mirriekurinya. 


To-day 


- puUa. 


Star - 


- titchee. 


To-morrow - 


- wekuUa. 


Light - 


- bitthemurra- 


Where are the 




gurra. 


Blacks ? 




Dark - 
Cold - 


- ngowoo. 
•* thillaba. 


I don't know 


- walya. 


Heat - 


- yowoora. 


Plenty 


- marrkoo. 


Day - 


- weka. " 


Big - - 


- thoondoo. 


Night - 


- nala. 


Little - 


- whyewa. 


Fire - 


- wee. 


Dead - 


- palloogurra. 


Water 


- ugukka. 


By-and-by - 


- thoona. 


Smoke 


- thopo. 


Come on 


- kowatha. 


Ground 


- thukka. 






Wind- 


- yalla. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- peeter. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 


VOL. II. 


( 


-1 





34 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 51.— NOCKATOONGA, WILSON RIVER. 



By T. W. Foott, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


thuldra. 


Hand - 


munbroo. 


Opossum 


murrathurra. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


thithe. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 


witeyooally. 


Emu" - 


koolpurri. 


Two - 


barkoola. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck 
Pelican 


nowirra. 
kooraburra. 


Three - 
Four - 


wunnoo. 


Laughing jackass 


(none). 


Father 


nundetya. 


Native companion 


goonthurra. 


Mother 


umdetya. 


White cockatoo ■ 




Sister-Elder 


thurrengera. 


Crow - 

Swan - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Fish ■ 


wawkaretche. 

thurragoora. 

kuppy. 

thinna. 

gooia. 


„ Younger 
Brother-Elder 

Younger 
A young man 


kurwidge. 
kumgoo. 


Lobster 




An old man 


kurroo. 


Crayfish 


thinta. 


An old woman 


wuUganooga. 


Mosquito - 


noonaruUy. 


A baby 


wurriwa. 


Fly - 


mokinga. 


A White m.au 




Snake 

The Blacks - 

A Blackfellow 


moona. 
noo-ga. 


Children - 
Head - 


- mootha. 

- thumkoora. 


A Black woman 


wuUga. 


Eye - 


- boolderoo. 


Nose - 


moolya. 


Ear - 


- nurramunda. 



NOCKATOONGA, WILSON RIVER. 



35 



No. 51. — NoCKATOONOA, WiLSON RivEB — contimied. 



Mouth 


- tia. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- neelumburra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- kumkoora. 


Wood - 


- mukoora. 


Beard - 


- unkoora. 


Stone - 


- yandra. 


Thunder 


- muUoo. 


Camp - 


- noora. 


Grass - 


■ goola. 


Yes - 


- maia. 


Tongue 


- thuUunya. 


No - 


- yow. 


Stomach 


- naiamuUa. 


I- 




Breasts 


- numma. 


You - 


- 


Thigh - 


- bilgurra. 


Bark - 


- kooly. 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Good - 


- muUinye. 


Bone ■ 


- munka. 


Bad - 


- toonka. 


Blood - 


- pundulya. 


Sweet - 


. 


Skin - 


- boontyoo. 


Food - 


- tulta. 


Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 


- mumi. 


Hungry 

Thirsty 


- goouga. 

- nukka linya 

(water want) 


War-spear - 


- muUyoo. 


Eat - ■ - 


- thultola. 


Reed-spear - 


- (not used). 


Sleep - 


- woggo-gilla. 


Wommera - 


- (not used). 


Drink - 


- 


Shield - 


- boorgoo. 


Walk - 


- yantharilla. 


Tomahawk - 


- kootya. 


See - 


- thundolo. 


Canoe - 


- (not used). 


Sit - 


- koolo-gilla. 


Sun - 


- yow-wirra. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- merbirinye. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- ditye. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- weeka. 


Where are the 




Dark - 


- nowa. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- thalluba. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- yow-wirra. 


Plenty- 


- noo-ga. 


Day - 


- puUa. 


Big - 


- noo-ga. 


Night - 


- wawgurra. 


Little - 


- rhunyam. 


Fire - 
Water - 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind - 
Rain - 


- wee. 

- nukka. 

- thoopoo. 

- thukka. 


Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 


- pooloowuUa. 

- mulpurra. 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



C2 



36 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 52.— THARGOMINDA, BULLOO EIVER. 

By p. W. Mtles, Esq., P.M. 

Foe my information concerning the Wonkomarra tribe, 
which inhabits the Bulloo within a radius of twenty miles 
around Thargominda, I am indebted to the kindness of 
Frederic W. Myles, Esq., P.M. The names of the tribes 
which adjoin the Wonkomarra are, to the south, the Poid- 
gerry (on the Currowinya Downs station) and the Bitharra 
(on the Bulloo Downs station); to the west, the Thiralla 
(on the Nockatoongo station) and Bromarra (on the Con- 
bar station) ; to the north, the Bunthomarra (on the Mount 
Margaret station) and the Murgoin (on the Ardock 
station) ; and on the east by the same tribe (on the Dyne- 
vor station). How many the Wonkomarra tribe numbered 
when the Whites took possession of their country is not 
known, but in 1883 ninety of them were still alive, nine 
being children, and the females more numerous than the 
males, both of which facts point to a very considerable 
decrease in numbers. Their country was first occupied by 
the Whites in 1863 or thereabouts. At that time opossum- 
rugs were not much in use in the tribe. Their ornaments 
were reed necklaces, shells, and feathers, the women wearing 
at the corroboree a fringe of string from waist to mid-thigh. 
When menstruating, the women paint the body with red 
ochre, and persons in mourning with mud or pipe-clay. Their 
tomahawks, before they obtained iron ones from the Whites, 



THARaOMINDA, BULLOO RIVER. 37 

were of green stone, as large as an American axe, the sides 
rather roughly chipped, and the edges ground smooth. 
Their knives, as usual, were bits of flint gummed on to 
wooden handles; weapons were of the common sorts; their 
spears thrown by hand and not with the wommera; and 
their toy boomerangs returned to the thrower. Their food, 
as usual, comprised whatever living things and edible roots 
their country produces and also seeds. In cookery, they 
grilled on the fire; they also baked their food in ovens, or 
holes dug in the ground for the purpose, at whatever place 
they might chance to encamp, and not, as in the south, at 
particular places, so that the ash-heaps found in Victoria, 
and commonly called ovens (and by one writer myrnong 
heaps), are not found in their country. Eestrictions with 
respect to the use of certain sorts of food by females and 
youths were in force. Small-pox, which devastated the 
Australian tribes from 1789 to 1840, did not reach the 
BuUoo. 

With the object of preventing consanguineous marriages, 
the Wonkomarra tribe is divided into several classes, each 
called after some animal, as emu, snake, opossum, &c. In 
or out of the tribe (for the neighbouring tribes had similar 
organizations) a male of the snake class, for instance, could 
only marry a female of the emu 6lass, and so on. Before 
the coming of the Whites, any infraction of this law was 
visited with death; but in this tribe, as in all others, 
aboriginal laws have given way before our civilization. Mr. 
Myles thinks the women gave birth, on an average, to about 
eight children each. Infanticide is a practice of old- 
standing. Scrofulous swellings of the neck are common, 
and . consumption the prevailing disease. The males have 
the usual ornamental scars on the forearm, chest, and thighs ; 
the females on the thighs and upper part of the stomach. 
The septum of the nose is perforated in both sexes, and the 
females have two front teeth knocked out. In performing 
this operation, a stone is held inside the mouth in contact 
with the teeth which are to be removed ; against them, on 



38 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

the outside of the gums, is placed the aboriginal chisel, 
which is smartly struck with a heavy bit of wood or stone, 
and by this means the teeth are punched out. A fire-stick 
is then applied to the bleeding gums to remove the pain or 
stop the bleeding. Some only of the males are circumcised. 
Pitcheree is in use, being obtained by barter from the 
Cooper's Creek tribes. This weed, which my informant says 
has much the same effects as opium on a Chinaman, is 
prepared by chewing and then mixing with wood-ashes and 
the leaf of some plant of which he does not know the name ; 
it is then baked in the hot embers of the fire, after which it 
is ready for use. The first chewing was a part of the 
process of preparation ; it is now chewed for pleasure, 
like tobacco. A man at the camp masticates a quid, and 
after a time passes it to his neighbour, who does the 
same, and so it goes round the party. 

In this tribe, I am informed, the women bury the 
dead, an instance of the fact that, amidst the sameness 
of Australian manners, there is no tribe without some 
little novelty. The most common causes of war are steal- 
ing women and hunting on the territory of a neighbouring 
tribe. Before the fighting men set out to avenge an injury 
of any sort, a herald is despatched to the enemy to declare 
war, and his life is held sacred. The members of the 
tribe salute each other on meeting after an absence hy 
throwing their hands up to their heads. No form of 
government exists, but in matters of importance the old 
men are always consulted. One old female, whom the 
Blacks, when speaking English, call doctor, has great 
influence. With this tribe some difficulty is . found in 
getting persons to tell their native names. The following, 
however, have been obtained: — Men: Mipbungithe, Pialli, 
Cobongooe, Bobitje, Burbinni, and Bathine. Women: Coo- 
lethe, Barkaunta, Bingeranta, Nanbaranga, Etheranga. 
Boys: Beuranga, son of Etheranga; Undaranga, son of 
Nanberanga. Qirls: Billethe, Mara; and Wingo, daughter 
of Pialli. 



THARGOMINDA, BULLOO RIVER. 



39 



It is important to notice that this language is related 
to those of Cooper's Creek, Umbertana, Beltana, Port 
Lincoln, and others to the south-west, whilst the tribes 
immediately to the eastward- of the Wonkomarra speak 
languages akin to those in use to the north-east. A com- 
parison of the Upper BuUoo equivalents for a Black, yes, 
kangaroo, emu, egg, hair, &c., with those of Cooper's 
Creek and the other places named will make this relation- 
ship clear, the agreement of the equivalents of a Black 
and yes being strong evidence on this point. The practice 
the BuUoo tribes have of chewing pitckeree is another 
evidence of the relationship in question. On these cir- 
cumstances I lay particular stress, as they go to show 
the correctness of the map on which the routes taken by 
the several sections into which the race split as it spread 
itself over the continent are indicated. 

The reader will notice in the vocabulary the affinities 
between the words tongue, eat, and drink, a not uncommon 
occurrence in our languages, and may find himself led by 
them to some considerations in connection with savage 
prehistoric speech generally. The female with tribal 
influence amongst the Wonkomarra is an exceptional 
feature in aboriginal manners. Besides the common 
vocabulary, Mr. Myles gives the following additional 
words : — 



Ribs - 


- monka. 


Near at hand 


- wena. 


Side - , - 


- warriba. 


I think so - 


- na-berri. 


Elbow - 


- thurte. 


Yam-stick - 


- marie. 


Lightning - 
Sky - - 
Go quickly - 
Come quickly - 
Stop - 


- bitha-bitha. 

- i-yerra. 

- yerrangurra. 

- yannaera. 

- nina-yatho. 


Cloud - 
Mist - 
Husband - 
Angry 
Jealous 
Strong 


- thiringera. 

- gunmo. 

- nupa. 

- malu. 

- como, keranetha 

- mirtimberri. 


Young woman 


- maie. 


That will do 


- nore. 


Dirty fellow 


- dooka-bitte. 


Flour - 


- bullowarra. 


Stinking 


- dunka. 


Bread - 


- mano. 


A long way off 


- camparre. 


Comet 


- gunke. 



40 



THE AUSTRALIAN RAGE: 



No. 52.— THARGOMINDA, BULLOO RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 


- kuUa. 


Hand - 


- mara. 


Opossum 


- gurrigen. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


- mari. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - 


- mari. 


One - 


- tharranya. 


Emu - 


- koolberri. 


Two - 


- barcoola. 


Black duok- 


- urle. 


Three - ■ - 


- barcoola go 


Wood duck 


- bitta-bitta. 




warra. 


Pelican 


- kaubungarra. 


Four - 


- barcoola-bar- 


Laughing jackass (none). 




coola. 


Native companion (none). 


Father 


- wanyu. 


White cockatoo 


- derringerri. 


Mother 


- unu. 


Crow - 


- wathakur. 


Sister-Elder 


- yaggoarre. 


Swan - 


- 


,, Younger 


- gunyarre. 


Egg - - 


- kuppe. 


Brother-Elder 


- bommo. 


Track of a foot 


- yappara. 


„ Younge 


r gongoogo. 


Fish - - 


- guia. 


A young man 


- oolyarra. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- korroo. 


Crayfish 


- buggilla. 


An old woman 


- budtha mepa. 


Mosquito - 


- yoori. 


A baby 


- mitha burlu (i.e., 


Fly - 


- mogundhoo. 




little one). 


Snake - 


- yethe, moona. 


A White man 


- doona(see ghost) 


The Blacks - 


- waruo, ura. 


Children - 


- mutba. 


A Blackfellow 


- ura, kunga. 


Head - 


- bunda. 


A Black woman 


- wethetha. 


Eye - 


- mongoora. 


Nose - 


- minke. 


Ear - 


- bina. 



THARGOMINDA, BULLOO RIVER 



41 



No. 52.— Thabgomikda, Bulloo River— coniimiterf. 



Mouth 


- thia. 


Teeth - 


- tiaa. 


Hair of the head 


- konkoora. 


Beard - 


- nankoora. 


Thunder - 


- mlndarro. 


Grass ■• 


- gootho. 


Tongue 


- therlia. 


Stomach - 


- na-e-mil-la. 


Breasts 


- nama. 


Thigh - 


- thara. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Bone - 


- monka. 


Blood - 


- gomia. 


Skin - 


- oolia Off yoolia. 


Fat - 


- monne. 


Bowels 


- warria. 


Excrement - 


- oono. 


War-spear - 


- yongo. 


Reed -spear - 


- (none). 


Throwing-stick 


- (none). 


Shield - 


- burrigo. 


Tomahawk - 


- gudga. 


Canoe - 


- (none). 


Sun - 


- thurnwia. 


Moon - 


- mirkerinia. 


Star - 


- teke. 


Light - 


- bitta (muna?) 


Dark - 


- birta. 


Cold - 


- terria. 


Heat - 


- boia. 


Day - 


- muma. 


Night - 


- birta. 


Fire - 


- wee. 


Water 


- napa. 


Smoke 


- bobatho. 


Ground 


- docka^ 


Wind- 


- 


Rain - 


- yama. 


God - 


- pedongaloo. 


Ghosts 


- doona. 



Boomerang ■ 
Hill - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - 
No - 
I 

You 
Bark 
Good 
Bad 
Sweet - 
Food 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 
Blacks? 
I don't know 

Plenty 
Big - - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by ■ 
Come on 

Milk - 
Baglehawk - 
Wild turkey 
Wife - 



the 



wanna, 
bompa (sand). 

nora. 

thurloo. 

kow. 

yow. 

atho. 

yundo. 

birrea, toombo. 

oloberri. 

winne-winne. 

■ monne gubba. 

■ birajanna. 

' napa thala altha. 

• thale. 

• annetho(?) 

- thale. 

- aunetho(?) 

- nantharriga. 

- yennana. 

- nelia. 

- konye. 

- birtarra. 
ye ninka ura 

wamo ? 
ni yea allit 

nanka. 
wamo. 
koba. 

mitta burlo. 
daukeyan. 
boUee. 
kommera, ko- 

mitha. 



new-wera. 



42 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 53.— LOWER BULLOO RIVBR. 



By a. F. Sullivan, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- koola. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- koorakunnia. 


2 Blacks - 


- barkoola ngooara 


Tame dog - 


- mirre. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - 


- 


One - 


- warra. 


Emu 


- koolbarree. 


Two - 


- barkoola. 


Black duck 


- willunga. 


Three - 


- barkoola ma 


Wood duck - koonare. 
Pelican - - kowbernuggera. 
Laughing jackass 


Four - 


warra. 
- barkoola ma 


Native companion koonthurra. 
White cockatoo - thirindthela. 


Father 


UaiLiS.\3\}Lcbt 

- urni. 


Crow 


- worga. 


Mother 


- ummadi. 


Swan - 


- kootooroo. 


Sister-Elder 


- kurrangi. 


Egg - - 


- kuppo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Track of a foot 


- chinna. 


Brother-Elder 


- karkoori. 


Fish - 


- kooya. 


„ Younger 


Lobster 


- 


A young man 


- bulkabUthi. 


Crayfish 


- boogali. 


An old man 


- kurookuroo. 


Mosquito - 


- oonawalli. 


An old woman 


- bootchoo. 


Fly - ~ 


- moogingoo. 


A baby 


- kidtha. 


Snake - 


- yelohi. 


A White man 


- birri-birri. 


The Blacks 


- ngoorra. 


Children 


- gidthuga. 


A Blackfellow 


- tharinya. 


Head - 


- boontha. 


A Black woman 


- wilthetha. 


Eye - 


- mungaroo(?) 


Nose - 


- minchi. 


Ear - 


- pinna. 



LOWER BULLOO RIVER. 



43 



No. 53. — LowEB BuLLOO RiVEB — continued. 



Mouth 


- thiga. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- tiga. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- koonkooroo. 


Wood - 


- wagga. 


Beard - 


- unkooroo. 


Stone - 


- yernda. 


Thunder ■■ 


- girriwarra. 


Camp - 


- thalloo. 


Graas - 


- kuudha. 


Yes - 


- kow. 


Tongue 


- thuUa. 


No - 


- yowoo. 


Stomach 


- i-e-muUa. 


I 


- witchi. 


Breasts 


- umma. 


You - 


- 


Thigh 


- thurra. 


Bark - 


- bindara. 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Good - 


- ooloo. 


Bone - 


- munka. 


Bad - 


- wiTime. 


Blood - 


- kooma. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- but-tha. 


Food - 


- thuUinna. 


Fat - 
Bowels 


- murni. 

- goonabulga. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 


- unga. 

- thirtima. 


Excrement - 
War-spear - 


- oonoo. 

- murli. 


Eat - 
Sleep - 


- thuUigurra. 

- oonana. 


Reed-spear - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield 
Tomahawk - 


- googarra. 

- kootcha. 


Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 


- thirtima. 

- unnegarra. 

- yundergurra. 


Canoe - 


- boorlee. 


Sit - 


- yinnagurra. 


Sun - 


- thunoo. 


Yesterday - 


- ueela. 


Moon - 


- mirri-kurringa. 


To-day 


- kunye. 


Star - 


- titchi. 


To-morrow - 


- piltowera. 


Light - 


- bithangurrigurri. 


Where are the thunbooroo 


Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 
Night - 
Fire - 


- bithan. 

- markooroo. 

- bo-i-ga. 

- weka. 

- nala. 

- wee. 


Blacks ? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - 

Little - 


ngoorra? 

- yowoo. 

- marroo. 

- gi-joba. 

- mitchewarroo 


Water 


- nguppa. 


Dead - 


- thanchegurra. 


Smoke 


- thooraka. 


By-and-by - 


- barloo. 


Ground 


- thukka. 


Come on 


- kowi. 


Wind 


- koogathinne. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- yanna. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - - 


- 



44 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 54.— A TEIBE TO THE EAST OF STEZELECKI'S 

CREEK. 

The words wMch I have received from this locality, at 
which the boundaries of Queensland, New South Wales, and 
South Australia come into contact, are so few as not to be 
worth transcribing. The first of them is Chookaroo = kanga- 
roo, and they show generally an affinity with the languages 
of Cooper's Creek. 



No. 55.— FROM MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI 

LAKE. 

By Me. Samuel Gason. 

The following account of the Dieyerie tribe was published 
in 1874 by Mr. Samuel Gason, who has kindly allowed 
me to republish it. Mr. Gason spent over nine years in 
the country of the Dieyerie, and his monograph of that 
tribe seems to me to stand alone in excellence amongst 
accounts of the sort, if we except the late George Taplin's 
account of the Narrinyeri tribe. Mr. Gason's pamphlet 
is, omitting the preface, &c., as follows: — 

THE DIEYERIE TRIBE OP AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES. 
PAET I. 

The Tribe; Country; Neighbours; Good and Evil Quali- 
ties; Low of Bartering; Food; Dogs; Traditions of 
the Creation, and of the Sun; Subdivision into 
Families. 

The Dieyerie tribe numbers about 230; the four neigh- 
bouring tribes — the Yandrawontha, Yarrawaurka, Auminie, 
and Wongkaooroo, about 800— in all about 1,030. 



MOUNT ^REELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 45 

Their country is about 630 railes north of Adelaide, the 
capital of the Province of South Australia, and is bounded 
at the most southerly point by Mount Freeling, at the most 
northerly point by Pirigundi Lake (on the Cooper Eiver), 
at the most easterly point by Lake Hope, and at the most 
westerly point at a part yet unnamed, but about eighty 
miles from Lake Hope. This country is traversed by 
Cooper's Creek — there only a chain of lakes without any 
defined channel. 

Their language is understood by the four neighbouring 
tribes, with whom they keep up ostensibly a friendly inter- 
course, inviting and being invited to attend each other's 
festivals, and mutually bartering, but in secret they enter- 
tain a most deadly enmity to each other, although at the 
same time believing that they came from a parent stock, 
and even intermarrying. 

A more treacherous race I do not believe exists. They 
imbibe treachery in infancy, and practice it until death, and 
have no sense of wrong in it. Gratitude is to them an 
unknown c[ua,lity. No matter how kind or, generous you 
are to them, you cannot assure yourself of their affection. 
Even amongst themselves, for a mere trifle, they would take 
the life of their dearest friend, and consequently are in 
constant dread of each other, while their enmity to the 
White man is only kept in abeyance by fear. They will 
smile and laugh in your face, and the next moment, if 
opportunity offers, kiU you without remorse. 

Kindness they construe into fear; and, had it not been 
for the determination and firmness of the early settlers, they 
would never have been allowed to occupy the country. 
The tribe is numerous, and if they knew (and it is feared 
they will eventually learn) their own power the present 
White inhabitants could not keep them down, or for one 
day retain their possessions. 

They seem to take a delight in lying, especially if they 
think it will please you. Should you ask them any ques- 
tion, be prepared for a falsehood as a matter of course. 



46 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

They not only lie to the White man, but to each other, and 
do not appear to see any wrong in it. 

Notwithstanding, however, what has been said of their 
treachery, and however paradoxical it may appear, they 
possess in an eminent degree the three great virtues of 
hospitality, reverence to old age, and love for their children 
and parents. 

Should any stranger arrive at their camp, food is im- 
mediately set before him. 

The children are never beaten, and should any woman 
violate this law she is in turn beaten by her husband. 
Notwithstanding this tenderness for their remaining off- 
spring, about thirty per cent, are murdered by their mothers 
at their birth, simply for the reasons — firstly, that many 
of them marrying very young their firstborn is considered 
immature and not worth preserving; and secondly, because 
they do not wish to be at the trouble of rearing them, 
especially if weakly. Indeed, all sickly or deformed chil- 
dren are made away with in fear of their becoming a 
burthen to the tribe. 

The children so destroyed are generally smothered in 
sand, or have their brains dashed out by some weapon; 
the men never interfering, or any of either sex regarding 
infanticide as crime. Hardly an old woman, if questioned, 
but will admit of having disposed in this manner of from 
two to four of her offspring. 

Their whole life is spent in bartering; they rarely 
retain any article for long. The articles received by them 
in exchange one day are bartered away the next, whether 
at a profit or loss. Should any one of them, more shrewd 
than another, profit on one occasion by this traffic, he is 
sure immediately after to sacrifice his advantage, and the 
majority of their quarrels are caused by bartering or 
refusing to barter. 

Their food is principally vegetable, animals being very 
scarce, if we except rats and their species, and snakes and 
other reptiles, of which there is an unlimited number. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGtFNDI LAKE. 47 

There are no kangaroo, and very few emu, the latter of 
which is their favorite food; and occasionally, in very hot 
weather, they secure one by running it down. 

In a dry season they mainly subsist on ardoo, but in a 
good season with plenty of rain they have an ample supply 
of seeds, which they grind or pound, make into small 
loaves, and bake in the ashes. They gather also then 
plenty of plants, herbs, and roots, a description of which, 
with their native names, appears in another place. 

Their dogs, of which every camp has from six to twenty, 
are generally a mangy lot, but the natives are very fond 
of them, and take as much care of them as if they were 
human. If a White man wants to offend the native, let him 
beat his dog. I have seen women crying over a dog, when 
bitten by snakes, as if over their own children. 

The Dieyerie would as soon think of killing themselves 
as their dogs, which are of great service to them, assisting 
them to find snakes, rats, &c. 

Animal food being very scanty, the natives subsist 
chiefly on vegetable matter, so that, eating the flesh of any 
animal they may procure, the dog, notwithstanding its 
services and their affection for it, fares very badly, receiving 
nothing but the bones. Hence the dog is always in very 
low condition, and, consequently, peculiarly subject to the 
diseases that affect the canine' race. 

Their Tkaditions. — The Cebation. 

In the beginning, say the Dieyerie, the Mooramoora 
(Good Spirit) made a number of small black lizards (these 
are still to be met with under dry bark), and being pleased 
with them he promised they should have power over all 
other creeping things. 

The Mooramoora then divided their feet ' into toes and 
fingers, and placing his forefinger on the centre of the face 
created a nose, and so in like manner afterwards eyes, mouth, 
and ears. The Spirit then placed one of them in a standing 
position, which it could not, however, retain, whereupon the 



48 THE AtrSTBALIAK RACE: 

Deity cut off the tail, and the lizard walked erect. They 
were then made male and female, so as to perpetuate the 
race, and leave a tribe to dispute their ancestry with Darwin's 
monkeys. 

Men, women, or children do not vary in the slightest 
degree in this account of their creation. 

Creation of the Sun. 

Their traditions suppose that man and all other beings 
were created by the moon at the bidding of the Mooramoora. 

Finding the emu pleasant to the sight, and judging it to 
be eatable (but unable, owing to its swiftness, to catch it 
during the cold that then prevailed), the Mooramoora was 
appealed to to cast some heat on the earth so as to enable 
them to run down the desired bird. 

The Mooramoora, complying with their request, bade 
them perform certain ceremonies (yet observed, but too 
obscene to be described), and then created the sun. 

MuEDOO. — (Subdivision of Tribe into Families.) 

Murdoo means taste; but in its primary and larger 
simplification implies family, founded on the following 
tradition: — 

After the creation, as previously related, fathers, mothers, 
sisters, brothers, and others of the closest kin intermarried 
promiscuously, until the evil effects of these alliances becom- 
ing manifest, a council of the chiefs was assembled to con- 
sider in what way they might be averted, the result of their 
deKberations being a petition to the Mooramoora, in answer 
to which he ordered that the tribe should be divided into 
branches, and distinguished one from the other by different 
names, after objects animate and inanimate, such as dogs, 
mice, emu, rain, iguana, and so forth, the members of any 
such branch not to intermarry, but with permission for one 
branch to mingle with another. Thus the son of a dog 
might not marry the daughter of a dog, but either might 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 49 

form an alliance with a mouse, an emu, a rat, or other 
family. 

This custom is still observed, and the first question 
asked of a stranger is "What Murdoo?" namely, of what 
family are you. 



PART II. 

Councils; Treaty ; Mode of Reception; Armed Party; Lams. 

Ceremonies — Hole in the Nose; Extraction of Teeth; 
Circumcision; To Procure Harvest; To Invoke Peace; 
Operation of Koolpie ; Funeral Rites; Death Spell; 
Making of Rain ; Making Wild Fowl lay Eggs ; 
Making Iguanas ; Superstition about Trees and 
Iguanas; Remedy for Accidents ; Expedition for Red 
Ochre; Diseases and Doctor; Cure for Wounds. 

Councils. 

Should any matter of moment have to be considered — such 
as removing the camps, making of rain, marrying, circum- 
cision, or what not — one of the old men moots the subject 
late at night, before the camp retires to rest. 

At dawn of the succeeding day, each question as proposed 
by the old man is answered at once, or, should they wait 
until he has finished, three or four speak together ; with 
this exception, there being no interruptions, and stillness 
prevailing in the camp. 

At first they speak slowly and quietly, each sentence in 
its delivery occupying three or four minutes, but generally 
become excited before the conclusion of their speeches. 

Treaty. 

Should there be any misunderstanding between two 
tribes, the women are sent to the other as ambassadors to 
arrange the dispute, which they invariably succeed in doing, 
when women from the other return the visit to- testify their 
approval of the treaty arrived at. 



50 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

The reason women are appointed in this capacity is that 
they are free from clanger, while, should the men go, their 
lives would be in peril. 

Mode of Reception. 

A native of influence, on arriving at one of the camps of 
his own tribe, is usually received in the following manner: — 

On approaching the camp, the inmates close in with 
raised arms, as in defence ; upon this, the person of note 
rushes at them, making a faint blow as if to strike them, 
they warding it off with their shields; immediately after 
they embrace him and lead him into the camp, where the 
women shortly bring him food. Should any female relatives 
to him be present they cry with joy. 

If he visits a neighbouring tribe he is received in the 
same manner as by his own. 

A native of no influence or note, on returning after con- 
siderable absence, takes his seat near the camp without 
passing any remark. 

After remaining a few minutes as if dumb, the old men 
close round him, ask where he came from, and what befel 
him, when he tells them plenty of news, not forgetting to 
embellish. Then two old men stand up, one retailing it, 
and the other repeating the sentences in an excited manner. 

Upon this, as on all other occasions, the new comer is 
hospitably received, plenty to eat being furnished him. 

PiNYA. — (Armed Party.) 

The armed band, entrusted with the office of executing 
offenders (elsewhere referred to), is entitled Pinya, and 
appointed as follows : — 

A council is called of all the old men of the tribe: the 
chief — a native of influence — selecting the men for the 
Pinya, and directing when to proceed on their sanguinary 
mission. 



MOUNT PREELING TO MRIGUNDI LAKE. 51 

The night prior to starting, the men composing the 
Pinya, at about seven p.m., move out of the camp to a 
distance of about three hundred yards, where they sit in a 
circle, sticking their spears in the ground near them; 

The women form an outer circle round the men, a 
number of them bearing fire-sticks in their hands. 

The chief opens the council by asking who caused the 
death of their friend or relative, in reply to which the others 
name several natives of their own or neighbouring tribes, 
each attaching the crime to his bitterest enemy. 

The chief, perceiving whom the majority would have 
killed, calls out his name in a loud voice, when each man 
grasps his spear. 

The women who have fire-sticks lay them in a row, 
and, while so placing them, call out the name of some 
native, till one of them calls that of the man previously con- 
demned, when all the men simultaneously spear the fire-stick 
of the woman who has named the condemned. 

Then the leader takes hold of the fire-stick, and, after one 
of the old men has made a hole a few inches deep in the 
ground with his hand, places the fire-stick in it, and covers 
it up, all declaring that they will slay the condemned, and 
see him buried like that stick. 

After going through some practices, too beastly to narrate, 
the women return to the camp. 

The following morning, at sunrise, the Pinya attire them- 
selves in a plaited band painted white (charpoo), and pro- 
ceed on their journey until within a day's stage of the 
place where they suppose the man they seek will be found, 
and remain there during the day in fear they may be 
observed by some straggling native. 

At sunset they renew their journey until within a quarter 
of a mile of their intended victim's camp, when two men 
are sent out as spies to the camp to ascertain if he is there, 
and, if possible, where he sleeps. After staying there about 
two hours, they report what they have seen and heard. 



52 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Tke next thing done is the smearing of the Pinya with 
white clay, so as to distinguish them from the enemy, in 
case any of the latter should endeavour to escape. 

They then march towards the camp at a time when they 
think the inmates are asleep, from about midnight to two 
a.m. ; and, when within one hundred yards of it, divide into 
two parties, one going round on one side of the camp and 
the second round on the other — forming a complete circle to 
hinder escape. 

The dogs begin to bark, and the women to whimper, not 
daring to cry aloud for fear of the Pinya, who, as they invest 
the camp, make a very melancholy grunting noise. 

Then one or two walk up to the accused, telling him to 
come out and they will protect him, which he, aware of the 
custom, does not believe, yet he obeys, as he is powerless to 
resist. 

In the meanwhile, boughs are distributed by the Pinya to 
all the men, women, and children, wherewith to make a 
noise in shaking, so that friends and relatives of the con- 
demned may not hear his groans while he is being executed. 

The Pinya then kill the victim by spearing him and 
striking him with the two-handed weapon, avoiding to strike 
him below the hips, as they believe, were they to injure the 
legs, they would be unable to return home. 

The murder being consummated, they wait for daylight, 
when the young men of the Pinya are ordered to lie down. 

The old men then wash their weapons, and, getting all 
the gore and flesh adhering to them off, mix it with some 
water ; this agreeable draught being carried round by an 
old man, who bestows a little upon each young man to 
swallow, believing that thereby they will be inspired with 
courage and strength for any Pinya they may afterwards 
join. 

The fat of the murdered man is cut off and wrapped 
round the weapons of all the old men, which are then 
covered with feathers. 

They then make for home. 



MOUNT PBBELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 53 

Law of Muedee. 

If two or more men fight, and one of the number should 
be accidentally killed, he who caused his death must also 
suffer it. But should the offender have an elder brother, 
then he must die in his place, or, should he have no elder 
brother, then his father must be his substitute ; but in case 
he has no male relative to suffer for him, then he himself 
must die. He is not allowed to defend himself, nor indeed 
is he aware of when the sentence may be executed. He 
knows the law. 

On some night appointed, an armed party surround and 
despatch him. 

Two sticks, each of about six inches in length — one 
representing the killed, and the other the executed — are 
then buried, and upon no occasion is the circumstance after- 
wards referred to. 

Should a man of influence and well-connected, that is 
have numerous relatives, die suddenly or after a long illness, 
the tribe believe that he has been killed by some charm. A 
secret council is held, and some unhappy innocent is accused 
and condemned, and dealt with by the Pinya as previously 
described. 

Law of Felony, etc. 

Should any native steal from another, and the offender 
be known, he is challenged to fight by the person he has 
robbed, and this settles the matter. 

Should any native accuse another wrongfully, he is dealt 
with in the same manner as for stealing. 

Children are not punished on committing theft, but the 
father or mother has to fight with the person from whom 
the property was stolen, and upon no occasion, as stated 
elsewhere, are the children beaten. 

MooDLAWiLLPA. — (Holc in the Nose.) 
This operation is inflicted on the boy or girl at the age 
of from five to ten years. 



54 THE AUSTRALIAN EACE: 

The father generally proposes to the other denizens of 
the camp to have his child's nose pierced, and one old man 
is selected to perform the ceremony, which is usually done 
at mid-day. 

A piece of wood, six inches long, from a tree called 
Cooyamurra (a species of acacia), is pointed at one end 
sufficiently sharp to pierce the nose, the partition of which 
the operator takes in his left hand, while he pierces it with 
the right. 

A few minutes before, and during the operation, the men 
and women sing, believing that by singing a great deal of 
the pain is taken away from the child. 

The hole being made, a large quill, about a quarter of an 
inch in diameter, is placed in it to prevent it from closing up, 
and kept there until the wound is thoroughly healed. 

The word Moodlawillpa is derived from moodla (nose), 
and willpa (hole), hence, hole in the nose. 

Chikeinchirkie. — (Extraction of the Teeth.) 

From the age of eight to twelve years, the two front 
teeth of the upper jaw are taken out in the following 
manner: — 

Two pieces of the Cooyamurra tree, each about a foot 
long, are sharpened at one end to a wedge-Hke shape, then 
placed on either side of the tooth to be extracted, and driven 
between as tightly as possible. The sMn of a wallaby, in 
two or three folds, is then placed on the tooth about to be 
drawn, after which a stout piece of wood, about two feet 
long, is applied to the wallaby skin, and struck with a heavy 
stone, two blows of which is sufficient to loosen the tooth, 
when it is pulled out by the hand. This operation is 
repeated on the second tooth. 

As soon as the teeth are drawn, a piece of damp clay is 
placed on the holes whence they were extracted to stop the 
bleeding. 

The boy or girl (for this ceremony is performed indif- 
ferently on either sex) is forbidden to look at any of the 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 55 

men whose faces may be turned from them, but may look at 
those in front of them, as it is thought that should the boy 
or girl look towards the men while their backs are turned 
from them the child's mouth would close up, and con- 
sequently never allow them to eat thereafter. 

For three days this prohibition is maintained, after 
which it is removed. 

The teeth drawn are placed in the centre of a bunch of 
emu feathers, smeared with fat, and kept for about twelve 
months, or some length of time, under the belief that if 
thrown away the eaglehawk would cause larger ones to 
grow in their place, turn up on the upper lip, and thus 
cause death. 

The Dieyerie, on being questioned, can assign no reason 
for thus disfiguring their children than that when they 
were created the Mooramoora* knocked out two front teeth 
of the upper jaw of the first child, and, pleased at the sight, 
commanded that such should be done to every male or 
female child for ever after. 

This ceremony has been witnessed by me on several 
occasions, and, though it must be very painful, the boy or 
girl never winces. 

KuEEAWELLiE "WoNKANNA. — (Oircumcisiou.) 

As soon as the hair on the boy's face makes its appear- 
ance, a council of old men, not relatives to the boy, is held, 
but no warning is given to him or his parents. Everything 
is kept secret. 

A woman, also not related to the boy, is then selected, 
and her duty is to suspend a mussel shell round his neck. 
Whereupon, some appointed night, just before the camp 
retires to rest, ordinarily about nine p.m., she watches an 
opportunity to speak to him, during which she contrives to 

* Note. — Mooramoora is a Good Spirit, God, or Divine Being; and, 
although they have no form of religious worship, they speak of the Moora- 
moora with great reverence. 



56 THE AUSTRAUAJSr RACE: 

cast over tlie boy's liead a piece of twine, to which the shell 
is attached by a hole drilled at one end. He, knowing the 
meaning of this by having observed the same thing done to 
other boys, immediately runs out of the camp. 

The inhabitants of the camp, upon learning what has 
happened, directly commence crying and shrieking at the 
top of their voices. 

The father and elder brothers at this become excited and 
quarrelsome, demanding by what right the old men of the 
camp seized their sons or brothers. However, after about 
an hour's quarrelling (without fighting), they go to sleep as 
if nothing had happened. 

In the meanwhile the boy remains alone, camped by 
himself, until the following day, when the young men (not 
relatives) visit him, and take him away to other camps, 
fifty or sometimes one hundred miles distant, for the 
purpose of inviting other natives to the intended ceremony. 

The lad, during the day, keeps aloof from the camps he 
has been led to; at daybreak, before the camp arises, being 
away hunting, and at night camped about four hundred 
yards apart from the other natives. 

During the boy's absence, his near relatives collect all 
the hair off the heads of the men, women, and children, till 
they are thoroughly shorn, spin it, and twist it into a fine 
thread about the thickness of ordinary twine, in one con- 
tinuous length, without break, of about five hundred yards. 

This is made for the purpose of winding round the waist 
of the lad after circumcision, when it is called Yinka. 

On the day previous to that appointed for the ceremony, 
at four p.m., all the old women of the camp are sent in 
search of the boy, knowing where to find him, for, after 
proceeding as before described a distance from his relatives, 
occupying so long as a fortnight, he returns homeward, and 
prepares the knowledge of his whereabouts by raising smoke 
twice or thrice each day, which also indicates that he is 
alive; they then bring him into the camp, when he is 
directed to stand up for a few minutes until everything is 



MOUNT FREELESTG TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 57 

ready. (The natives never can prepare until the very last 
moment, generally causing mucli confusion wlien tlie time 
arrives for work.) The father and near relatives walk up to 
the lad and embrace him, when immediately two or three 
smart young men rush at the boy, place him on the back of 
another man, all the men of the camp shouting at their 
highest pitch thrice. 

The boy is then taken about one hundred yards away 
from the women, and covered up in skins, remaining so till 
daybreak. 

The father and relatives of the lad now renew their 
quarrelling with those that ordered the shell to be suspended 
to the neck of the boy, and a general fight ensues, all able- 
bodied men joining in the fray, each helping his friend or 
relative, until by the time the row is ended there are many 
broken heads and bruised bodies — the women in the mean- 
while crjring, shouting, screaming, hissing, and making 
many other hideous sounds, like so many hyenas. 

Subsequent to the suspension of hostilities, the men 
keep up an incessant humming noise, or singing (not 
dancing), and practising most horrible customs, until about 
four a.m., when the women and children are ordered off to a 
distance of four hundred yards from the camp, where they 
remain beating a kind of wooden trough with their hands 
once every minute (as in civilized communities beUs are 
tolled for the dead), the men replying to the noise in like 
manner, untU day dawns, when the beating ceases. 

Immediately before the boy's circumcision, a young man 
picks up a handful of sand, and sprinkles it as he runs, 
round the camp, which is supposed to drive the devil out, 
keeping only Mooramoora, the Good Spirit, in. 

As soon as circumcision has taken place, the father 
stoops over the boy, and, fancying himself inspired by 
Mooramoora to give him a name other than that he pre- 
viously had, re-names him, upon which he is taken away 
by some young men, and kept away for three or four months 
after, when he returns, virtually a man ; for though only a 



58 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

lad in years, he is allowed tlie same privileges as a man in 
consequence of being circumcised. 

I have omitted to state that, in' the event of no father 
living, his next-of-kin stands in place thereof. 

Decency has compelled me to suppress the worst fea- 
tures of the ceremony. 

"WiLLTAKOO.^-(To procure a good Harvest; Supply of 
Snakes, and other Reptiles.) 

The next ceremony following circumcision is that now to 
be described. 

A young man, without previous warning, is taken out of 
the camp by the old men, whereon the women set up 
crying, and so continue for almost half the night. 

On the succeeding morning, at sunrise, the men (young 
and old), excepting his father and elder brothers, surround 
him, directing him to close his eyes. 

One of the old men then binds another old man round 
his arm, near the shoulder, with string, pretty tightly, and 
with a sharp piece of flint lances the main artery of the 
arm, about an inch above the elbow, causing an instant flow 
of blood, which is permitted to play on the young man until 
his whole frame is covered with blood.* 

As soon as the old man becomes exhausted from loss of 
blood another is operated on, and so on, two or three others 
in succession, until the young man becomes quite stiff 
and sore from the great quantity of blood adhering to his 
person. 

The next stage in the ceremony is much worse for the 
young man. He is told to lay with his face down, when 
one or two young men ciit him on the neck and shoulders 

* Note. — The reasons assigned for this barbarous practice are that 
thereby courage is infused into the young man, and to show him that the 
sight of blood is nothing; so that should he receive a wound in warfare, he 
may account it a matter of no moment, but remark, bravely — -That he has 
previously had blood running all over his body, therefore, why should he 
feel faint or low-hearted. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 59 

with a sharp flint, about a sixteenth of an inch in depth, in 
from six to twelve places, which incisions create scars, 
which until death show that he has gone through the 
Wniyaroo. 

When tattooed, a piece of wood about nine inches long 
by two and a half wide and about a sixteenth of an inch 
thick, with a hole at one end, is attached to a piece of string 
eight feet or so long, and this is called Yuntha, which he is 
instructed to twirl when hunting, so the tribe may reap a 
good harvest of reptiles, snakes, and other game, and every 
night until his wounds are healed he must come within 
four hundred yards of the camp (but no nearer), and twirl it 
so as to acquaint his parents that he is alive, and they may 
send him some food; and in the meanwhile he must look 
upon no woman. 

After perfect recovery, he returns to the camp, when 
there is great rejoicing over the missing young man. 

He remains there, however, only for a few days ; when, 
accompanied by some of the tribe, he is sent away to visit 
other camps for the purpose of receiving presents, such as a 
a spear, boomerang, or other native weapon or curiosity. 
This flying trip is called Yinninda. 

On the night of his return, these presents he hands over 
to those who operated on him, and a song, composed during 
his absence, by a young woman selected for that purpose, is 
sung by her, the men, women, and children dancing, and 
this revel is maintained for about two hours. 

MiNDARiB. — (Festival to invoke Peace.) 
After enduring the ordeal of the Willyaroo, the next 
ceremony the young man has to go through is that of the 
Mindarie, which is held about once in two years, by this as 
by other neighbouring tribes. 

When there are sufficient young men in the tribe who 
have not passed this ceremony, and each tribe being on 
friendly terms with the others, a council is held, when time 
and place are appointed in which to hold it — some three 



60 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

months after it is determined on— to allow the hair to grow 
sufficiently long to be dressed in the manner hereafter 
described, and those young men whose hair, at the termina- 
tion of this period, is not long enough cannot take part in 
the ceremony. 

Women are sent to the neighbouring tribes to invite 
them to the ceremony, the preparations for which, in build- 
ing wurleys, &c., occupies from six to seven weeks. 

Every day witnesses fresh arrivals of men, women, and 
children; and, as soon as the first native heaves in sight, the 
Mindarie song is sung, to show the stranger that he is 
hailed as a friend. 

At length all having arrived, they wait on the full of the 
moon, so as to have plenty of light during the ceremony, 
which commences at sunset. In the meanwhile, at every 
sunrise, and at intervals during the day, every man- in the 
camp joins in the Mindarie song. 

They then proceed to dress the young men who have 
not gone through the ceremony previously. 

First of all the hair of their heads is tied with string so 
that it stands on end. Thippa (the tails of rats), are then 
fastened to the top of the hair, the ends hanging down over 
the shoulders. Feathers of the owl and emu are fastened 
on the forehead and ears. A large yinka (previously de- 
scribed), is wound round their waist, and in which, near the 
spine, a bunch of emu feathers is worn, and the face is 
painted red and black. By the time the young men are 
dressed the sun has set. 

All the men, women, and children now begin and 
continue to shout with the full power of their lungs 
for about ten minutes. They then separate, the women 
going a little way from the camp to dance, while the 
men proceed to a distance of 300 yards; the site selected 
being a plain, generally of hard ground, which is neatly 
swept. 

A little boy, about four years of age, deputed to open 
the ceremony, is tricked out all over with down from 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 61 

the swan and duck, bearing a buncli of emu feathers on 
his head, and having his face painted with red ochre and 
white clay. 

He dances into the ring, the young men following 
him, and they followed by the old men. 

They dance for about ten minutes, when the little boy 
stops the dance by running off the dancing ground. 

All the young men then re-commence, going through 
many extraordinary evolutions, standing on their toes, 
then on their heels, then on one leg, shaking their whole 
frame at a rapid rate, and keeping accurate time, throw- 
ing their hands in the air simultaneously, and clapping; 
running one way as fast as they can go, they will suddenly 
halt, renew the dance with hands and feet both in motion, 
again run off, perhaps twenty abreast, and at the sound 
of a certain word, as one man, drop one shoulder, and 
then the other. Then they throw themselves down on 
the ground, dance on their knees, again clap their hands, 
and accompany these postures by shouting and singing 
throughout the night without ceasing; the whole keeping 
time as perfectly as a trained orchestra. 

By sunrise, becoming tired, the ceremony is closed, 
when they retire to rest, and sleep during the day. 

The reason of holding this ceremony is to enable all 
the tribes to assemble and renew peace, by making presents 
to each other, and amicably settle any disputes that may 
have arisen since the last Mindarie. 

The natives are aU. pleased at this observance, and talk 
of the event for many days after. 

KOOLPIE. 

So soon as the hair on the face of a young man is 
sufficiently grown to admit the ends of the beard being 
tied, the ceremony of the Koolpie is decided on. 

A council of old men assemble, fix the site, and appoint 
a day for the operation, on the morning of which he is 



62 THE AUSTEALIAIf RACE: 

invited out to hunt. The young man not suspecting 
anything is, at a given signal, seized — one of the party 
placing his hand on the young man's mouth, while others 
remove the yinka (elsewhere described) from his body. 

He is then directed to lie down, when a man is sta-. 
tioned at each limb, and another kneels on his chest to 
keep him steady. 

The operation is then commenced by first laying his 
penis on a piece of bark, when one of the party, provided 
with a sharp flint, makes an incision underneath into its 
passage, from the foreskin to its base. 

This done, a piece of bark is then placed over the 
wound, and tied so as to prevent it from closing up. 

This concludes the operation, and the young man goes 
away, accompanied by one or two others, and remains 
away from the camp until such time as the wound is 
thoroughly healed, when the bark may be removed. 

Men who have passed through this ceremony are per- 
mitted to appear in the camp, and before women, without 
wearing anything to hide their person. 

Funeral Eites. — CAiwiBALiSM. 

When a man, woman, or child dies, no matter from 
what cause, the big toe of each foot are tied together, and 
the body enveloped in a net. 

The grave is dug to about three feet, and the body is 
carried thither on the heads of three or four men, and on 
arrival is placed on its back for a few minutes. Then 
three men kneel down near the grave, while some other 
natives place the body on the heads of the kneehng men. 

One of the old men (usually the nearest relative) now 
takes two light rods, each about three feet long (these 
are called coonya), and holds one in each hand, standing 
about two yards from the corpse; then beating the coonya 
together, he questions the corpse, in the belief that it can 
understand him, inquiring how he died, who was the cause 



MOUNT FEEELING TO PIEIGUNDI LAKE. 63 

of his death, and the name of the man who killed him — 
as even decease from natural causes they attribute to a 
charm or spell exercised by some enemy. 

The men sitting round act as interpreters for the de- 
funct, and, according as the general opinion obtains, give 
some fictitious name of a native of another tribe. 

When the old man stops beating the eoonya, the men 
and women commence crying, and the body is removed 
from the heads of the bearers, and lowered into the grave, 
into which a native (not related to the deceased) steps, 
and proceeds to cut off all the fat adhering to the musdes 
of the face, thighs, arms, and stomach, and passes it round 
to be swallowed. The reason assigned for this horrible 
practice being that thus the nearest relatives may forget 
the departed, and not be continually crying. 

The order in which they partake of their dead relatives 
is this : — 

The mother eats of her children. 

The children eat of their mother. 

Brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law eat of each other. 

Uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, grandchildren, grand- 
fathers, and grandmothers eat of each other. 

But the father does not eat of his offspring, or the 
offspring of the sire. 

After eating of the dead the men paint themselves with 
charcoal and fat, marking a black ring round the mouth. 
This distinguishing mark is called Munamuroomuroo. The 
women do likewise, besides painting two white stripes on 
their arms, which marks distinguish those who have par- 
taken of the late deceased ; the other men smearing them- 
selves all over with white clay, to testify their grief. 

The grave is covered in with earth, and a large stack 
of wood placed over it. 

The first night after the burial the women dance round 
the grave, crying and screaming incessantly till sunrise, 
and so continue for a week or more. 



64 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Should the weather be cold when a native dies, fires are 
lighted near the grave so that the deceased may warm himself, 
and often they place food for him to eat. 

Invariably after a death they shift their camp, and never 
after speak of, or refer to, the defunct. 

MooKOOELLiE DucKANA. — (Bone Strike, or Death SpeU.) 

The words at the head of this chapter are derived from 
Mookoo {hone) and Duchana {strike), the compound word 
implying struck by a bone. 

As no person is supposed, from whatever cause, to die a 
natural death, but is conjectured to have been killed, either 
by one of a neighbouring tribe or of his own, men, women, 
and children are in constant terror of having offended some 
one who may therefore bear them enmity. 

Thus, so soon as a native becomes HI, a council is held 
solely to ascertain who has given him the bone. 

Should he remain a considerable time without a change, 
or his malady increase, his wife if he has one, or if he has 
not the wife of his nearest relative, is ordered to proceed to 
the person who is supposed to have caused the sickne,ss. She 
does so, accompanied by her paramour (whose relationship 
is explained elsewhere), and on arrival immediately makes 
a few presents to the person suspected of her relative's 
illness, but makes no accusation against him, contenting 
herself with simply stating that her relative is fallen HI and 
is not expected to recover, whereupon he sympathizes with 
her, and expresses a hope that the invalid will soon be well 



He knows, however, perfectly well, though not accused, 
that he is suspected of having caused the malady; and, on 
the following morning, acquaints the woman that she can 
return to her relative, as he would draw all power away from 
the bone by steeping it in water. Accordingly the woman 
carries back the joyful tidings that she has seen the party 
who has the bone, and he has promised to take all the power 
out of it. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIBIGUNDI LAKE. 65 

Now, should the invalid happen to die, and be a person of 
any influence, the man who acknowledged to having the bone 
is murdered on the first opportunity. 

Men threaten their wives (should they do anything 
wrong) with the bone, causing such dread in their Arrives 
that mostly, instead of having a salutary effect, it causes 
them to hate their husbands. 

This bone is not an ordinary one, but the small bone of 
the human leg ; and one of every two of the natives is 
charged with having one in his possession wherever he may 
go ; but, in my own experience, I have never seen more than 
a dozen, and those at one of their ceremonies ; as, for instance, 
when the whole tribe desire to kill at a distance, say from 
50 to 100 miles, some influential man of another tribe, they 
order several of the old men to despoil the dead, that is, to 
take the small leg-bones from many skeletons. 

Of these, the relicts of their own tribe, they take from 
three to eight, which they wrap in fat and emu feathers ; all 
the most noted men of the tribe taking them and pointing 
towards the place where their intended victim is supposed to 
reside, while doing which they curse the man they desire to 
kill, naming the death they would wish him. 

All present are bound to secrecy, and the ceremony lasts 
about an hour. 

Should they learn, after a few weeks, that the man they 
destine to destruction is still alive and hearty, they account 
for it by supposing that some one of the tribe of the person 
cursed had stopped the power of the bone. 

So strongly are men, women, and children convinced of 
the power of the bone, that no reasoning can shake their 
belief. 

I have frequently asked why they did not give a bone to 
myself or any of the settlers, knowing that they mortally 
hate all "White men, but they meet this by saying we are too 
superior in knowledge, so that the bone would have no effect 
on us. 

VOL. II. E 



66 the australian race: 

The Making of Rain. 

This is one of their grandest ceremonies. 

When there is a drought or dry season, frequent in the 
Dieyerie country, the natives hare a hard time of it. No 
fresh herbs, no roots, nothing but ardoo have they to subsist 
on. The parched earth yielding no grass, the emu, reptiles, 
&c.., are so poor as to be nearly valueless for food ; it is, 
therefore, easily perceived that to the natives rain is the 
supremest blessing. 

Believing they have the power of producing it, under the 
inspiration of Mooramoora (the Good Spirit), they proceed as 
follows : — 

Women, generally accompanied by their paramours,* are 
despatched to the various camps to assemble the natives 
together at a given place. After the tribe is gathered, they 
dig a hole, about two feet deep, twelve feet long, and from 
eight to ten feet broad. Over this they build a hut, by placing 
stiff logs about three feet apart, filling the spaces between 
with slighter logs, the building being of conical form, as the 
base of the erection is wider than its apex — then the stakes 
are covered with boughs. This hut is only sufficiently large 
to contain the old men; the young ones sit at the entrance or 
outside. 

This completed, the women are called to look at the hut, 
which they approach from the rear, then dividing, some one 
way and some the other, go round until they reach the 
entrance — each looking inside, but passing no remark. They 
then return to their camp, distant about 500 yards. 

Two men, supposed to have received a special inspiration 
from the Mooramoora, are selected for lancing, their arms 
being bound tightly with string near the shoulders to hinder 
too profuse an effusion of blood. 

When this is done all the men huddle together, and an 
old man, generally the most influential of the tribe, takes 

* Each married -woman is permitted a paramour. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGDNDI LAKE.. 67 

a sharp flint and bleeds the two men inside the arm below 
the elbow on one of the leading arteries, the blood being 
made to flow on the men sitting around, during which the 
two men throw handsful of down, some of which adheres to 
the blood, the rest floating in the air. 

This custom has in it a certain poetry, the blood being 
supposed to symbolize the rain and the down the clouds. 

During the preceding acts two large stones are placed in 
the centre of the hut ; these stones representing gathering 
clouds, presaging rain. 

At this period the women are again called to visit the 
hut and its inmates, but shortly after return to the camp. 

The main part of the ceremony being now concluded, the 
men who were bled carry the stones away for about fifteen 
miles, and place them as high as they can in the largest tree 
about. 

In the meanwhile, the men remaining gather gypsum, 
pound it fine, and throw it into a waterhole. This the Moo- 
ramoora is supposed to see, and immediately he causes the 
clouds to appear in the heavens. 

■ Should they not show so soon as anticipated, they account 
for it by saying that the Mooramoora is cross with them; and 
should there be no rain for weeks or months after the cere- 
mony they are ready with the usual explanation that some 
other tribe has stopped their power. 

The ceremony considered finished, there yet remains one 
observance to be fulfilled. The men, young and old, encircle 
the hut, bend their bodies, and charge, like so many rams, 
with their heads against it, forcing thus an entrance, reap- 
pearing on the other side, repeating this act, and continuing 
at it until nought remains of their handiwork but the heavy 
logs, too solid even for their thick heads to encounter. Their 
hands and arms must not be used at this stage of the per- 
formance, but afterwards they employ them by pulling simul- 
taneously at the bottom of the logs, which thus drawn out- 
wards causes the top of the hut to fall in, so making it a 
total wreck. 

E 2 



68 THE AUSTEALIAiSr RACE: 

The piercing of the hut with their heads symbolizes the 
piercing of the clouds; the fall of the hut the fall of rain. 

The Making the Wild-Fowl lay Eggs. 

After heavy rains, the smaller lakes, lagoons, and swamps 
are generally filled with fresh water, attracting flocks of wild- 
fowl ; and the natives go through a horrible ceremony, with- 
out which they believe the birds would not lay. 

On a fine day, after the rains, all the able-bodied men sit 
in a circle, each having a bone from the leg of a kangaroo,* 
sharpened at one end, when the old men commence singing, 
and the others pierce their scrotum several times. This must 
be very painful, yet they show no sense of it. They are 
generally laid up for two or three weeks, unable to walk. 
While thus torturing themselves the women are crying. At 
this ceremony a song is sung, but it is too obscene to be 
translated here. 

It is useless to argue with them on the absurdity of this 
custom; for all answer, they say it is impossible for White 
men to know their power. 

The Making of Iguanas. — (Kaupirrie Wima.) 

Whenever it is a bad season for iguanas (Koppirries), one 
of the principal articles of their food, some of the natives 
proceed to make them. The ceremony is not observed by the 
Dieyerie, but as they are invariably invited and attend, 
I think it proper to describe it. 

On a day appointed, they sit in a circle, when the old men 
take a few bones of the leg of an emu, about nine inches long, 
and sharpened at both ends. 

Each old man then sings a song, while doing so piercing 
his ears, first one and then the other, several times, regardless 
of the pain, if not insensible to it. 

* It is said elsewhere that there are no kangaroo in the Dieyerie country, 
but it must be remembered that in their expeditions for red ochre they travel 
over the lands of other tribes where the kangaroo can be procured. 



MOUNT FRBELESTG TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 69 

I add the song, whicli is not in the Dieyerie dialect, and 
a translation of it : — 

THE IGUAl^A SONG. 

Pa-pa-pa. Kirra-a. Lulpara^na. 
Mooloo Kurla parcha-ra. Willyoo lana 
Mathapootana murara Thidua-ra Mindieindie 
Kurtaworie-worietMea-a. 

Translation. 
With a boomerang we gather all the iguanas from the 
flats and plains, and drive them to the sandholes, then sur- 
round them, that all the male and female iguanas may come 
together and increase. 

Should there be a few more iguanas after the ceremony 
than before, the natives boast of having produced them, but 
if they are as scarce as previously they have their customary 
excuse that some other tribe took away their power. 

SUPEESTITIONS ON THE IgUANA. 

The iguana is supposed to be a conductor of lightning, 
and during a thunderstorm all these reptiles are buried in 
the sand. And should any native become grey or have much 
hair on its breast when young, it is supposed to be caused 
by eating them when children. 

Superstition on Trees. 

There are places covered by trees held very sacred, the 
larger ones being supposed to be the remains of their fathers 
metamorphosed. 

The natives never hew them ; and should the settlers 
require to cut them down, they earnestly protest against it, 
asserting they would have no luck, and themselves might be 
punished for not protecting their ancestors. 

Eemedt foe Accident or Eidichle. 
Should a child meet with any accident, all its relatives 
immediately get struck on the head with a stick or boomerang 
until the blood flows down their faces ; such surgical opera- 
tion being presumed to ease the child's pain. 



70 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: ■ 

In like manner, should any man or woman, by doing 
anytMng awkwardly, provoke laughter, he or she requests 
one of the men or women to hit him or her on the head till 
the blood trickles down the face, when the person thus 
relieved commences laughing, and appears to enjoy the 
joke as keenly as the rest. 

Indesceibable Customs. 
That of causing a pleptiful supply of wild dogs, that of 
creating a plenty of snakes, that of giving strength to young 
men, and some other customs, are altogether so obscene and 
disgusting, I must, even at the risk of leaving my subject 
incomplete, pass over by only thus briefly referring to them. 

BooKATOO. — (Expedition for Red Ochre.) 

Every winter, in July or August, a council of all the old 
men is held, relative to the starting of an expedition for red 
ochre, to a place called Burratchunna Creek (west of the 
Blinman township), where there is a large mine of it. 

Old and young men are selected, a day fixed, and a leader 
appointed to take command; all being kept secret from the 
women, in fear they would persuade their husbands not to 
leave. 

On the day the party must start, the old men rise with 
the sun, and grasping their weapons and singing promptly 
depart without leave taking or farewell to their wives and 
children. 

The women, then conscious of the men's intentions, 
commence screaming, screeching, yelling, hooting, hissing, 
and making all kinds of hideous and uncouth sounds, 
calling on their husbands, sons, brothers, and friends to 
remain, and not to be led into a strange and hostile country ; 
they, unheeding, proceeding on their way for about five 
hundred yards, for the purpose of arranging with the old 
men who are left behind to build wurleys (Bookatoo 
Oorannie) for the reception of the party when it returns. 
The site being selected, and instructions given to build 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 71 

substantial huts, farewell is taken, the expedition singing 
a rather mournful ditty, encouraging the young lads to 
keep up their spirits ; and indeed some of them require 
encouragement, knowing that besides having to travel over 
three hundred mUes through strange country, many a 
hungry belly they wiU have before reaching their destina- 
tion, independent of the load of ochre they will have to 
carry back. 

The party travels about twenty miles a day, and on 
arrival at the mine each member of it digs out his own 
ochre, mixes it with water, making it into loaves of about 
20 lbs weight, which are dried.* 

Each man carries an average weight of 70 lbs. of ochre, 
invariably on the head,t and has to procure his own food; 
the party seldom resting a day while on the journey, which 
lasts usually from six or eight weeks, until within one 
day's stage of their camp — the Bookatoo Oorannie. 

On the return route, they barter with the tribes they 
pass, giving weapons for old clothes. 

Leaving for a while the returning party within one stage 
of the Bookatoo Oorannie, I will state what has been done 
in their absence by those who had to prepare those wurleys, 
(which built) a space of about one hundred yards around 
them is cleared and swept. 

During these preparations, every morning the women 
are ordered away to a short distance, and not allowed to 
return until sunset, and during their absence they collect 
seed, which is stored against the return of the expedition. 

The men of the camp keep up a continuous singing 
during the whole day and night, making, from the native 
cotton-bush, sugarloaf-shaped bags, about eighteen inches 
in length, and large enough at the orifice to admit the 
head; these being intended for the Bookatoo men on their 
return. 

* Just after collecting the ochre, having all the hair of their faces 
plucked out (not cut or burnt off). 

t The men carry their loads on their heads, 



72 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

During the making of the bags the following song is 
sung, of which herewith I give the original, with a free 
translation : — 

Mulka-a-a-a — wora-a-a, 

Yoong-arra-a-a Oondoo-o-o, 

Ya PUlie-e-e-e Mulka-a-a-a angienie 

Kooriekirraf-a;-a-ya-a/-a-ya. 
Translation. 

Put colors in the bags, 

Close it all round, 

And make the netted bag 

All the colors of the rainbow. 
The women are supposed never to have heard this song, 
which is kept secret from them, and they fear that they 
would be strangled by the men should they ever overhear it. 
I now return to the ochre party, who, having for fear of 
hostile tribes made their way home only resting at night, 
are now within two hundred yards of the camp prepared 
for them. 

They drop on their hands and knees, so as not to awaken 
its inhabitants, who they desire to take by surprise, which 
they do when within a few yards distance by loud yelling 
and clapping their hands, and dancing two or three times 
round the Bookatoo Oorannie, after which they retire a 
little way. 

The men of the camp then rush out to ascertain whether, 
all of the party have arrived safe — women crying, children 
screaming, dogs fighting, altogether make up a discord 
language is unequal to describe. Now the sugarloaf bags 
are placed on the heads of the adventurers, the women 
prepare food for them, and dancing is kept up during the 
whole of the night until sunrise, when the ceremony is 
over, and until when the women are not allowed to speak 
to their husbands or relatives. 

Afterwards, days are spent by the members of the 
expedition in recounting anecdotes and incidents of their 
travel. 



mount prbeling to pirigundi lake. 73 

Diseases. 

Wittcha. — This disease is, I think, the itch. The 
symptoms are innumerable small pimples all over the body, 
causing considerable irritation, only to be temporarily 
allayed by rubbing the parts affected with a sharp instru- 
ment or stone, the hand alone being insufi&cient to afford 
relief. 

It is very contagious, spreading from one person 
throughout the camp, and is probably caused by general 
want of cleanliness, and allowing mangy dogs to lie with 
them. They are subject to this disease once a year. 

Mirra. — A disease which every native has once in his 
life, sometimes at three years of age, but mor'e frequently at 
fourteen or thereabouts. The symptoms are large blind 
boils under the arms, in the groin, on the breasts or 
thighs, varying in size from a hen's egg to that of an 
emu's egg. It endures for months, and in some instances 
for years, before finally eradicated. 

During its presence the patient is generally so enfeebled 
as to be unable to procure food, and, in fact, is totally 
helpless. 

It is not contagious, and is, I surmise, peculiar to the 
natives, whose only remedy is the application of hot ashes 
to the parts affected. 

Mooramoora. — Unquestionably small-pox, to which the 
natives were subject evidently before coming into contact 
with Europeans, as many old men and women are pock- 
marked in the face and body. 

They state that a great number have been carried off 
by this disease, and I have been shown, on the top of a 
sandhill, seventy-four graves, which are said to be those of 
men, women, and children, carried off by this fell disorder. 

The Doctoe — (Koonkie). 
The Koonkie is a native, who has seen the devil when 
a child (the devil is called Kootchie), and is supposed to 
have received power from him to heal all sick. 



74 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

The way in which a man or woman becomes a doctor is, 
that if when young they have had the nightmare, or an 
unpleasant dream, and relate this to the camp, the inmates 
come to the conclusion that he or she has seen the devil. 

The males never practise until after circumcision, and, in 
fact, are not deemed proficient till out of their teens. 

Whenever a person falls ill, the Koonkie is requested to 
examine and cure him. 

The Koonkie walks up to the invalid, feels the parts 
affected, and then commences rubbing them until he fancies 
he has got hold of something, when he sucks the parts for a 
minute or two^, and then goes out of the camp a few yards. 

He now picks up a piece of wood, about one or two inches 
long, and returns to the camp, where, procuring a red hot 
coal, he rubs it in his hands to make them hot, and then 
feels the disordered parts again, and after a little manoeu- 
vring produces the stick which he had concealed in his hand, 
as if extracted from the patient's body, to the great surprise 
of all the natives, who conclude that this was the cause of 
the complaint. 

The Koonkie is requested to try again, when he goes out 
a second time in a very solemn manner (the natives all look- 
ing at him with wonder), blows twice or thrice, returns, goes 
through the same performance as before, and then produces 
a long piece of twine, or a piece of charcoal, of course from 
the part affected. 

This imposter won't confess to his trickery, and, indeed, 
from constant practice, at last deludes himself into a belief 
of his skilful surgery, which all the other natives have im- 
plicit faith in. And, indeed, the force of imagination is so 
strong in some cases, that I have seen a native quite ill, and 
actually cry for the Koonkie, who, after his humbugging, 
appeared quite recovered. 

Should the Koonkie fail in his effort to relieve the sick, 
he is prepared with a ready excuse — some Koonkie of another 
tribe, possessing more skill, has stopped his power. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 75 

When a KoonMe is ill he calls in the aid of another 
Koonkie to cure him. 

As I have said elsewhere, no person is presumed to 
become ill naturally. The Kootchie (devil), or some native, 
has bewitched him. 

Cure of Disease or Wotinds. 

Sores, cuts, bruises, pain, and disease of all kinds, no 
matter how arising, are treated in one of two modes — if slight, 
by the application of dirt to the part affected ; if severe, by 
that of hot ashes. 

In cases of any kind of sting, leaves of bushes, heated at 
the fire, are applied to the part stung, as hot as the patient 
can bear it, and the smart almost immediately disappears. 

PART III. 

Catalogue of Animals, fc. — Eats and their Congeners; Rep- 
tiles; Birds; Fish; Vegetables; Insects; Manufacturing 
Products; Weapons; and Personal Adornments. 

Rats add theie Congbneks. (All eaten by them.) 



Kaunoonka - 


- Bush wallaby. 


Wurtarrie 


- Kangaroo-rat. 


Capietha 


- Native rabbit. 


Miaroo - 


- Rat. 


Poontha 


- Mouse. 


Arutchie 


- Native ferret. 


Cowirrie 


- Rat (I don't know the species). 


ThillamlUarie 


- A species of ferret. 


Pulyara 


- Long-snouted rat. 


Koolchie 


- Species of rat. 


Koonappoo - 


- Species of mouse. 


Kulkuna 


- Species of wallaby (very swift). 


Kooraltha 


- Spotted ferret. 


Kulunda 


- White and black rat (similar to the house rat), 


Tickawara - 


- Native cat. 



Reptiles. (Those not eaten marked thus *.) 
Kunnie - - - Jew lizard. 

Kopirrie - - • - Iguana. 

Patharamooroo - - Black iguana (I have only seen three; they are very 
scarce). 



76 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Choopa - 
Kudieworoo - 
Wakurrie 
* Womaloora - 
*Thitthurie - 
Moonkamoonkarilla 

Oolaumi 

*Kulohandarra 



Woma - - . - 

Thoona- 
Wondaroo - 

Woonkoo 

Wirrawirrala 

Wipparoo 

Marrakilla - 

Mithindie - 

Koolielawirrawirra 

Mulkunkoora 
Thandandiewindiewindie 

Knrawulieyackayackuna 

Kulathirrie - 
Thidnamura - 
Pinchiepinohiedara 



A slender lizard, about 3 in. long. 

Red-backed lizard, about 3 in. long. 

Flat-headed lizard, about 3 in. long. 

Smooth-skinned lizard, about 5 in. long. 

Small rough-skinned lizard, about 4 in. long. 

Small black lizard, with short taU; generally found 
under the bark of trees. 

Lizard, transparent skin, spotted yellow and black, 
about 5 in. long. 

Species of lizard, flat head, scaly back, about 4 in. 
long; lives under the ground, and only appears 
above after heavy rains. The natives describe 
it as venomous, and affirm its bite is certaia 
death, wherefore they are very frightened of it, 
and even avoid killing it from fear of its poison- 
ing their weapons. 

Carpet snake, from 5 to 12 ft. long, large body; its 
bite not venomous. 

Grey snake, generally about 5 ft. long; venomous. 
Green and yellow snake, very thick body, about 

5 ft. long, quite harmless, and has a sleepy ap- 
pearance. 
Light brown and grey snake, from 4 to 7 ft. long; 

venomous, and very vicious. 
Large brown snake, with yellow belly, from 6 to 

10 ft. long; very venomous. 
Long thin snake, black, shaded with other dark 

colours, about 7 ft. long; very venomous, its bite 

causing instant death, so the natives are very 

cautious in killing it. 
Large brown snake, about 7 ft. long, has a large 

head ; is very venomous and vicious. 
White and yellow spotted snake, small thin body, 

about 3 ft. long ; harmless. 
Small yellow and black spotted snake, about 3 ft. 

long ; harmless. 
Black and green spotted snake, 5 ft. long; venomous. 
Small black snake, small mouth, about 5 ft. 6 in.; 

venomous. 
Plat-headed snake, green back, yellow spots on 

belly, about 4 ft. long ; venomous. 
Frog. 
Toad. 
Bat. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



77 



Kunienundruna - 

Thirriethirrie 

Thoaroopathandrunie 

Milkieworie - 

Pittiekilkadie 

Kirrkie- 

Kookoongka - 

Windtha 

Wurchie-WTirchie - 

KillawoloowoUoorka 

Moonyie 

Killunkilla - 

Kooranyawillawilla 

Poolunka 

Cathathara - 

Willaroo 

Moodlubra - 

Mumpie 

Woparoo 

Koorookookoo 

Mulliepirrpaoonga 

Choonda 

Thindriethindrie - 

Thiewillagie - 

Mulyamulyayapunie 

Poothoopoothooka 

Koorabaukoola 



Ooroo - 

Culiemulyandurie - 
Moolpa - 
Chooieohooie- 
Dickadickulyerra - 
Mootoomootoo 
Thanpathanpa 



Tharalkoo ■ 
Thowla 
Kockadooroo 
Chipala- 
Koodnapina - 
Thookabie - 
Doolpadoolpaioo 
KUkie - 



BiEDS. (All eaten by them.) 

- The largest hawk excepting eaglehawk. 

- Small speckled hawk. 

- White hawk. 

- Large grey hawk. 

- Speckled hawk. 

- Whistling hawk (very swift). 

- Kite. 

- Grey owl. 

- White owl. 

- Dark-brown owl. 

- Mopawk. 

- Red-breasted cockatoo. 

- Cockatoo parrot. 

- Parrot. 

- Shell parrot. 

- Curlew. 

- Pigeon. 

- Bronzewing pigeon. 

- Flock pigeon. 

- Dove. 

- Quail. 

- Red-breasted robin. 

- Shepherd's companion (a species of wagtail). 

- Small species of lark. 

- Swallow. 

- Sparrow. 

- Magpie. 

Waders. 

- Nankeen-colored crane. 

- Black and white crane. 

- White crane. 

- Snipe. 

- Species of snipe. 

- Species of snipe. 

- Slate-colored snipe. 

Water Fowl. 

- Teal. 

- Spoonbill duck. 

- Mountain duck. 

- Whistling duck. 

- Brown duck, with red beak. 

- Diver. 

- Black diver. 

- Water hen. 



78 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



Muroomuroo- 
Wathawirrie- 
Muloora 
Boorkoopiya - 
Kirrpiyirrka - 



Black water hen. 
Species of water hen. 
Cormorant. 

Long-beaked cormorant. 
Gull. 



Fish and other Freshwater Habitants 
Are few and unimportant, being caught in the waterholes and lakelets, 

which can only be called creeks or rivers when the floods come down, 

the last of which occurred in 1864. 
Paroo - - - - A small bony flat fish. 
Multhoomulthoo - - A fish weighing from 3 to SJ lbs. 
Moodlakoopa - - A fish averaging 4 lbs. 
Koorie - - - - Mussel. 



Thiltharie - 

Murunkura - 

Kooniekoonierilla - 

Kuniekoondie 

Pitchula 

Pindrie 

Purdie - 

Pittaboobaritchana 



Insects. 

- Centipede (sometimes 7 in. long — its bite is venom- 

ous). 

- Tarantula. 

- Black spider. 

- Scorpion. 

- Species of spider. 

- Grasshopper or locust. 

- Grub, caterpillar.* 

- Sandfly. 



Vegetables, Roots, Herbs, Fbtjit, Seed, etc. (Eaten by the 



Yowa - 

Winkara 

Munyaroo 

Kunaurra 

Ardoo - 



Cobboboo 
Wodaroo 



Natives.) 

- Rather larger than a pea, found 3 in. deep in the 

ground. 

- A very starchy root, about 5 in. long. 

- A plant much eaten. 

- The seed of the Munyaroo, used when ground into 

meal between two stones. 

- (Often described in newspapers and by writers as 

Nardoo.) A very hard seed, a flat oval of about, 
the size of a split pea; it is crushed or pounded, 
and the husk winnowed. In bad seasons this is 
the mainstay of the natives' sustenance, but it Is 
the worst food possible, possessing very little 
nourishment, and being difficult to digest. 

- A nut found on the box-tree, on breaking which 

it discloses a grub ; this is probably a gall. 

- A thin, long root, obtainable only where the soil is 

rich and covered with turf. This is one of the 
best vegetables the natives possess, sweet and 
mealy. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



79 



Coonchirrie - - - The seed from a species of acacia, ground and 

made into small loavea. 
Patharapowa - - The seed of the box-tree, ground and made into 

loaves. 

Caulyoo - - - The seed of the prickly acacia, pounded and made 
into loaves. 

Wodlaooroo - - - "Very fine seed taken from the silver grass, grow- 
ing in the creeks. 

Wirrathandra - - Seed of an acacia. 

Mulkathaudra - - Seed of the mulga tree. 

Yoongundie - - Black fine seed, taken from a plant similar to 

clover. 

- Native cotton-bush. When the leaves sprout and 
become quite green the natives gather and cook 
them, and at seed time they pluck and eat the 
pods. 

- Indigenous clover; when young, cooked by the 
natives, and eaten in large quantities. 

- A small watery plant. 

- The native fig. 

- The native gooseberry. 

- The native blackberry. 

- The native pear. 

- The native orange. 



Mootoha 



Kuloomba ■ 

Willapie 
Yoolantie 
Bookabooda ■ 
Mundawora 
Thoopara 



Vegetable Productions Used in Manufacturing. 

Mindrie - - - A large root, from the outside of which is obtained 
a kind of resin, which, when prepared at the 
fire and afterwards allowed to dry, becomes 
very hard and tough, called "kundrie," and is 
used in fastening a flint to a short stick called 
" kundriemookoo. " 

Mootcha - - - The stems of this bush (the pods and leaves of 
which afford food) when dry are pounded into 
a fine fibre, then teased and spun, after which it 
is made into bags, which are very nicely done, 
and occupy many days in their production. 



Weapons and Implements. 

Murawirrie - - - Two-handed boomerang, from 6 to 14 ft. long and 
4 in. broad. 

Kundriemookoo - ■ Of semicircular shape, 2 ft. 6 in. long, to one end 
of which is attached by resin a flint, forming a 
kind of axe or tool used in making weapons. 



80 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Wona - - - - A short thick stick, about 3 ft. long, used by 
women who do not carry the shield, spear, or 
boomerang. 

Yootohoowonda - - A piece of flint about 3 in. long, with an edge like 
a razor, and at the blunt end covered with resin; 
this is concealed in the palm of the hand when 
fighting, and is capable of inflicting a wound 
like one made with a butcher's knife. 

Pirrauma - - - A shield, oval-shaped, of solid wood, from 1 ft. to 
3 ft. long, and from 6 in. to 1 ft. wide. 

Personal Ornaments. 

Kultrakultra - - Necklace made from reeds strung on woven hair, 
and suspended round the neck. 

Yinka - - - - A string of human hair, ordinarily 300 yards in 
length, and wound round the waist. This orna- 
ment is greatly prized, owing to the difficulty of 
procuring the material of which it is made. 

Mundamunda - - A string made from the native cotton-tree, about 
two or three hundred yards long; this is worn 
round the waist, and adorned by different 
colored strings wound round at right angles. 
These are worn by the women, and are very 
neatly made. 

Kootcha - - - Bunch of hawk's, crow's, or eagle's feathers, neatly 
tied with the sinews of the emu or wallaby, and 
cured in hot ashes. This is worn either when 
fighting or dancing, and also used as a fan. 

Wurtawurta- - - A bunch of the black feathers of the emu, tied 
together with the sinews of the same bird; worn 
in the yinka (girdle) near the waist. 

Chanpoo - - - A band of about 6 in. long by 2 in. broad, made from 
the stems of the cotton-bush, painted white, and 
worn round the forehead. 

Koorie - - - - A large mussel shell pierced with a hole, and at- 
tached to the end of the beard or suspended 
from the neck; also used in circumcision. 

Oonamunda - - - About 10 ft. of string, made from the native cotton- 
bush, and worn round the arm. 

Oorapathera - - - A bunch of leaves tied at the feet, and worn when 
dancing, causing a peculiar noise. 

Unpa - A bunch of tassels, made from the fur of rata and 

wallaby, worn by the natives to cover their 
private parts. They are in length 6 in. to 3 ft. 
long. 



MOUNT PREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 81 

Thippa ... - Used for the same purpose as Unpa. A bunch of 
tassels made from tails of the native rabbit, 
and, when washed in damp sand, is very pretty, 
being white as the driven snow. It takes about 
fifty tails to make an ordinary Thippa, but I 
have seen some consisting of 350. 

Aroo . . - - The large feathers from the tail of the emu, used 
only as a fan. 

Wurda Wurda - - A circlet or coronet of emu feathers, worn only by 
the old men. 

PiUie . - - . Netted bag, made from the stems of the cotton- 
bush and rushes, with meshes similar to our 
fishing net. 

Wondaroo - - -A closely-netted bag, made from the fibre of the 
cotton-bush. 

Pirra - - - A trough-like water vessel. 

Mintie . - - - Fishing net, made from rushes, usually 60 ft. long 
by 3 ft. wide. 

PART IV. 

The Dieyerie Dialect ; Key to Pronunciation ; Examples of 
the Constmction of the Language; System of Notation; 
Astronomical Terms; List of Names distinguishing Age 
or Relationship ; The Ten Commandments; Parts of 
the Human Frame; Vocabulary. 

Tlie Dieyerie dialect, although, of limited construction, 
yet has certain rules not oftener departed from than the 
languages of a more civilized people. Each word invariably 
terminates with a vowel ; and so accustomed are the 'Dieyerie 
to this form that, in acquiring foreign words terminating in 
a consonant, they always add vowels, as thus : — Bullock 
becomes bulakoo ; hat, hata ; dog, doga ; and so on. 

Besides the spoken language, they have a copious one of 
signs — all animals, native man or woman, the heavens, earth, 
walking, riding, jumping, flying, swimming, eating, drinking, 
and hundreds of other objects or actions have each their 
particular sign, so that a conversation may be sustained 
without the utterance of a single word. 

This dumb language, of which I possess a thorough know- 
ledge, cannot, however, be described in words. A special 



82 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



feature in their language is that of distinguishing each other 
in their relationship, by which their names become trans- 
muted in a variety of ways — at certain ages, on their being 
married, and after undergoing certain ceremonies — examples 
of which are here given. 

Their system of notation, which is described further on, is 
excessively restricted, as is also their knowledge of astron- 
omy, with which they have, nevertheless, an acquaintance. 

The Dieyerie language extends far beyond the limit of 
their own possessions, being understood, though not spoken, 
by the surrounding tribes. 

The alphabet used by me in the vocabulary consists of 
eighteen letters only, the Dieyerie dialect possessing no 
equivalent for our F, J, Q, S, V, X, Z, while K answers in 
every respect for 0, excepting where it precedes the letter H, 



Key to Pbonunoiation". 



A, as in Hand, hat, fat, band. 

B, ,, Bauble, bible, bride. 
D, ,, Deed, did, deadly. 
B, ,, Treat, tact, tart. 

G, ,, Gag, gurgle (never as giant, 

page, rage). 

H, „ Hay, heavy, hearty. 

J, ,, Light, bright. ' 

K, ,, Kernel, keep, kick, key. 

L, ,, Lilt, laurel. 

M, ,, Mama, marmalade. 

N, ,, Nothing, none, noon. 

0, ,, Ormolu, ostracize, olive. 



P, as in Pope, puppet, pipe. 
R, „ Rare, rich, rather. 
T, „ Teat, tint, threat. 
U, „ Cur, fur. 
W, ,, Wake, walk, weak. 
Y, ,, Youth, yonder. 

Au, as in Caught, taught. 
Ch (tsch). Child, church, chatter, 
le, as in Yield, thief, brief. 
Oo, ,, Moon, soon, balloon. 
Ou, ,, Cow, now, how, brow. 
Th, „ Teeth, truth, this, that. 



A List of Words 

Principally, and in some cases only, showing the construction of the 
language used with others, and then usually terminating them. Ex- 
amples follow — 

Alie — Us. Aumpoo — Almost. 

Alyie— Pew. Auni— Will, shall. 

Ami— To. 

Ana^ing. Backa— Same as. 

Anie— Me, my. Bootoo— With. 

Arrie— Same as. Buckuna— Also. 

Athie— Do it. Butha— Not. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



83 



Champuna — Always. 

Elie— To, of. 

Goo — To yours, of yours. 

Janna — We. 
Jannanie — Ours. 

Kaunohie — Certain, sure. 

Launi — Will, shall. 

Marow — Do it (imperative). 
Moonthalie — Ourselves. 
Moonthoo — Most. 
Moolaroo — Great, very. 
MuUauna — Together, each other. 
Mundroola — Only two. 
Murla — More. 
Murra — Fresh, new. 
Mutcha — Enough. 
Mi— To. 

Nandroya — She. 
Naniea — Her. 
Nankanie — Hers. 
Ninua — The, thee, that, it. 
Ninniea — This. 
Nie — ^My, mine. 
Noaliea — He. 
Nooloo — Him, 
Noonkanie — His. 
Nowieya — There. 

Ori-rDid, has, have. 

Parohuna — All. 

Pilkie — Not relating to. 



Pilkildra — Something else. 
Pina — Great, very. 
Pothoo — Only. 
Pulpa — Others. 
Punie — ^None, no one. 

Thanar-They. 
Thananie — Theirs. 
Thaniya — Them, those. 
Tharkuna — Incline. 
Thulka — Relating to. 
Thuruna — Together. 

Uldra— We. 
Una — ing, ed. 
Undroo — Together. 

Wadarie — ^Where, which. 

Wakawaka i 

Wakamoothoo J 

War ana — Who. 

Whi— What. 

Windrie — Only . 

Wirrie — Of them, to them. 

Wodow — ^What, how. 

Wonthie — Had. 

Wulya — Soon. 

Wulyaloo — Soon after. 

Wumie — Whose. 

Wurra — Of them, to them, 

Wurroonga — Whom . 

Yankiea — Many. 
Yinkanie — Theirs, yours. 
Yondroo — Thou. 
Yoora — Ye, few. 



A — Koornoo. 

All — Parchuna. 

Also — Bukuna. 

Almost — Aumpoo bumpoo. 

Always — Champuna. 

Certain — Kaunohie. 

Enough — Mutcha. 
Each other — Mulluna. 



Few — Alyie, yoora. 
Fresh — Murra. 
Has or have — Ori. 
Had — Wonthie. 
He— Nooliea. 
Him — ^Nooloo. 
His — Noonkanie. 
Her — Naniea. 
Hers — Nankanie. 
How — Wodow. 



F 2 



84 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Incline — Tharkuna. 
It — Ninna. 

Least — Wakawaka, wakamoothoo. 

Me — Anie. 
Mine, my — Nie. 
Many — Yankiea. 
More — Murla. 

None, no one — Punie. 

Not— Butha. 

New — Murra. 

Not relating to — Pilkie. 

Only — Pothoo, wiri. 

Only two — Mundroola. 

Others — Pulpa. 

Of— Elie, thulka. . 

Of them — Wirrie, wurra. 

Ours — Jannanie. 

Ourselves — Moonthalie. 

Relating to — Undroo. 

She — ^Nundroya. 
Sure — Kaunchie. 
Soon — ^Wulya. 
Soon after — Wulyaloo. 
Same as — Arrie, backa. 



Self— Moontha. 
Something else — Pilkildra. 

The — Ninna. 

Thee — ^Ninna. 

Theirs — Thananie. 

Them, those — Thaniya, Goondroo. 

They— Thana. 

That — Ninna. 

This — Ninna, ninniea. 

Their — Yinkanie. 

To — Elie, thulka, goo, ami, mi. 

To them — ^Wirie wurra. 

Together — Mullauna, thurana. 

There — ^Nowieya. 

Us- Alie. 

Very — Marpoo, moolaroo, piaa. 

With— Boothoo. 
We — Jannana, uldra. 
Will — Launi or Auni. 
Where, which — Wadarie. 
Who — Warana. 
Whose — Wurnie. 
Whom — ^Wuronga. 
What — Whi, wodow. 

Ye — ^Yoora. 
Yours — Yinkanie. 



Examples. 
(-Moonthalie, ourselves. Moontha, self — Alie, us. 
Alie, us - - -| Mooalie, hungry, Moa, hunger — Alie, us. 
I Mookalie, sleepy. Mooka, sleep — AUe, us. 
rTannanie, ours. Tanna, we — Anie, me. 
Anie, me, my - -! Apinie, my father. Appirie, father — ^Nie, my. 

V Uldranie, of ua. Uldra, we — Nie, us. 
Bootoo, with — Kintaloobootoo, with a dog. Kintalo, dog — Boothoo, 

with. 
Butha, not — Yoothabuta, not lucky. Yootha, luck — Butha, not. 
Bumpoo, almost — Bumpoonundra, almost a blow. Nundra, blow — 
Bumpoo, almost. 

r Baukoelie, of nothing. . Baukoo, nothing — Elie, of, 
Elie, of - - -! Bootchooelie, of the blind. Bootchoo, blind— Elie, 

I of the. 
Goo, of or to— Yinkanigoo, of or to yours. Yinkani, yours — Goo, of 
or to. 



MOUNT FRBELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 85 

(Kooriekauncliie, thief for certain. Koorielie, 
stealing. 
Yadinakauuohie, liar for certain. Yadiena, lying. 
Yapakaunchie, fear for certain. Yapa, fear. 
Koomoo, one — Pothookoornoo, only one — Koomoo, one. Pothoo, only. 

r Oomoomurla, better. Omoo, good — Murla, more. 
Murla, more - -j Wordoomurla, shorter. - Wordoo, short — Murla, 

V more. 
Moothoo, most — Wordoomoothoo, moat short. Wordoo, short — 

Moothoo, most. 
MuUana, together, each other — DamamuUana, cutting each other. 
Damami, to cut — MuUana, eaah other. 

( Karoomurra, hair beginning to get grey. Karoo, 

Murra fresh grey-Murra, new. 

' ' < Apamurra, fresh water. Apa, water — Murra, fresh. 

] Noamurra, married couple. Noa, husband or wife 
[ — Murra, new, i. e. , new relationship. 
Poothoo, only — Pothookoornoo, only one — Pothoo, only. Koornoo, one. 

/- Yoothapina, great luck. Yootha, luck. 
Pina, great, very -] Moapina, very hungry. Moa, hunger. 

VNooroopina, very quick, Nooroo, quick. 
Thulka, relating to — Kumuthulka, relating to person of a Blaokfellow. 
Kurna, person of Blackfellow — Thulka, relating to. 

/•Mopathuruna, collect together. Mopa, collect. 
Thuruna, together-! Kumpathuruna, collect together. Kumpa, collect. 
I Ookunathuruna, joined together. Ookuna, joined. 
. c Kookootharkuua, unlevel, down hill. 

Tharkuna, mclm- J pooratharkuna, bending the body forward, 
mg uneven - (_ Munatharkuna, gaping. Muna, mouth. 

IApaundro, relating to water. Apa, water. 
Pirrundroo, relating to trough, Pirra, trough. 
Kurnaundroo, relating to person of Blaokfellow. 
Kurna, a Blackfellow. 



Had loved— Yoorawonthie. 
Will or shall love — Yooralauni. 
Love each other — YoorimuUuna. 
Love ye — Yooramarow. 



Love — Yoori. 

To love — Yoorami. 

Loving — ^Yoorana. 

Loved — Yooranoari. 

Did, has, or have loved — Yooranaori 

To Love, Yoorami. Loving, Yoorana. Loved, Yooranaori. 
I am loving — Athooyoorana. 
Thou art loving — Yondrooyoorana. 
He is loving — Noolieayoorana. 
We are loving — TJldrayoorana. 
You are loving — Yinieyoorana. 
They are loving — Thanayoorana. 



86 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



I did or have loved— Athooyooranaori. 

Thou didst or have loved — Yondrooyooranaori. 

He did or has loved — ^Noolieayooranaori. 

We did or have loved — Uldrayooranaori. 
You did or have loved — Yinieyooranaori. 
They did or have loved — Thanayooranaori. 

I had loved — Athooyooranaori. 

Thou hadst loved— Yondrooyooranawonthie. 

He had loved — Noolieayooranawonthie. 

We had loved — Uldrayooranawonthie. 
You had loved — Yinieyooranawonthie. 
They had loved — Thanayooranawonthie. 

I shall or will love — Athooyaralaunl. 
Thou ahalt or will love — Yondrooyaralauni. 
He shall or will love — Noolieayaralauni. 

We shall or will love — Uldrayaralauni. 
You shall or will love — Yinieyooralauui. 
They shall or will love — Thanayaralauni. 

Names Given according to Age and Relationship. 



Kurawulie — Boy under 9 years old. 
Mockaworo — Boy over 9 and under 

12 years old. 
Thootchawara — Boy over 12 years 

old after circumcision. 
Matharie — Man. 
Koopa — Girl until married. 
Munkara — Girl on marriage. 
Kudlakoo — Woman of middle age. 
Noa — Husband or wife. 
Adada — Grandfather. 
Athanie — Son or daughter, so called 

by mother. 
Athamoora — Son or daughter, so 

called by father. 



Noamurra — Man and wife. 
Booyooloo — Near relative. 
Kaka — Uncle. 
Kunninnie — Grandchild or 

mother. 
Pirraooroo — Paramour. 
Piyara — Mother-in-law. 
Pulara — Woman when appointed 



Thidnara — ^Nephew. 
Thuroo — Father-in-law. 
Widlamurra — ^Women. 
Wowitcha — ^Distant relative. 



Parts of the 

Auma — Breasts. 
Caupoora — Waist. 
Cauloo — Liver. 
Coopoodrompoo — Wrist. 
Imulla — Swallow. 
Koodnabiddie — Intestines. 
Kundrieooloo — Collar-bone. 
Moonambirrie — Chest. 
Muttaduckoo — Ankle, 



Human Frame. 

Milkiecootchara — Eyebrows. 
Murramookoo — Fingers. 
.Murrapirrie — Finger-nails. 
Murraundrie — Thumb. 
Murrawootchoo — Forefinger. 
Milperie — Forehead. 
Munanilyie — Gums . 
Munakirra — Jawbone. 
Miemie — Lips. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



87 



Oona — Arms. 
Oolooo — Cheeks. 
Oora — Legs. 
Puliethilcha — Groin. 
Pittie — Fundament. 
Pittiemookoo — Seat. 
Punchiethandra — Knees. 
Poondrapoondra — Kidneys. 
Poongnga — Lights. 
Pida — Navel. 
Punkathirrie — Side. 
PUlperrie — Shoulders. 
Thookoo — Back. 
ThUchaundrie — Calf of legs. 
Thinthabiddie— Elbow. 



Thidnaraookoo — Toes. 

Thidnawurta — Heel. 

Thidnaundrie — Large toe. 

Thidnaulkie — Between the toes. 

Thidnathookoo — Insteps. 

Thidnapirrie — Nails of the finger. 

Thara^Thigh. 

Thilcha— Sinews. 

Thudacuna — Pulse. 

Thitha — Joints. 

Unkachanda — Chin. 

Urra — Heart. 

Wolcha — Hips. 

Yerkala — Neck. 

Yoorieyoorie — Veins. 



System op Notation. 
The only words representing numerals possessed by the natives are: — 
Coomoo — One. 1 Paracoola — Three. 

Mundroo— Two. I 

Should they desire to express any greater number, it is done by adding 
together the words above, for instance : — 

4. Mundro-la-mundro-la. 

5. Mundroo -mundroo-ooornoo, that is twice 2 and 1. 

6. Mundroo-la-mundroo-la-mundroo-la, that is thrice 2. 

And so on till — 
10. After which, to 20, the term murrathidna, from murra (hands) 
and thidna (feet), is used, and the fingers and toes brought into play. 

Their arithmetic is then exhausted, and any larger number than 20 is 
signified in the dumb language, conveying the idea of a mob — an innumer- 
able quantity. 

Astronomy. 
The Dieyeries have some slight acquaintance with the heavenly bodies, 
and also with the cardinal points. Not being informed in that science 
myself, I can only quote a few instances : — 



Amathooroocooroo — Evening star. 

Kyirrie — Milky Way. 

Koolakoopuna — A bright star seen 
in the northern hemi- 
sphere in the winter 
months. 

Kurawurathidna — A cluster of stars 
representing the claw of 
an eaglehawk, seen in the 
western hemisphere dur- 
ing the winter months. 



Apapirrawolthawolthana — Two 
stars seen in the southern 
hemisphere in the winter. 

Ditchiepittiekillkuna — Meteor. 

Kooriekirra — Rainbow. 

Ditchiecoornaworkoo — The sun'sr 
meridian, also north on 
its declension. 

Wathararkuna — The south, the 
quarter from which the 
wind is most prevalent. 

Ditchiedoonkuna — Sunrise. 

Dilchiewirruna— Sunset. 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



PILLIETHILLCHA — THE AURORA ATJSTKALIS. 

Whenever this phenomenon occurs the natives become very terrified, 
believing it to be a warning from the devil (Kootchie) to keep a strict watch, 
aa the Pinya (armed party) is killing some one; also a caution to avoid wrong 
doing, lest the Pinya comes to them when least expected. The inmates 
of the camp then huddle together, when one or two step out and perform a 
ceremony to charm the Kootchie. 

Selections from the Ten Commandments. 
lat. Athona yoora Goda. 
2nd. Watta yoondroo aunchanapitta, paroo, ya ya pittapilkildra windrie 

Goda yondroo aunchana. 
3rd. Watta Goda yoondroo oaukooelie dikana. 

4th. Apirrie, ya andrie, parabara oondrana thana thipie aumanunthoo. 
5th. Watta yoondroo narrie nundrala. 
6th. Watta yoondroo pulakaunchie. 
7th. Watta yoondroo kooriekaunchie. 

8th. Watta yoondroo kuma komanelie, caukooelie ulohulchamuna. 
9th. Watta yoondroo bootoo thoola milkirrana ya, noa thoola watta 

yoondroo milkirrana baukooaumanuntho. 

■ Vocabulabt. 



Aohea — Ask. 

Achana — Asking. 

Achami — To ask. 

Achanaori — Has asked. 

Achanawonthie — Had asked. 

Adada — Grandfather. 

Adamie — Behind. 

Akuna — To flow (as water flowing 
or running). 

Akoonga — To me, of me. 

Alie— Us. 

Alyie — Pew. 

Alkooelie — Nice. 

Alkoomie — Very nice. 

Alkoo — Persons visiting a neigh- 
bouring tribe to barter. 

Alkoopina — Delicious. 

Ami— To. 

Awa — In reality. 

Anana — Inclination. 

Anie — Me. 



Antie — Meat, flesh, animal food. 

Antiea — The meat. 

Antiemura — Of the meat. 

Apanie — The water. 

Apalie — Of the water, 

Apanundroo — Relating to water. 

Apulya — Watery. 

Apinsie — My father. 

Apoo — Comprehend. 

Apoona — Comprehending. 

Apooapoo* — Dumb. 

Apoouna — To bathe, bathing. 

Apachunka — Damp, moist, wet. 

Apooriea — SUence. 

Apooruna — Silenced. 

Arrie — Similar. 

Athanie — Son or daughter (so called 

by mother). 
Athamoora — Son or daughter (bo 

called by father). 
Athata — Younger brother or sister. 



• During nine years' acquaintance with the Dieyerie and neighboming tribes I have en- 
countered only one woman and one man deaf and dumb, and have conversed with them by 
use of native signs. 



MOUNT PREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



89 



VOCAEnLABY- 

Aumami — To ait down. 
Aumuna— Sitting down, residing. 
Aumirithiiia — Remain. 
Auminthieami — To remain. 
Aumintliiemarow — Remain (im- 
peratively). 
Aumulka — Keep. 
Aumulkima — Keeping, 
Aunchana — Caressing. 
Aumpoo — Almost. 
Aumie — Flock (of sheep or birds, 

mob of cattle, &o.). 
AunchiemuUana — Consideration of 

peace offered. 
Backa — Husk or outer shell; also 
used as a terminal imply- 
ing "the same." 
Birrie — Danger. 

Birruna — ^Endangering, dangerous. 
Binina — Exchange places, take tum- 

and-tum about. 
Boarkalie — Conscience. 
Boolkooruna — Home-sickness, desire 
to return to friends and 
relatives. 
Bookaundrinie — Scrub, shrubbery, 

more bushes than trees. 
Booka — Vegetable food. 
Boolyaroo — Soft clay, mud. 
Booyooloo — Near relative. 
Boolyia — Those two, that two. 
Boompoo — Bud, immature. 
Boompoonundra — To strike ineflfec- 
tually, to hit with no 
force. (FromNundra — to 
strike, and Boompoo.) 
Booloopathuruna— Requiring change 

of scene. 
Booloo — White. 
Boonoonoo — Itching. 
Boonka — Grow. 
Boonkuna — Growing. 



-continned. 

Boonkanaori — Has grown. 

Boonkanawonthie — Had grown. 

Boonkanalauni — Will grow. 

Boorka — Wade. 

Boorkunaparana — Wading through 

or crossing water. 
Booroolkooyirrpamuluna — Two per- 
sons crouching down, 
hiding to avert danger. 
Bootchoo — Blind. 
Bootchooelie — Of the blind. 
Bootchoondroo — Relating to the 

blind. 
Bootharoo — Shower of rain. 
Boongala — Shade. 
Boongalie — Of the house or hut. 
Boonga— Wurley, house, hut. 
Bootoo — Property, chattels; also 
used as a terminal 
"with." 
Bootooundroo — Relating to property 

or chattels. 
Baukoona — Digging. 
Baukoo — Nothing. 
Baukooelie^ — Of nothing, with no 

purpose. 
Bukina — Skinning any animal with- 
out aid of instrument. 
Bukinaori — Has skinned. 
Bukinawonthie — Had skinned. 
Bukinalauni — Will skin. 
Bukuna — ^Also. Yoondroobukuna 
( Yoondroo^ You ) — You 



on the 



Bunkanie — Side, 
Bunkie — Pride. 
Bunkiethoorana — Sleeping 

side. 

Bunkiebunkuua — Proud. 
Bunyabunyina — A trotting pace. 
Champuna — Always. 
Chandachanduna — Mimicking for 

the purpose of joking. 



90 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABtTLAEY- 

Chandachandathie — Apt to mimic. 

Chakakuna — Doubting. 

ChakairrpamuUuna — Doubting each 
other. 

Charpoo — White band worn, across 
the forehead. 

Chika — Wrong, awkward. 

Chikala — Quite wrong. 

Chikaundroo — Relating to wrong. 

Chilpie — A knot. 

Chilpieundroo — To tie a knot. 

Chinberrie — Scars raised on the 
body. 

Chindrina— Glossy, smooth surface. 

Chindriechindriethuruna — Very 
glossy, very smooth. 

Chirruna — Breaking of the skin by 
some accident. 

Chirkara — Sharp, keen edge, not 
blunt. 

Chirrinchirrie — Knocking out of 
teeth. 

Choondaroo* — Bed-ridden, para- 
lyzed. 

Choo — An exclamation to draw at- 
tention. 

Chowchow — Awkward. 

Choopadoo — To play: when children 
wish to play they use 
this word. 

Chuboochuboo— A ball (played with 
by children). 

Dalkoo — Clear, transparent. 

Damami — To cut. 

Damina — Cutting. 

Damamarow — Cut (imperatively). 

Damathuruna — Cut together. 

DamamuUmia — Cutting each other. 

Danina — Bidding farewell. 

Daninaori — Has bidden farewell. 



Daninawonthie — Had bidden fare- 
well. 

Daninalaunie — ^WUlbid farewell. 

Danthoo — Soft. 

Dapa — A sore, a wound. 

Darpami— To sweep. 

Darpuna — Sweeping, clearing a 
space. 

Datpumarow — Sweep (impera- 
tively). 

Daralie — Bad season for food. 

Datharoo — Wait. 

Dauchoomuna — With care, handle 
or carry with care. 

Dieami^To strike, to hit. 

Dieuna — Striking. 

Dienaori— Has stricken. 

Dienawonthie — Had stricken. 

Diealauna — Will strike. 

Dieamuna — Gaping. 

Diemarow — Strike (imperatively). 

Diknna — Naming a chUd. 

Dikmarow — Name a child (imperar 
tively). 

Dikami — To name a child. 

Dilka — Thorn, burr, prickle. 

Dilkera — Edge, shore. 

Dilkerawirrtie — Along the edge, ex- 
treme shore. 

Dookurami — To extract, loosen, un- 
fasten. 

Dookuna — Extracting, loosening, 
unfastening. 

Doolkooro — Large hole or gully. 

Dooukami — To rise. 

Doonkuna — Rising. 

Doorootharkuna — Round shoul- 
dered, to bend the body 
forward. 

Doomoodomoora — Round, anything 
round. 



* I have seen alive three perfect skeletons— mere skin and bone up to the neck and 
taoe which were comparatively fleshy. 



MOUNT PREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



91 



Vocabulary 
Doolkamurunai — Gorged, sick. 
Dowa — Interfere, stop a quarrel. 
Dowuna — Interfering, suppressing. 
Doongiema — Cripple, a lame person. 
Doostouna — Echo. 
Dukami — To pierce. 
Dukuna — Piercing. 
Dukamarow — Pierce (imperatively). 
Dukathuruna — Pierce together, we 

are piercing. 
Dulkana — Attracting the sun's rays. 
Dulkinathurina — Attracting heat. 
Dunkina — Meeting. 
Dungina — Breaking cover to start 



Duruna — A scratching noise. 

Durieirrpuna — A scratching noise. 

DuUarie — Ice (seldom seen in 
Dieyerie Land). 

lana — We. 

lananie — Ours. 

ImuUa — The swallow. 

Inaloo — Below, beneath. 

Itcha — Frequently. 

Kaka — Uncle. 

Kakoo — Yellow, yellow ochre. 

Kakarurruna — Belching. 

Karchuna — Turning, revolving. 

Karchamulkuna — Turning over. 

Kaparow — Come (imperatively). 

Kararalie — Excessive heat. 

Kaparachilpie — A wart, horny ex- 
crescence on the flesh. 

Karoo — Grey. 

Karoomura — Greyish, inclining to 
grey. 

Karpami — To sew, mend. 

Karpuna — Sewing. 

Karpamarow — Sew (imperatively). 

Karka — Call. 

Karkami — To call. 

Karkuna — Calling. 



—continued. 

Karkamarow — Call (imperatively). 
Karkathuruna — Calling together 

(we are calling). 
Karkamulluna — Calling each other. 
Kathie — Wearing apparel, 
Kaulkoo — Rushes. 
Kaunchie — Certain, sure ; sudden 

appearance. 
Kaungoo — Perspiration. 
Kautoo — A breakwind. 
Kauloomuruna — Greedy. 
Kikubyeruna — Slipping. 
Killuna — Dancing. 
Kilchuna — Skinning. 
Kilchami— To skin. 
Kilchamarow — Skin (imperatively). 
Kilpa — Cool. 
Kilpalie — Cold. Literal translation 

— Cool us. 
Kilpaoomoo — Very cold. 
Kilpanie — Winter; also, I'm cold. 
Kilkie — ^Water hen. 
Kilthie — Soup, juice. 
Kima — A swelling. 
Kimarrie — Is swelHng. 
Kimuruna — Has swollen. 
Kinka — Laugh. 
Kinkuna — Laughing. 
Kinkaboolkaroo — Smiling. 
Kinna — Climbing. 
Kirrie — Clear-headed, sensible. Also 

used to order the way to 

be "cleared" to allow of 

passing. 
Kirrunuruna — Teeth set on edge by 

hearing grating noise. 
Kookoo — Yes, yes; also, hollow 

vessel. 
Koodakoodarie — Very crooked, 

irregular. 
Kookuna — News, intelligence. 
Kookathuruna — Telling the news. 



92 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABTTIiAEY- 

Kookootharkuna — Unlevel, dowB 

hill. 
Kookootharka — Topsy-turvy. 
Kookoorurrunna — Noise of birds 

rising or alighting. 
Koolkami — To protect. 
Koolkuna — Protecting. 
Koolkamrow — Protect (impera- 
tively). 
Koolkathuruna — Under protection, 

protecting together. 
Koolie — Odour, scent. 
Koolkoorie — Game of hide and seek, 

played by children. 
Koolkamuna — Jumping, springing. 
Koolkamunawirrica — To jump 

down. 
Koolpina — Searching for tracks. 
Koolpie — An operation {vide text). 
KoomanUe — Own friend. 
Koomuna — ^A dance performed by 

women, when they move 

their legs very rapidly. 
Kooooelie — Knowing nothing of it. 
Kooooanie — I know nothing of it. 
Koongarra — Rustling or whirring 

noise caused by birds 

rising. 
Koonthiua — Sprinkling. 
Koondrakondroo — Coughing, a cold. 
Koonyillie — Debris of leaves used 

by swans in building 

nests. 
Koonkuna — Walking lame. 
Koonabootharoo — Whirlwind. 
Koonkie — Native doctor, 
Koondagie — Storm, heavy black 

clouds. 
Koonkana — A grunting noise. 
Koontiekoontie — Crooked. 
Koopoo — Forelegs. 
Koopirrina — Sore from any cause. 
Kopulyeruna — Diarrhcea. 



—continued. 
Koopia — Calling a child, as "Come, 

child." 
Koopawura — Calling children. 
Koopawuria — Calling children 

(authoritatively). 
Koorie — Mussel shell. 
Koorieunda — Opening in wurley to 

allow escape of smoke. 
Kooriekirra — Rainbow. 
Kooriekuruna— Escaped, ran away. 
Koorookooroomulkuna— To hide 

anything, to keep secret. 
Koormooworkoo-— Horizontal, 

across. 
Koorana — ^Laying, placing; also 

bringing forth young. 
Kooranaori — Has laid. 
Kooranawonthie — Had laid. 
Kooralauni — Will lay. 
Koorathuruna — Parrying, shielding. 
Kooriethuruna — Forgotten, loss of 

memory. 
Kooragie — Certainly. 
Koorielie — Stealing. 
Kooriekaunchie — Thief for certain. 
Kootcharabooroo — Deaf. 
Koothina — Out of sight, disappear- 
ance. 
Kootcha — ^Leaf, leaves. 
Kootohie — Devil, evil spirit. 
Kootchieelie — Devil, evil spirit. 
Kaupirrieundroo — Relating to the 

iguana. 
Kowkow — Spunging, to spunge on 

any person. 
Kowakabuna — Calling to account. 
Kubbou — Ejaculation to warn from 

danger. 
Kudlakoo — Middle-aged woman. 
Kulakula — Disgusted. 
Kuldriecharkuna — ^Bending the 

body backwards, 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



93 



VOCABULABY- 

Kuldrie — Brackish, bitter. 

Kulkawura — Afternoon. 

KuUula — Retaliation. 

Kulkana — Waiting. 

Kulkami — To wait. 

Kulawuna — Gathering up. 

Kulkulie — Slightly, slowly, gently. 

Kulie — That's enough, I have said 
it, that's sufficient. 

Kuma — Keep. 

Kumuna — Keeping. 

Kummie — Sister-in-law. 

Kumpuna — Gathering. 

Kumpathuruna — Gathering to- 
gether. 

Kumpamarow — Gather (impera- 
tively). 

Kunninie — Grandchild or grand- 
mother. 

Kundrie — Resin; also, a native 
weapon. 

Knnthundroo — Relating to grass. 

Kunthakoola — Green. 

Kungirruna — Playful, merry. 

Kundrimookoo — A native weapon. 

Kunthakunthuna — Shaking any- 
thing. 
Kurdie — Brother-in-law. 
Kumaundroo — Relating to a native. 

Kurdiemurkara — A supposititious 
large fish at the bottom 
of the lakes and deep 
waters. 

Kurrakurrairrpuna — Peeling pain, 
sense of pain. 

Kurloomura — Two of the same age 
circumcised at same time. 

Kurlina — Obliterating. 

Kurta — Sound. 

Kurtie — Raw. 

Kurumba — Blaze of fire, flame. 

Kurrurrie — Directly. 



-contimied. 

Kurieami — To pursue. 

Kuruna — Pursuing. 

Kurrar— Vermin in animals. 

Kurruna — Feeling. 

Kurrakurrana — Feeling with the 
hands, groping La the 
dark. 

Kura — Probably, in all probability. 

Kurrawelie — Boy before circum- 
cised. 

Kutta — Lice, vermin. 

Kutchakutchana — Paining, con- 
tinued pain. 

Kuttanylpa — Lice, nits. 

Marieauka — Raising or lifting up. 

Mathiena — Of course. 

Malthie— Cool. 

Malthiela — Liclining to be cool. 

Manathoonka — Morning. 

Marpoo — Many. 

Mathar— Bite. 

Mathuna — Biting. 

Mathanaori — Has bitten. 

Mathanwonthie — Had bitten. 

Mathanalauni — Will bite. 

MathamuUuna — BitiDg each other. 

Mi — Commence, begin ; also To, at- 
tached to a verb. 

Miaroo — Rat. 

Midukuna — Driving. 

Mikarie — Deep. 

Milkitchaparawurna — Light- 
headed. 

Milla — Race, current. 

Millima — Racing; 

Milliemuluna — Racing each other. 

Milkie — Not strange. 

Milkiela — Acquainted with, seen 
before. 

Milkirruna — Coveting, desiring. 

Milkiechenmuna — Opening the eyes, 
opened eyes. 



94 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACK; 



Vocabulary- 
Milpera — Company. 
Millierieununanie — Dissolved. 
Milya — ^Any kind of food eaten by a 

native for the first time. 
Milyaroo — Dark, dusk. 
Mina^-What is. 
Minapitta — What is it. 
Minka — Deep hole, cave, burrow. 
Minanie — What else. 
Mindarie — A ceremony. 
Mintie— Net. 
Mindriea — Run. 
Mindrina — Running. 
Mindrielow — Run (by command). 
Mirrie — ^Above, the top. 
Mirrka — Small black ants. 
Mirrpa — lignite. 
Mirrpami — To ignite. 
Mirrpuna — Igniting. 
Mitha — Earth, ground, dirt. 
Mithakillyana — Loamy soil. 
Miyerra — Begin it, commence it. 
Minandroo — For what reason. 
Minarranie — For what reason, why 

not. 
Mithathootina— Cover over with 

dirt. 
Moa — ^Hunger. 
Moalie — Hungry (hunger us). 
Moanie — I am hungry (hunger me). 
Moapina — Very hungry. 
Moodlathirruna — Frowning, looking 

cross. 
Moodlakoopa — A fish weighing 

about 4 lbs. 
Mooduna — Finishing. 
Moodanaori — Has finished, 
Moodawonthie — Had finished. 
Moodalaunie — Will finish. 
Moodlawilpa — Hole in the nose. 
Mongathandraparawwina — Crazy, 



—contimied. 

Moolaroo — Quantity, great many. 

Moolthabuna — Soaking in water. 

Moola — Quiet, tractable, harmless. 

Mooka — Sleep. 

Mookalie — Sleepy (sleep us). 

Mookooparuna — Sleeping. 

Mookoothoorana — Lying asleep. 

Mooncha — Sick. 

Moonohuruna — Sickness. 

Moonohaparana — Lying ill. 

MoonchoeUe — The flies. 

Moonchoondra — Flies. 

Moongara — Spirit, soul (I cannot de- 
scribe this word other- 
wise). 

Moongathandramiduna — Sick head- 
ache. 

Moonkuna — Embracing. 

Moonkanaori — Has embraced. 

Moonkanawonthie — Had embraced. 

Moonkalauni — Will embrace. 

Moonarrie — Precipice, bark. 

Moontha— Self. 

Moonthalie — Myself. 

Moonthabutha — Illiberal. 

Moonthapirra — Very liberal. 

Moongaworroo — The head smeared 
with white clay (certi- 
fying grief for the dead). 

Mongamuna — Striking on the head. 

Moonmananie — Punishment of elder 
brother for younger's 
crimes. 

Moonyirrie— A circle, current in a 
stream. 

Mopa— Collect. 

Mopami — To collect. 

Mopamarow — Collect (impera- 
tively). 

Mopuna — Collecting. 

Mopathurunat— Collecting together 
congregating. 



MOUNT FREBLING TO PIEIGUNDI LAKE. 



96 



"VOCABULABY 

Mooroouna^Scratohing or rubbing 

the body. 
Mooromooroo — Disabled, deformed. 
Mootboo— Certainly, without doubt. 
Mooya— Dry. 
Mooyeruna — Drying. 
Mudlanchie — Not good, unpleasant. 
MuUuna — Alike. 
Multhoomulthoo— A fiah averaging 

3 lbs. 
Mumuna— Begging anything. 
Munkalie — Careful. 
Munkara — ^Young woman. 
Mungarina — Shy. 

Mungarinanie — I am modest, mo- 
dest me. 
Mundracowellie — Jealous. 
Munumuruna — Talkative, gabbling. 
Munacoothuruna — Tired of talking. 
Mundroola — Only two. 
Mundramindina — To draw in the 

belly. 
Munamuroomuroo — A black mark 
round the mouth, dis- 
tinguishing those who 
have eaten human 
flesh. 
Muuatharkuna — Gaping. 
Munyerruna — Parched lips. 
Munyoo — Good, pleasant to the 

taste. 
Mundathuruna — Lazying. 
Mundathurathie — Lazy, want of 

energy. 
Munthaka — Unmarried. 
Muniea — Catch, secure. 
Munina — Caught. 
Munieami — To catch, to secure. 
Muniemarow — Catch, secure (impe- 
rative). 
Munkuna — Scattering, dispersing. 
Mundrunchoo — Pregnant. 



Murdie — Heavy. 

Murdawola — The under stone, used 

in grinding seed. 
Murdcooparoo — The upper stone, do. 
Murdoo — Taste. 
Muracherpuna — Groping with the 

hands in the dark. 
Muroo — Black. 
Murulyie — Red. 
Murookootoo — Black ochre. 
Murkara — A large fish. 
Murchamurchuna — Whimpering. 
Murla — Again, true, not false, best 

(superlative). 
Murlaloo — ^Without doubt. 
Murchina — Noisy. 
Murrawirrie — Two-handed sword. 
Murra — Fresh, new. 
Murrawillpillpuruna — Numbed 

hand. 
Murndiekilla — ^Waves. 
Mumdiekillundroo — Relating to 

the waves. 
Murdapooroo — Hailstones . 
Mutcha — ^Enough, sufficient. 
Mutchoomutohoo — Orphan . 
Nanieya — She. 
Nandrooya — Her. 

Nanieda — She is here (after inquiry). 
Nanka — Just down there. 
Nankuldra — Repeat. 
Narrie — Corpse. 

Narrienie — The dead, my dead ? 
Niuna — Seeing. 
Nile — Seen. 
Niehie — Seen. 
Nianaori — Has seen. 
Nianawonthie — Had seen. 
Nianauni — Will see. 
NiamuUnna — Seeing each other. 
Niamarow — See, look, behold (im- 
perative). 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VoCABtTLAHT- 

Nieamurra — Brothers. 

Nieaundroo — Relating to. 

Nillanilla — Mirage. 

Nina — It. 

Ninia — Tliis. 

Niniya — That, there, 

Nindrie — Body of anything. 

Ninthalie — Ashamed. 

Ninthapina — ^Very much ashamed. 

Ninthabutha — Not ashamed. 

Ninthaooroo — Shameless. 

Ninyillpuna — Turning inside out. 

Noa — ^Wife or husband. 

Noamurra — Wife and husband. 

Noandroo — Relating to wife or hus- 
band. 

Nokooloonokooloo — Continually re- 
peating, reiterating. 

Nooliea — Strangle. 

Noolina — Strangling. 

Noolinaori — Has strangled. 

Noolinawonthie — Had strangled. 

Noolihaunie — Will strangle. 

NooliuamuUana — Strangling each 
other. 

Noongkoongoo — To him. 

Noongkunie — His, belonging to him. 

Noora — Tail. 

Nooroo — ^Quick. 

Nooroocauko — Not quick, slow. 

Nooroopina — Very quick. 

Nooroonooroo — Be quick, hasten. 

Nowieya — There. 

Numpami — To bury or cover. 

Numpuna — Burying or covering. 

Numpathuruna — Burried, covered. 

Numpanaori — Has buried or 
covered. 

Numpamarow — Bury or cover it 
(imperative). 

NumpamuUuna — Covering each 
other. 

Numpunawonthie — Had buried. 



Will strike. 



■ — ccmUmmd. 

Numpalauni— Will bury. 

Nurieami — To order away. 

Nuruna — Ordering away. 

Nunga — Pour. 

Nunguna — Pouring. 

Nungathuruna — Pouring out. 

Nungamarow — Pour out (impera- 
tively). 

Nunginaori — Has poured. 

Nunginawonthie — Had poured. 

Nungalaunie — Will pour. 

Nundra — Strike, hit. 

Nundraori — Has stricken. 

Nundrathie — 

Nundralauni — 

NundramuUuna — Striking each 
other. 

Nunka — Press. 

Nunkami — To press. 

Nunkuna — Pressing. . 

Nunkathuruna — Pressing it. 

NunkamaTow — Press it (impera- 
tively). 

NunkamuUuna — Pressing each 
other. 

Olakuna — ^Watching. 

Oodlaka — Watehguard. 

Oodlakuthuruna — Watching or 
guarding together. 

Ookuna — Mixing, joining. 

Ookunathuruna— Mixing or joiumg 
together. 

Ookiwuruna — Sick, retching. 

Ooldroo — Small mouth, small hole. 

Oolauloha — Bubbles. 

Ooliekirra — New, bright, clean. 

Oolkaitcha — Betraying, a person 
unable to keep a secret. 

Oolkootharkuna — The elder bro- 
ther's assistance asked 
by the younger in 
fighting. 



MOUNT FRBBLING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



97 



y 00 AsvLARr—'eontimied. 



Oolyie — Gum. 

Oomoomurla — Better than good, su- 
perior. 
Oomoomoothoo — The best of all. 
Oona — ^Arms, wings. 
Oonoo — Laid. 
Oonarrie — Eight-handed. 
Oonchamuna — Recognized. 
Oonchami — ^To recognize. 
Oonduna — Thinking. 
Oonthana — Moving the body to and 
fro when singing (a 
customary usage with 
the tribe). 
Oondrami — To think. 
Oondra — Think. 
Oondrathuruna^Thinking to- 
gether, considering. 
OnawElpillpirruna — The arm be- 
numbed. 
Ooroo —Often. 

Oorooooroo — Hard, tough, strong. 
Ooroocathina — Lying at full length, 
Oorthie — Branches. 
Ootamanurie — Hat, covering for the 

head. 
Opera — In front, ahead. 
Oothoooothoothuruna — Stretching 
the arms together over 
the head. 
. Ooyamuna — Remembering. 
Ooyella — To pity, commiserate, 

compassionate. 
Ooyellala — Pitying. 
Para — Hair of the head. 
Parayelchyeloharoo — The hair 

straightened on end 
from the forehead. 
Parakurlie — Large head of hair. 
Paramooroo — Thickly-matted hair. 
Parana — Crossing over. 
Parabara — With force and strength. 
VOL. u. 



Parohana — All. 

Parkooloo — Three. 

Paroo — A small bony flat fish. 

Paraparawumie — ^Foolish. 

Paruna — Stopping at a certain place. 

Parunaori — Has stopped. 

Parunawonthie — Had stopped. 

Parulauni — Will stop. 

Pathuna — Tired. 

Pathapathana — I am tired. 

Pathara — A box-tree. 

Patharacoorle — Young tree, sapling. 

Paulkoo — Flesh. 

Piduna — Pounding, crushing. 

Pilla — Charcoal. 

Pildrapildra — Struck by lightning. 

Pillie— Bag. 

Pilkildra — Something else. 

Pilkiela — Another. 

Pilkie — Not relating to. 

Pilliethillcha — The Aurora Aus- 
tralia. 

Pillpillieunkuna — To flatten any- 
thing. 

Pina — Large, great. 

Pinaenna — Increasing in stature, 
growing. 

Pinpanaori — Has shared. 

Pinpanawonthie — Had shared. 

Pinpalauni — Will share. 

Pinpuna — Sharing. 

Pindrie — Grasshopper. 

Pindrathie — Thin as a grasshopper. 

Pinya — An armed party. 

Pinyanie — My armed party. 

Pinyalie — Our armed party. 

Pinyalloo — Of the armed party. 

Pirramundroo — Shields. 

Pirramoonkoo — -A ricochet. 

Pirrakuna — Groping in any enclosed 
place with the hands 
for anything. 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



yOCABTJLABY- 

Pirrie — Gap, groove. 

Pirraooroo — Paramour (each man 

has from two to six). 
Pirrundroo — The trough. 
Pitta — Stick, piece of wood. 
Pittundroo— Relating to the stick. 
Pittadinthie — A piece of wood that 

has been used or cut. 
Pittacopara — Roots of trees 
Pittabooharichuna — Sandfly. 
Pittie — Fundament. 
Pittiethawa — Harping on one sub- 
ject. 
Pinthie — Nickname. 
Piya — Birds. 
Piyaundro — The birds. 
Piyacooduna — Noise caused by birds 

settling on land or 

water. 
Piyawola — ^^The nest. 
Piyawolundroo — Relating to the 

nest. 
Piyara — Mother-in-law. 
Poolkami — To blow. 
Poolkunar— Blowing. 
Poolkamarow — Blow (imperatively). 
Pooldroopooldroounkuna — Meal 

ground from seeds. 
Pooloouna — Breathing. 
Poolpauma — Mid-day meal when 

hunting or gathering 



Pontoo — Blunt. 

Pontoola — Blunt, an instrument not 
sharp. 

Pothoo — Only. 

Pothookoornoo — Only one. 

Poonthina — Taking different roads. 

Poopuna^Awordofcontempt. (Any 
person lagging behind 
or straggling out of a 
party is told poopuna, 
to keep his place.) 



—continvAci. 

Pooraka — Dry waterhole, claypan 
dried up. 

Poorina — Fallen, to fall. 

Powa — Fine seed. 

Pukuna — Exploding, bursting. 

Pukieathie — Apt to explode or burst 

Pukala — Frost. 

Pulkami— To go. 

Pulkuna — Going. 

Pulkamarow — Go (imperatively). 

Pulaooriea^Imploring, beseeching. 

Puluna — Withering, drying up of 
water, dying out. 

Pulunaori— Has died out. 

Pulunawonthie — Had died out. 

Pulunaunie — Will die out. 

Pulparoo — Surface. 

Pulpa — Others. 

Pulara — Women are so called when 
appointed to perform 
any special mission, 
such as assembling the 
tribes. 

Punga — A small fly, hardly discer- 
nible, but capable of 
inflicting a sting as 
painful as that of the 
wasp. 

Punie — No, none. 

Pundra — Cooked, not raw. 

Punkara — Level. 

Punthama — To smell. 

Punthamuna — Smelling. 

Punchietharkuna — Kneeling. 

Purdakunaori — Has brought. 

Purdakunawonthie — Had brought. 

Purdakalauni — Will bring. 

Purdakunna — Bringing, carrying. 

Purdie — Grub, caterpillar. 

Purda— Hold. 

Purduna— Holding. 

Purdamarow — Hold (imperative). 



MOUNT FREELINa TO PIEIGUNDI LAKE. 



Vocabulary- 
PurdamuUuna — Holding each other. 
Purdami — To hold. 
Purdanaorie — Hag held. 
Purdawonthie — Had held. 

PurdamuUuna — Holding each other. 

Purathura — Smooth, flat, a bowling 
green. 

Purie — Under the surface. 

Pururie — Beneath the surface, under- 
neath. 

Purriewillpa — Sky. 

Purriewillpanie — Heavens. 

Puthina — Early. 

Thalkoo— Straight. 

Thalpacooroo — Hard of hearing. 

Thalpina — Warm, not cold. 

Thandrana — Pouring. 

Thaugemana — With force. 

Thana — They, them. 

Thaniya — Those. 

Thanyoo — Dried fruit. 

Thanyoondra — The dried fruit. 

Thanpooruna — Caving in. 

Tharka — Stand. 

Tharkuna — Standing. 

Tharkami — To stand. 

Tharkiebuna — To stand anything on 
end. 

Tharalkoo — Ducks. 

Thatha — A crack in wood, stone, or 
other matter. 

Thatie— The middle. 

Thaubulyoo — Rotten egg. 

Thaumpara — Pelican. 

Thikamuna — Spinning. 

Thiewie — Flowers. 

Thieaoolraroo — Saw. 

Thidnayoonkurrie — Cramp in the 
toes. 

Thilchaurruna — Impatient. 

Thidnara — Nephew. 

Thilpa — Tease, provoke. 



—continued. 

Thilpuna — Provoking. 

Thilpathurruna — Provoking each 

other. 
Thilluna — To bubble up, effervesce. 
Thinthami — To lose, to spill. 
Thinthana — Losing, spilling. 
Thinthinanaori — Has lost or spilled, 
Thinthanawonthie — Had lost or 

spilt. 
Thinthi— Lost. 
Thinkabboroo — Dawn. 
Thipie — ^Alive. 

Thipieoondra — Regard for life. 
Thippirruna — To give life. 
Thirrie— Fight. 
Thirrina — ^Fighting. 
ThirriemuUana — Fighting with each 

other. 
Thirkama — A song sung at the cir- 
cumcision, and sacredly 
kept secret from the 
women. 
Thitti— Ticklish. 
Thokundruna — -Throwing down. 
Thookami — To carry on the back. 
Thookuna — Carrying on the back. 
Thookanaori — Has carried on the 

back. 
Thookanawonthie — Had carried on 

the back. 
Thookalauni — Will carry on the 

back. 
Thookamarow — Carry on the back 

(imperatively). 
Thookamulluna — Carrying each 

other on the back. 
Thoola — Stranger; also, flint. 
Thooldrina — Playing. 
Thooda — Noon. 

Thoonka — Unpleasant smell, stench. 
Thoonkuruna — Stinking. 
Thoonchirruna — Sneezing. 



GZ 



100 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE ; 



VOCABtTLABT- 

Thoondakunathoorana — Sleeping on 
the back. 

Thoondakuna — Anything lying on 
its back. 

Thoopoo — Steam. 

Thooroodurana — Lighting a fire. 

Thooroomunya — Firestick . 

Thooroothiewillka — Sparks of fire 
emitted from flint or 
stone. 

Thooroothooroo — Very hot. 

Throoringie — Marrow. 

Thoorpuna — Twisting string orrope. 

Thootchoo — Reptiles, insects. 

Thootchooudroo — Relating to rep- 
tiles or insects. 

Thootchaworoo — A lad after circum- 
cision. 

Thoodaroo — ^Fog, mist. 

Thudaka — To vibrate, shove, or 
push. 

Thudakuna — Vibrating, pulsation, 
beating. 

Thula — ^Name. 

Thularabooldrina — The clouds gath- 
ering before breaking. 

Thularakooduna — Raining. 

Thularapolkoo — Clouds. 

Thularakinie — Lightning. 

Thuliekirra — To put the tongue out 
of the mouth to denote 
that the person who 
does so is only jesting. 

Thumpuna — ^Walking softly on tip- 
toe to surprise. 

Thumpathumpuna — Walking steal- 
thily so as not to dis- 
turb prey. 

Thunkurina — Going over. 

Thunka — Juice. 

Thurdie— Thirst. 
Thuroo — Father-in-law. 
Thurakami— To swim. 



•contmued. 

Thurakuna — Swimming. 

Thuraka — Swim. 

Thuruna — Flying. 

Tiana — Bating. 

Tiala^Eat. 

Tianaori — Has eaten. 

Tianawonthie — Had eaten. 

Tialauni — Will eat. 

Tiamarow — Eat (imperatively). 

Titituna — Masticating. 

Tithatitha — Pockmark. 

Ukurrie — Ours. 

Ulka — Spittle, saliva. 

Ulkundroo — Spittle. 

Uldra — ^We, us. 

Uldranie — Of us. 

Ulchutchamuna — To threaten. 

Unakoo — Don't know. 

Unkana — ^Making, doing. 

Undrakoomoo — One of the flock or 
party. 

Unpa — Tassel made from fur of rats, 
and worn to hide the 
privy parts. 

Unpundroo — Tassel. 

Undrawolpuna — Covered, not in 
view. 

Ulla— Well. 

Utta — ^An exclamation. 

Urrapurna — Startled, sudden fright. 

Urramurana — Gay. 

Urrathuriea — Attend, regard what 
I say. 

Urrathurruna — Paying attention. 

Urrina — Listening. 

Urraurraunkana — Breathing hard. 

Urrawordoo — Gasping. 

Urawa — Salt. 

Urraurruna — A caution to be careful 
of the young, to avert 
dangerfrom them while 
out hunting or on ex- 
peditions. 



MOUNT FREBLING TO PIBIGUNDI LAKE. 



101 



VOCABULAIIT- 

Urriena — To descend. 
Urriemutha — Floods. 
Urriemuthundroo — Relative to 

floods. 
Wadarie — ^Where. 
Waka — Small, not much. 
Wakawaka — Very small, mite. 
Waranie — Refusal. 
Warapa — ^Inform. 
Warapami — To inform. 
Warapuna— Informing. 
Warapunaori — ^Has informed. 
Warapunawonthie — Had informed. 
Warapalauni — ^WiU inform. 
Wata— Don't. 
Wattawanie — Island. 
Watharaundroo — Relating to the 
wind. 

Waukriebuna — Breaking. 

Waukanaori — Has broken. 

Whi— What. 

Wiala — Cook. 

Wiami — To cook. 

Wiuna — Cooking. 

Wiunaori — Has cooked. 

Wiunawonthie — Had cooked. 

Wiulauni — Will cook. 

Wianie — ^Nonsense. 

Widlamura — Women. 

Wilapathuruna— Any thing in motion 
at a distance, as, for in- 
stance, branches of trees. 

Wierurna — Leaving the camp for a 
day's hunt. 

WieUkami — To take charge of the 
child when hunting. 

Wieilkcuna — ^Taking charge of the 
children when hunting. 

Wilyaroo — A ceremony. 

Willpuna — Whistling. 

Willpa— Hole. 

Willpawillpa — Full of holes. 



-contirmed. 

Willpalooloo — White hole; also 

stupid. 
Wimuna — Placing under cover, put- 
ting in. 
Wima — Put in. 
Wimma — Song. 
Wimmawonkuna — Singing. 
Wimamarow — Put in (imperatively). 
Windami — To count. 
Wiudimuna — Counting. 
Windrie — Only. 
Winthar-When. 
Winthurie — Whence. 
Winya — ^Wither. 
Winyeminar— Withered. 
Wippa — Gully. 

Wippiyirrie — Gutter, watercourse. 
Wirrelyema — Level ground. 
Wirrileama — Leading a weak person 

gently. 
Wirriea — Under cover. 
Wirrunaori — Has gone under cover. 
Wirrunawonthie — Had gone under 

cover. 
Wirralauni — Will go under cover 
Wirruna — Setting of the sun and 

moon. 
Wirrka — Fissures. 
Wirrkanie — Flats with many fissures, 

flooded. 
Wirrtie — Song. 

Wilchieua — ^Trembling from fear. 
Wittcha^Itch. 
Withie — Wound. 

Wittwittuna — The roaring of thun- 
der. 
Wittawittanathurina — Continued 

roar of thunder without 
intermission. 
Wodarrie — ^Where. 
Wodow — What, how. 
Wodaunchoo — How many, 



102 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : • 



Vocabulary- 
Wodanie — What is it like ? 
Wodaroo — What do you say ? 

Wokburna — Arriving. 

Wokari — ^Arrived. 

Wokumaori — Has arrived. 

Wokumawonthie — Had arrived. 

Wolpuna — To cover. 

Wolpadukuna — Covering over. 

Wolaguna — ^Walking leisurely. 

Wolthami — To carry. 

Wolthamaori — Has carried. 

Wolthamawonthie — Had carried, 

Wolthamalauni — Will carry. 

Wolthuna — Carrying. 

Wooloobukanathoorana — Sleeping 
on the face. 

Wooloo — Terrific pace, very swift. 

Walka — Oflfspring, the young of any 
animal. 

Wolthoo — ^Not firm, shaky, rickety. 

Wolkapurrie — Two perpendicular 
marks in red ochre on the 
stomach to distinguish 
those who have been on 
the red ochre expedition. 

Woliewoliebuna — Person who pre- 
vents a quarrel. 

Woliewoliebundroo — Relating to a 
peacemaker. 

Wompinie — In the shade, sheltered 
from the sun. 

Wonka — Sing. 

Wonkana — Singing. 

Wonkunaori — Has sung. 

Wonkunawonthie — Had sung. 

WonkamuUana — Singing together. 

Wonkulauni — Will sing. 

Wondrami — To show. 

Wondruna — Showing. 

Wondrunaori — Has shown. 

Wondrunawonthie — Had shown. 

Wondralauni — Will show. 



-continued. 

Wondramarow — Show (imperative). 

Wondrala — Show. 

Wondaroo — Shower, indication of 

rain ; also closely-knitted 

bag. 
Wonina — Tracking. 
Woninaori — Has tracked. 
Woninawonthie — Had tracked. 
Woninalauni — WiU track. 
WoninamuUana — Tracking each 

other. 
Wonchami — To try, to taste. 
Wonchuna — Trying, tasting. 
Wonchathuruna — ^Has tried, has 

tasted. 
Wonabunyie — The small bone of 

emu's or kangaroo's leg. 
Wonthawonthaloo — Travelling. 
Wonthawirrieyinkuna — Travelling 

to a certain place. 
Wonthilcurie — Round the other side. 
Woonthatharka — A calling place. 
Wonthina — Search. 
Wonthinaori — Has searched. 
Wonthinawonthie — Had searched. 
Wonthilauni — Will search. 
Wonthithuruna — Searched in vain. 
Wopuna — Gone. 
Wopulkuna — Going. 
Wopunaori — Has gone. 
Wopunawonthie — Had gone. 
Wopulauni — ^Will go. 
Wopala — ^Are going. 
Worietha — ^Long way off, distant. 
Worami — To throw. 
Woruna — Throwing. 
Woranaori— Has thrown. 
Woranawonthie — Had thrown. 
Woramarow — Throw(imperatively). 
Woralauni — ^Will throw. 
Woratharuna — Stumbling. 
Woorookarana — Barking. 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



103 



VOCABULAKY- 

Worooworookuna — Rickety, shaky, 

not firm. 
Workoo — The other way. 
Woorookathieimdroo — Relating to 

emus. 
Worookoornoo — The reverse end. 
Woraworana — To desert. 
Worapami— To tell. 
Worapuna — Telling. 
Worapunaori — ^Was told. 
Worapunawonthie — Had told. 
Worapulauni — Will tell. 
Worapathuruna — TelUng together. 
Wordoo — Short. 

Wordoopirrapirra — Short and thick. 
Wordoowauka — Very short. 
Woraunchoo — Left-handed. 
Woroola — -Well. 
Woroo — Time past. 
Woroomurla — Long time past. 
Woroomoothoo — Very long time 

past. 
Wootchoo — Long and thick. 
Wotthiemookoo — The grave. 
Wotthina — Building. 
Wotthinaori — Has built. 
Wotthinawonthie — Had built. 
Wotthalauni— Will build. 
Wolthila— Built. 
Wowitoha — ^Distant relative. 
Wulpieunkuna — Plaiting. 
Wuldragunya — Summer. 
Wuldragunyaundroo — Relating to 

summer. 
Wulkularie — Sorry. 
Wulkulienuna — Sorrow. 
Wulkina — In pain. 
Wulkinaori — Has suffered pain. 
Wulkinawonthie — Had suffered 

pain. 
Wuldragunyandroo — Relating to 



-c<mtinued. 

Wuldrulie — ^Warm. 

Wulya — Soon. 

Wulyaloo — Hereafter. 

Wuldrawirrtie — ^Yesterday. 

Wuraoong^Whom. 

Wurta — The butt, the trunk, the 
large end. 

Wurthanow — Where is it ? 

Wurthuninkie — Prom where, 
whence. 

Wurdathulka — To where, whither. 

Wurunguna — To be distant, to show 
contempt, disowned, dis- 
carded. 

Wurrpuna — A cantering pace. 

Wurnie — Whose. 

Wurnieundroo — To whom does it 
belong ? 

Wurriewarina — Exhausted, knocked 
up. 

WurUe — Who will, who did. 

Wurungunalawopia — Have dis- 
owned, have discarded. 

Wurana — Who. 

Ya-And. 

Yae — Desist. 

Yakulkami — To question. 

Yakulmarow — To question (impera- 
tively). 

Yakulkuna — Questioning. 

Yakulkunaori — Has questioned. 

Yakulkunawonthie — Had ques- 
tioned. 

Yakulkunauni — ^Will question. 

Yakulka — Question, 

Yadina — Lie. 

Yadinaori — Has lied. 

Yadinawonthie — Had lied. 

Yadinabunna — Will lie. 

Yadinakaunchie — Liar for certain. 

Yaniekaitnha — A bone. 



104 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



VOCABULABY- 

Yaniethuma — To place a Stick 

through the arms across 

the back (native mode of 

lounging). 

Yandrowda — Now, at present, about 

this time. 
Yapa — Fear. 
Yapalie — Fright. 
Yapalieunana — Frightened. 
Yapakaunohie — Extreme fear. 
Yapaooroo — Not afraid. 
Yara — ^Thia side, nearest. 
Yarapara — That's right. 
Yarooka — Like this. 
Yarooldra — The same. 
Yatouna — Satiate. 
YathamuUana — Quarrelling to- 
gether. 
Yathami — To speak. 
Yathunaori — Has spoken. 
Yathunawonthie — Had spoken. 
Yathulauni— Will speak. 
Yathamarow — Speak (imperatively). 
Yathala — Speak. 
Yathi — Have spoken. 
Yathuna — Speaking. 
Yaupunie — ^Afraid. 
Yedlakoo — ^Very far ofif, long dis- 
tance. 
Yellaloo — Together. 
Yelkyelkaroo — Extreme excite- 
ment; hysterics prevail- 
ing chiefly amongst the 
women, and mainly 
caused by jealousy; once 
experienced, its return is 
frequent. 
Yegga — Native orange. 
Yenmuna — I wait your return. 
Yeppiua — Burning. 
Yeppinaori — Has burned. 
Yeppinawonthie — Had burned. 



-continued. 

Yeppulauni — ^Will bum. 
Yera — The other side, farthest away. 
Yerawayerra — ^Away from you, ab- 
sent. 
Yika— Milk. 
Yikanunthoo — To milk. 
Yikuna — Milking. 
Yikunaori — Has milked. 
Yikunawonthie — Had milked. 
Yikalauni — Will milk. 
Yikyillarie — Hysterics after exces- 
sive laughter. 
Yinkuna — Giving. 
Yinkunaori — Has given. 
Yinkunawonthie — Had given. 
Yihkulauni — Will give. 
YinkumuUuna — Giving each other. 
Yinkathurrie — Gave. 
Yinkiea — Give me. 
Yinka — Girdle. 

Yillthurala — Convalescence, recov- 
ery from sickness. 

Yinkaungoo — Of you. 

Yinkaungooondroo — Relating to 
you. 

Yindrami — To cry. 

Yindruna— Crying. 

Yindrunaori — Has cried. 

Yindrunawonthe — Had cried. 

Yindrulauni — Will cry. 

Yindramarow— Cry (imperative). 

Yindrathuruna— Crying together. 

Yinie — You. 

Yinkathuruna— To succumb, to yield. 

Yinetha — ^You did it. 

Yinpa — Send. 

Yinpami — To send. 

Yinpuna— Sending. 

Yinpunaori — Has sent. 

Yinpunawonthie — Had sent. 

Yinpulauni — Will send. 

Yinpamarow— Send (imperative), 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



105 



VOCABULABY- 

YmpamuUuna — Sending each other, 

Yinthina — Dozy, sleepy. 

Yirrinya — Thin, poor. 

Yirrirrabula — To instruct, to com- 
mission. 

Yirrirrbuna — Instructed, commis- 
sioned. 

Yirrchiea — Awake. 

Yirrchuna — Awakening. 

Yirrchienaori — Has awakened. 

Yirrchiebunawonthie — Had awake- 
ned. 

Yirrchiebulauni — Will awaken. 

Yirrchiebuna — To awaken. 

Yookardie — Smoke. 

Yookardieoondroo — Relating to 
smoke. 

Yookabitchie — Spade, any kind of 
scoop. 

Yoolkami — To swallow. 

Yoolkuna — Swallowing. 

Yoolkiinaori — Has swallowed. 

Yoolkunawouthle — Had swallowed. 

Yoolkunauni — Will swallow. 

Yooa — Debating. 

Yoondrathana — Across country. 
Yoola — You two. 
Yoondroo — Yourself. 
Yoondrooina — You did. 



Yoonka — Sulky, sullen, obstinate. 

Yoonkuruna — Obstinacy. 

Yoorkamuna — Roasting. 

Yoora — Few. 

Yoorala — Love. 

Yoorana — Loving. 

Yooranaori — Has loved. 

Yooranawonthie — ^Had loved. 

Yooralauni — Will love. 

Yoorootcha — Horns. 

Yootha — Luck. 

Yoothamurra — Great luck. 

Yoothapina — Very great luck. 

Yoothabutha — ^No luck. 

Yootchoo — Signifies a string put 
round the neck of a per- 
son leaving to barter with 
neighbouring tribes. 

Yootchoondroo — Relating to Yoot 
choo. 

Youdanie — About here. 

Youuieka — About this distance. 

Yowla — Breath. 

Yowara — Language. 

Yowerayinkuna — ^Dictating, literally 
your talk. 

Yowerie — The outer fat attached to 
the skin. 

Yuntha — A piece of wood. 



106 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 55.— VOCABULARY. 



By Mk. Samuel Gason. 



Kangaroo - 


- chookaroo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- pildra. 


2 Blacks - 


- kurna mundroo 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 


- kintalo. 


3 Blacks - 


- kurna parkoola 


Emu - 


- woroocathie. 


One - 


- koornoo. 


Black duck- 


-. chippala. 


Two - 


- mundroo. 


Wood duok- 


- koodnapina. 


Three - 


- parkoola. 


Pelican 


- thaumpara. 


Four - 


- mundroo-mun- 


Laughing jackass (none exist). 




droo. 


Native companion booralkoo. 
White cockatoo - kudrungoo. 


Father 


- apirrie. 


Crow - 


- kowulka. 


Mother 


- andrie. 


Swan - 


- kootie. 


Sister-Elder 


- kakoo. 


Egg - - 


- kuppie. 


,, Younger 


- athata. 


Track of a foot 


- thidna. 


Brother-Elder 


- niehie. 


Fish - 


- paroo, &c. (each 


„ Youijger athata. 




sort particular 


■ 






name). 


A young man 


- thurrie. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- pinaroo. 


Crayfish 


■ kuniekundi. 


An old woman 


- wildapina. 


Mosquito - 


- kooutie. 


A baby 


- koopa. 


Ely - 


- moonchoo. 


A White man 


- witepella. 


Snake - 


- woma, &c. 






The Blacks - 


- kurnawara. 


Children - 


- koopawura. 


A Blackfellow 


- kurna. 


Head - 


mongathandra. 


A Black woman 


- widla. 


Eye - 


- milkie. 


Nose - 


- moodla. 


Ear - 


- cootchara, 



MOUNT FREELING TO PIRIGUNDI LAKE. 



107 



No. 55. — Vocabulary — continued. 

Boomerang - 
HiU - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - 
No - 
I 

You - 
Bark - 
Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 
Food - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 
Blacks? , 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - - 

Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - . - 
Eaglehawk 
Wild turkey 
Wife - , - 



Mouth 


- muna. 


Teeth - 


- munathandra. 


Hair of the heao 


- para. 


Beard - 


- unka. 


Thunder - 


- thularayindrie. 


Grass - 


- kuntha. 


Tongue 


- thulie. 


Stomach 


- mundra koodna- 




bidie. 


Breasts 


- auma. 


Thigh 


- thara. 


Foot - 


- thidna. 


Bone - 


- mookoo. 


Blood - 


- koomarie. 


Skin - 


- dula. 


Fat - 


- murnie. 


Bowels 


- koodnaundrie. 


Excrement - 


- koodna. 


War-spear •■ 


- kulthie. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Wommera - 


- 


Shield 


- pirauma. 


Tomahawk - 


- kundriemookoo. 


Canoe - 


- pirra. 


Sun - 


- ditchie. 


Moon - 


- pirra. 


Star - 


- ditchiethandra. 


Light - 


- buralohie. 


Dark - 


- pulkara. 


Cold - - 


- kilpalie. 


Heat - 


■ wuldrulie. 


Day - 


- kurrurie. 


Night - - 


- pulkara. 


Fire - 


~ thooroo. 


Water 


- apa. 


Smoke 


- ukardie. 


Ground 


- mitha. 


Wind- 


- wathara. 


Rain - 


- tulara. 


God - - 


- mooramoora. 


Ghosts 


- 



- kirra. 

- thooroo. 

- murda. 

- oora. 

- kow, kookoo. 

- ahi. 

- althoo. 

- yinie. 

- pitchie. 

- oomoo. 

- mudlaunchie. 

- aloooelie. 

- booka. 

- mooalie. 

- murdiealie. 

- tiami. 

- mookalie. 

- thapana. 

- dukadukuha. 

- nieuna. 
.- armuna. 

- wuldra-wirrtie. 

- kurrurie. 

- thunkabunna, 
the kurna wadarie ? 

- kooanie. . 

- narpoo. 

- marpoo, moola- 
roo, pina. 

- waka, wauka. 

- narrie, 

- wulya. 

- kapara. 

- yika. 

- curawura. 

- kulathoora. 

- noa.. 



108 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 56.— KOPPEEAMANA. 



By Mb. F. E. Jacobs. 



Kangaroo - 


chookaroo. 


Hand - 


- marra. 


Opossum 


pildra. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


puruiua. 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 


keutella. 


One - 


- kuhiu. 


Fmu - 


worrukatti. 






Black duck - 


maru-maru. 


Two - 


- mondru, poolga. 


Wood duok - 




Three - 


- paruklulu, kulnu 


Pelican 


tampangara. 




mondru. 


Laughing jackass 




Four - 


- mondru- mondru. 


Native companion puralku. 


Father 


- ngabri. 


White cockatoo - 


keirdrangu. 


Mother 


- ngandri. 


Crow - 


kawolka. 


Sister-Elder 


. 


Swan - 


kurti. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - - 


kabbi. 


Brother-Elder 


- neai. 


Track of a foot - 


tidnamalka. 


„ Younger negi (?). 


Eish - 


morri. 










A young man 


- tarri. 


Lobster 


kurnkuderri. 






Crayfish 




An old man 


- pirnarru. 


Mosquito - 


kunti. 


An old woman 


- wilda pima. 


Fly . - 


muncho, girmun. 


A baby 


- kupa-wakku. 


Snake - 


tutjo. 


A White man 


■ 


The Blacks - 


karna. 


Children 


- kupa. 


A Blaokfellow 


karna. 


Head - 


- mangatandra. 


A Black woman - 


widla. 


Eye - 


- milki. 


Nose - 


mudla. 


Ear - 


- talpa, kutjera 



KOPPERAMANA. 



109 



No. 56. — KOPPERAMASA — < 



Mouth 


morna. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- mornatandra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head parra. ] 


Wood 


- pita. 


Beard - 


- namka. 


Stone - 


- marda. 


Thunder - 


- pildri-pildri. 


Camp - 


- ngura. 


Grass - 


- ka,Tita. 


Yes - 


- kow. 


Tongue 


- tarli. 


No - - 


- banni. 


Stomach 


- kmmapirdi. 


I 


- nganna. 


Breasts 


- ngammamurra. 


You - 


- yundru, yidni. 


Thigh - 


- tarra. 


Bark - 


- pitji. 


Foot - 


- tidna. 


Good - 


- mumu. 


Bone - 


- moko. 


Bad - 


- madlanji. 


Blood - 


- gummari. 


Sweet - 


- mardu. 


Skin - 


- darla. 


Food - 


- boka. 


Fat ■ 


- mami. 


Hungry 


- moualli. 


Bowels 


- poualara. 


Thirsty 


- tardielli. 


Excrement - 


- kunna. 


Eat - 


- tai-i-na. 


War-spear - 


- kalti. 


Sleep - 


- mokaturarena. 


Eeed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- tabbema. - 


Wimmera or 


kuckuru. 


Walk - 


- wappema. 


throwing-stick 




See - 


- nai-i-na. 


Shield - 


- pirramarra. 


Sit - 


- nammana. 


Tomahawk - 


- karlara. 


Yesterday - 


- woldra-wirti. 


Canoe 


- 


To-day 


- karrari. 


Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 


- ditji. 

- pirra, kurta. 

- ditji-wokka. 

- pared] i. 

- ngalpura. 

- kilpa. 


To-morrow - 

Where are 
Blacks ? 
I don't know 


- tinkangulu, 

momatunka. 
the kama worda 
yerri? 

- ngaimago. 


Heat - 


- woldrapima. 


Plenty 


- marrapu. 


Day - 


- ditji. 


Big - 


- pirna. 


Night - 


- tinka. 


Little - 


- wokka. 


Fire - 


- turo. 


Dead - 


- narri. 


Water 


- ngappa. 


By-and-by - 


- wolya. 


Smoke 

Ground 
Wind - - 


- yukari, turo- 

tupu. 

- mita. 

- wottara. 


Come on 
Milk - 


- kapperou, 
kappou. 


Rain - 


- tarlara. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 





110 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 57.— STRANGWAY SPRINGS. 



By John Wabrbn, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


koongaroo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 




2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


mudla. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One . - 


- oyoo. 


Emu - 


warrewatte. 


Two - 


- kara-kolon. 


Black duck - 




Three - 




Wood duck - 












Four - 


- kara-kolon-kara- 


Pelican 








Laughing jackass 






kolon. 


Native companion 


Father 


- 


White cockatoo ■ 




Mother 


- 


Crow - 




Sister-Elder 


- 


Swan - 




, , Younger 




Egg - 


bapoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- 


Track of a foot - 


womba. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


paroo. 


A young man 


- eawanga. 


Lobster 












An old man 


- warroo. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 




Mosquito 


teepa. 






Fly - - - 




A baby 


- koba-koba. 


Snake - 


wabma. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 




Children 


- 


A Blackfellow 


nulla. 


Head - 


- kardiappoo. 


A Black woman - 


ikkala. 


Eye - 


- eungiaria. 


Nose - 


mootla. 


Ear - 


- 



strangway springs. 



Ill 



No. 57. — Stkangwat Speings — continued. 



Mouth 


manga. 


Boomerang - 


-■ 


Teeth - 




Hill - 


- ardere. 


Hair of the head 


- yarre. 


Wood - 




Beard - 


- 


Stone - 


- 


Thunder - 


- myanguta. 


Camp - 


- 


Grass - 


- 


Yes - - 


- akie. 


Tongue 


- 


No - 


- atoo, aroo. 


Stomach ■■ 


- 


I - - 


- atoo. 


Breasts 


- 


You - 


- anpai 


Thigh - 


- 


Bark - 


- 


Foot - 


- tedna. 


Good - 


- oorokoo. 


Bone - 


- 


Bad - 


- mudlanti. 


Blood - - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- 


Food - 


- 


Fat - 


- 


Hungry 


- 


Bowels 


- 


Thirsty 




Excrement - 


- koodna. 


Eat - 




War- spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- koodnuUa. 


Reed-spear - 




Drink - 




Throwing-stick 


- 


Walk - 




Shield - 


- 


See 




Tomahawk - 


. 






Canoe - 




Sit - 


- pangalu. 


Sun - 


- mooyoo. 


Yesterday - 




Moon ■ 


- parala. 


To-day 




Star - 


- kardihula. 


To-morrow - 




Light - 


- 


Where are the 




Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- mudle. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 




Plenty 


- naaka. 


Day - 




Big - - 


- burra. 


Night - 


- wanga. 


Little - 




Fire - 




Dead - 


- nurandu. 


Water 


- koota. 






Smoke 




By-and-by - 


■ 


Ground 


_ 


Come on 


- 


Wind - 


- wombara. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- elinga. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 





112 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 57.— SiEAifawAY Spumas, —Additional 
Lake - 
Lightning - 



Asleep - - undurata. 

Arm - - - bambooarie. 

Claypan water - wereka. 

Creek - - - karla. 

Cloud - - upella. 

Dawn - - - wongonbra. 

Pace - - - mana. 

Fruit of pig's face peuda. 

Give (me) water - koota narriqunda 

Good-bye - - era. 

Girl - - - angara. 

Gum-tree - - apea. 

Green - . - - mara. 

Go away - yookanara. 

Horse - - - nanto. 



Midday 

A lunar month; 
lit. : one moon 

Salt - 

Spring water 

Sandhill - 

Stony plain 

Young woman - 

Where ? 

Boy - 

Nonsense - 

Rat - 



Words. 
ekala. 
inendi. 
warridanga. 

[ karalongayoo. 

moolire. 

uarrawa. 

moodloo. 

toodlere. 

adluka. 

wetera, inka? 

kootere. 

padne I 

myara. 



No. 58.— UMBEETANA. 

By N. E. Phillipson, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and facts connected with the 
Umbertana tribe I received from Mr. N. E. PhHlipson, who 
sent them to me at the request of Sir Thomas Elder. 

In the Umbertana tribe the boys are circumcised at from 
thirteen to fifteen years of age, after which they are called 
Bernippa. A few months later they undergo the terrible rite, 
when they are styled Kobba. Later on they are scarred on 
the chest, and have the muscle of the left arm tightly bound 
up with a cord made of human hair, when they are called 
Wilyeroo. We have seen that this custom prevails on the 
De Grey River. 

Women, when given in marriage, are merely sent by their 
father or brother to the camp of the husband elect. 

The food of the tribe consists principally of kangaroo, 
emu, wallaby, grubs of the gum-tree, snakes, and opossums; 



UMBERTANA. 



113 



also of the seeds of the silver-wattle and of bower-grass, 
which are crushed between stones and made into flour. 

Few tribes seem to subject their young men to so many 
barbarities as the Umbertana. 



Unole - 
Aunt ■ 



Cousin 
Elder son 



No. 58. — Umbertana. — Additional Wobds. 

- ummema. Younger sou - warreya. 

- wadnee nammee Elder daughter - arranye. 

(little mother — Younger daughter warreeka. 

see Kortabina Demon - - yubaldoo-baldoo. 

vocabulary). Venus- - - wertaoordlee. 

- bapapa. Club ■ - - mokooko. 

- biddeya. Two-handed club mongoree. 



Andalda. 

Aldaberry. 

Notilda. 



Names oe Men. 



Murrawalda (broken 

hand). 
Eednanda 



Names oe a Family. 



Notilda (the father). 
Wilpunda (the mother). 
Yalduktinda (a son). 



Wonoka * (a daughter). 
Morruya (a son). 



VOL. II. 



* Name of a place. 
H 



114 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 58.— UMBERTANA. 



Kangaroo - 


oordloo. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


bilda. 
wilka. 
kintala. 
warrache, waroo- 

katee. 


2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 


arlpillina eura 
- woolparinnaeura 

oomarta. 
■ arlpillina. 


Black duck - 


barndoo. 


Three - 


woolparinna, 


Wood duck- 




Four - 


oobmomurra. 


Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companior 
White cockatoo 


I 

warrandoo. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


bapee. 

nammee. 

yacka. 


Crow - 


wolko, koro wolko. 


„ younger 




Swan - 


oortee. 


Brother-Elder 


- nonga. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 


kuppee. 

wertaappa. 

paroo. 


„ Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 


yungarree. 

boolka. 

billooota. 


Mosquito - 


oondee, coontee. 


A baby 


■ eedlapa. 


Fly - - 

Snake - 
The Blacks 
A Blaekfellow 


yappoo, muncho. 

wabna. 

eura. 

kurna, eura. 


A White man 
Children 
Head - 


oodnya. 

yackarty. 

babertla,ookerty. 


A Black woman - 


artoo. 


Eye - 


meena. 


Nose - 


moodla. 


Bar - 


uree. 





tJMBERTANA. 


110 




No. 58. — Umbertana — contin'md. 




Mouth- 


yalla. 


Boomerang - 


waldna. 


Teeth - 


eera. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


aackerly. 


Wood - 


nutohoo. 


Beard - 


nemga. 


Stone - 


aydnia. 


Thunder - 


■ emdoo. 


Gamp - 


amgoo. 


Grass - 


- yuta. 


Yes - 


nagoo. 


Tongue 


- yarlee. 


No - 


merdla. 


Stomach 


- werla. 


I - 


- ngyee. 


Breasts 


- namma. 


You - 


- neena. 


Thigh - 
Foot - 


- moorta. 

- edna. 


Bark - 
Good - 


- beetetee. 

- warndoo. 


Bone - 


- werlpo. 


Bad - 


- beednee. 


Blood - 


- aartee. 


Sweet - 


- amgaweeta 


Skin - 


- weeyee. 


Food - 


- maiyee. 


Fat - 


- memee. 


Hungry 


- eenbeminda. 


Bowels 


- memdakka. 


Thirsty 


- yambekoo. 


Excrement - 


- koodna. 


Eat - 


- nalquiatoo. 


War-spear - 


- winda. 


Sleep - 


- meya wandie. 


Eeed-spear - 
Throwing-stiok 
Shield- 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 


- weeanderloo. 

- teeparra. 

- eundoo. 


Drink - 
Walk -" - 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 


- yalpartoo. 

- mokaiye. 

- nakoandaima. 

- eikiyee. 

- dalungya. 


Moon - 


- peearra. 


To-day 


■ yaatta. 


Star - 


- boordlee. 


To-morrow - 


- wiltaardla. 


Light - 


- bichie. 


Where are tht 


weeya idla eura ? 


Dark - 


- weelcha. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- artakoo. 


I don't know 


- ne weeya. 


Heat - 


- werdla. 


Plenty 


- weenerdla. . 


Day - 
Night - 
Fire - 
Water - 
Smoke 
Ground 


- yatta. 

- weelcha. 

- erdla. 
■ owie. 

- oomdo. 

- yerta. 


Big - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 


- mannawerta. 

- biednappa. 

- baadlookoo. 

- arry. 

- abbeeya. 


Wind - 


- waree. 


Milk - 


- 


Eain - 


- owie. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- moordoodnoo. 


Wife - 


. 



H 2 



116 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 59.— TURA OR EURA TRIBE, MOUNT SEELE. 
By Chaules Wills, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


oodloo. 


Opossum 


bilta. 


Tame dog - 


wilka. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


warrachie 


Black duck - 


murrara. 


Wood duck 


bamdo. 


Pelican 




Laughing jackass 




Native companion 


White cockatoo - 


weurando. 


Crow - 


walkala. 


Swan - 




Egg - - - 


pepe. 


Track of a foot - 


yappa. 


Fish - 




Lobster 




Crayfish 




Mosquito 


oonte. 


Fly . 




Snake - 


wobna. 


The Blacks - 


eura. 


A Blackfellow 


eura. 


A Black woman 


artunia. 


Nose - 


moodla. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 


- eura idtpillina. 


3 Blacks - 


- eura oolpracoa. 


One - 


- obmooto. 


Two - 


- idtpillina. 


Three - 


- oolpracoa. 


Four - 


- yandymurra. 


Father 


- pappy- 


Mother 


- namica. 


Sister-Elder 


- yacka. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- woongna. 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- 


An old man- 


- bulkamero. 


An old woman 


- bincuta. 


A baby 


- edlappa. 


A White man 


- oogtna. 


Children 


- yackarty munga 


Head - 


- buppartloo. 


Eye - 


- mina. 


Ear - 


- eure. 



MOUNT SERLE. 



117 



No. 59.- 


-TtTRA OB EUKA TrIBE, MoTJNT SebLE 


- continued. 


Mouth 


- yikya. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- eara. 


HiU - 




Hair of the head - buppartloo- | 


Wood - 


wittie. 




watche. 


Stone - 


- adgna. 


Beard - 


- amka. 






Thunder - 


- ando. 


Camp - 


amgo. 






Yes - 


- nucko. 


Grass - 


- uta. 










No - 


murdla. 


Tongue 


- yerlee. 






Stomach 


- wuurla. 


I 


- ni. 


Breasts 


- numma. 


You - 


- ninna. 


Thigh - 


- moota. 


Bark . 


- Mdthati. 


Foot - 


- edna. 


Good - 


- wamdo. 


Bone - 


- walpo. 


Bad - 


- bedenacka. 


Blood - 


- artee. 


Sweet - 


- angowitha. 


Skin - 


- pea-ee. 


Food - 


- miei. 


Fat - 


- mernee. 


Hungry 


- arnbunda. 


Bowels 


- merndacca. 


Thirsty 


- owiemooroo. 


Excrement - 


- oodna. 


Eat - 


- nalconda. 


War-spear - 


- wurlata. 


Sleep - 


- meer. 


Reed-spear - 


. 






Wommera - 


- woonrara. 


Drink - 


- yappanda. 


Shield 


- peepara. 


Walk - 


- ookanda. 


Tomahawk - 


. 


See - 


- mikanda. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- ekinda. 


Sun - 


- undoo. 


Yesterday - 


- alanga. 


Moon - 


- bera. 


To-day 


- yethaundoo. 


Star - 


- hoodla. 


To-morrow - 


- wiljharadla. 


Light - 


- mopanninga. 


Where are the 


wereadla eura ? 


Dark - 


- wilcha. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- hottanda. 


I don't know 


- utana. 


Heat - 


- walta. 


Plenty 


- naruta. 


Day - 


- undoo. 










Big - 


- narraka. 


Night - 


- wilja. 






Fire - 


- ardla. 


Little - 


- bidenappa. 


Water 


- owie. 


Dead - 


- eudaltha. 


Smoke 


- ardlaeppo. 


By-and-by - 


- aratche. 


Ground 


- yearta. 


Come on 


- abbaunin. 


Wind- 


- waddee. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- owie. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


WUd turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


, 



118 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 60.— BELTANA. 

By Mb. J. W. Kingsmill and Mr. S. Gason. 

I HAVE received vocabularies of tlie languages of two 
tribes wMch dweU in the Beltana country. The first was 
forwarded to me by Mr. J. W. KingsmiU, under the direction 
of Sir Thomas Elder ; the second by Mr. Samuel Gason, who 
writes of the Unyamootha tribe, and it will be noticed that 
the two have many words in common, or but slightly differ- 
ing. Indeed, had it not been that they disagree in their 
equivalents of a Blackfellom and their negative adverbs (two 
words which must never be overlooked when considering the 
relationships of our tribes), it might almost have been 
argued that their differences were those of spelling, supple- 
mented by a few mistakes. Mr. Kingsmill, who tells me 
that the language of which he has sent me a specimen is 
called Kooyiannie, says: — "The extent of country inhabited 
by the Kooyiannie Blacks is about 100 miles long by 50 
wide, Beltana being situated in the south-eastern portion of 
it. The names of the neighbouring tribes are Koonarie on 
the north, a much more numerous tribe than this; the 
Burngala, on the south, now nearly extinct ; the Keidna- 
mutha on the east, a fierce and warlike tribe; and the 
Koocatho on the west, of which very little is known. The 
Kooyiannie, or Beltana Blacks, number now about 50." 

Mr. Kingsmill also gives the following additional words, 
using kn for the common ng, to express the nasal sound: — 



Uncle 


- knamuma, 


Aunt 


- knowoora. 


Cousin - 


- wincha. 


Eldest son 


- berdiana. 


Other sons 


- moonia. 


Eldest daughter 


- moonaka. 


Other daughters 


- kooranya, 



BELTANA. . 119 

The tribe concerning which Mr. Gason writes is called 
Vnyamootha, possibly the Keidnamutha of Mr. KingsmUl. 
The country of this tribe, Mr. Gason says, was first occupied 
by the "Whites in 1857 ; that the tribe, which numbered 
about 150 souls when my informant went to live at Beltana 
in 1865, is now (1883) reduced to 50 persons, consumption 
and drunkenness being the cause of the decrease. For 
clothes, this tribe had rugs of waUaby skins, and for orna- 
ments feathers worn in the hair and necklaces made of the 
stems of grass, cut into short lengths and threaded. Besides 
clubs, and spears which were always thrown by hand, they 
had also the boomerang. To end the moans of relatives 
who were dying, they used when the Whites first arrived 
amongst them to MU them, the fat and choice portions of 
the flesh being cooked and eaten. Polygamy still prevails, 
and marriages both within and without the tribe. Females 
become wives at fourteen. Formerly the first-born child 
used to be destroyed. The neck, chest, and arms are 
scarified in the usual way, and circumcision prevails. This 
tribe call the young men Willyaroo, as amongst the Umber- 
tana tribe. Mr. Gason says that the tribes which bound the 
Unyamootha are the Wipie to the south, the Yaldikowera 
to the north, and the Yarrikuna to the east. Running sores 
are sucked by the Minarie, or doctor, and then bound up 
with hot earth or ashes. 



120 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 60.— VOCABULARY Or THE KOOYIANNIE LANGUAGE. 



By Mk. J. W. KiNGSMILL. 



Kangaroo - 


- yarnda. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 


bilda. 


2 Blacks - 


mundru thura. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


• wilker. 
wilker. 
- worrachie. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 


culpara thura. 
coobmana. 


Black duck - 


- mingalla. 


Two - 


mundru. 


Wood duck 


- yanganaroota- 


Three - 


culpara. 




poone. 


Pour - 


mundru-mundru. 


Pelican - - thampara. 
Laughing jaqkass (none). 
Native companion (none). 
White cockatoo - ivarrauthoo. 


Pather 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


papie. 

comie, knumle. 


Crow - 


- waucurla. 


,, Younger - 


yacka. 


Swan - 


- cootie. 


Brother-Elder - 




Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Fish - 


- peipe. 

- thidna, 

- (none in the dis- 

trict). 


,, Younger 
A young man 
An old man 


oonga. 
miroo. 
yowery. 


Lobster 


. 


An old woman 


pinaroo. 


Crayfish 


- 


A baby 


- thethree-marca- 


Mosquito - 


- coolie-coolie. 




gie. 


Fly . 


- thumpara. 


A White man 


■ coodnoo. 


Snake - 
The Blacks - 


- wobma, win- 

cherta. 

- thura. 


Children 
Head - 


- urdlana. 

- baperdelie, mie 


A Blackfellow 


- thura. 




roo. 


A Black woman 


- kurdrie. 


Eye - 


- mena. 


Nose - 


- mudla. 


Ear - 


' euri. 





BELTANA. 


l.<Ci. 




No. 60.— KooYumas— continued. 




Mouth 


■ thea. 


Boomerang - 


- (none). 


Teeth - 


- era. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head - awatohie. 


Wood - 


- curdla. 


Beard - 


- umga. 


Stone - 


- keidna. 


Thunder - 


- camdoo. 


Camp - 


- camacoo. 


Grass - 


- thuthara. 


Yes - 


- kow. 


Tongue 


- tharlie. 


No - 


- murdlo. 


Stomach 


- curlpa. 


I 


- kni. 


Breasts 


- knana. 










You - 


- neina. 


Thigh 
Foot - 


- canthie. 

- thidna. 


Bark - - 


- coorkie-leinga. 






Good - 


- mimeitha. 


Bone - 


- warlpoo. 






Blood - 


- currimohie. 


Bad - - 


- munga. 


Skin - 


- pie. 


Sweet 


- kurnyanienya. 


Fat - 


- mumee. 


Food - - 


- mie. 


Bowels 


- nampie. 


Hungry 


- kambaninya. 


Excrement 


- coodna. 


Thirsty 


- thareninya. 


War-spear 


- wardlata. 


Eat - 


- wealcooninya. 


Reed-spear 


- kidohie. 


Sleep - 


- miya. 


Wommera 


- 


Drink - - 


- thapunga cowie 


Shield - 


- muala, waroo. 










Walk - 


- oocunga. 


Tomahawk 


- borne, yackoo. 


See - - 


- naccoo-coo. 


Canoe - 


- (none). 










Sit 


- ecacoo. 


Sun - 


- thumdoo. 






Moon - 
Star - 


- pera. 

- purdlie. 


Yesterday - 
To-day 


- waldarlaca. 

- yeth. 






To-morrow - 


- wUcha-wilca. 


Light - 


- peitohie. 






Dark - 


- wiltcha. 


Where are 


the wadna thura? 


Cold - 


- malu. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- knurmarra. 


I don't know 


- murdla. 


Day - 


- peitchie. 


Plenty 


- knurlana. 


Night ■ 


- wiltcha. 


Big - - 


- knurla. 


Fire - 


- curdla. 


Little - 


- wane-wane. 


Water 


- cowie. 


Dead - 


- pardluna. 


Smoke 


- thoopoo. 


By-and-by - 


- carie. 


Ground 


- yarra. 


Come on 


• oowieaj abbia. 


Wind- 


- warrie. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- cowie. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- acheroo (maker). 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- ooochie. 


Wife - 


_ 



122 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 60.— UNYAMOOTHA TRIBE. 



By Mk. S. Gason. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum 


ooloo. 
bilda. 


Tame dog - 


wilka. 


Wild dog - 


wilka. 


Emu - 


warretchie. 


Black duck - 


marara. 


Wood duck 


(none). 


PeUoan 


(none). 


Laughing jackass (none). 
Native'oompanion (none). 
White cockatoo - (none). 


Crow - 


wawkala. 


Swan - 


(none). 


Egg - . 
Track of a foot 


pie-pie. 
idna. 


Eish - 


(none). 


Lobster 


(none). 


Crayfish 
Mosquito 


(none), 
oolilie. 


Fly - 
Snake - 


yapoo. 
- woma. 


The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


- yooroonguna. 

- yoora. 


A Black woman 
Nose - 


- yooratoo. 
■ moodla. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 


- yierlina yoora. 


3 Blacks - 


- oolpurina yoora 


One - 


- oomerta. 


Two - 


- yierUna. 


Three - 


- oolpuriua. 


Four - 


- yandiemurra. 


Father 


- papie. 


Mother 


- amie. 


Sister-Elder 


- anyinie. 


„ Younger 


- papa. 


Brother-Elder 


- oowellie. 


,, Younger noonga. 


A young man 


- yangarie. 


An old man 


- poolka. 


An old woman 


- yowirrie. 


A baby 


- idlapa. 


A White man 


- oonyoo. 


Children - 


- arraurda. 


Head - 


- paparla. 


Eye - 


- minna. 


Ear - 


- yoorie, 





BELTANA. 


i 




No. 60. — Untamootha Tbibe — continued. 


Mouth 


- yiya. 


Boomerang - 


- wanna. 


Teeth - 


" iera. 


Hill - - 


- yooourrie. 


Hair of the head - papalawotohle, | 


Wood - 


- urla. 


Beard - 


- uuka. 


Stone - 


- udringa(?) 


Thunder - 


- oondoo. 


Camp - 


- unkoo. 


Grass - 


- yoothera. 


Yes - - 


- na. 


Tongue 


- yarlie. 


No - 


- ootuna. 


Stomach 


- alpa. 






Breasts 


- ookooroo. 


I 


- iyie. 


Thigh - 


- moota. 


You - 


- nina. 


Foot - 


- yedna. 


Bark - 


- pithadie. 


Bone - 


- walpoo. 


Good - 


- munieurra. 


Blood - - 


- nrtie. 


Bad - 


- nunga. 


Skin - 


- bie. 


Sweet - 


- arngaminda. 


Fat - 
Bowels 


- mumie. 

- mundaca. 


Food - 


- naigie. 


Excrement - 


- oodna. 


Hungry 


- unpaninda. 


War-spear - 


- winda. 


Thirsty 


- yanpiltie. 






Eat - 


- alkooda. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- milwonito. 


Wommera - 


• (none). 


Drink - 


- yapandaloo. 


Shield 


- thippira. 


Walk - ■ 


- ookundowa. 


Tomahawk - 


- adgna. 


See . - 


- uockundaloo. 


Canoe - 


- (none). 


Sit 


- ikuudowa. 


Sun - 
Moon - 


- yoondoo. 

- birra. 


Yesterday - 


- alanya. 






To-day 


- yatha. 


Star - 


- booralie. 










To-morrow - 


- oopinga. 


Light - 


- nilkerie. 






Dark - 
Cold - - 


- wildga. 

- altanda. 


Where are 
Blacks? 


the yoora wona ? 


Heat - 


- wolda. 


I don't know 


- wungayindie 


Day - 


- batchoo. 


Plenty 


- 


Night - - 


- wildga. 


Big - - 


- orlaca. 


Fire - 


- nrla. 


Little - 


- pinapa. 


Water 


- owie. 


Dead - 


- yinda. 


Smoke 


- yoopoo. 


By-and-by - 


■ arrel. 


Ground 


- yerta. 


Come on 


- obieyar, 


Wind- 


- warrie. 


Milk - 


- ama. 


Raiu - 


- owie. 


Eaglehawk - 


- wildoo. 


God - 


- winma. 


WUd turkey 


- wala. 


Ghost 


- winida. 


Wife - - 


- artunoo. 



123 



124 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 61.— WONOKA. 

By W. M. Gkeen, Esq. 
The following vocabulary was forwarded to me by Mr. 
W. M. Green, who informs me that tbe language of whicli 
it is a specimen is that of the Arkaba-tura tribe, whose 
country is about 70 miles north of Port Augusta. These 
people relate that they sprung from a number of individuals 
whose crimes had made them outcasts from their several 
tribes ; that they met at various times at the waters, and 
agreed to cast in their lots together. Other hill tribes in 
this locality are said to have originated in the same way. 
It wiU be noticed, on comparing the first column of the 
vocabularies belonging to the tribes in this portion of the 
continent, that they present few differences, but that several 
are met with if we turn to the translations of young man, 
old man, old woman, baby, &c. Another term which differs 
occasionally in these dialects is woman. 





No. 61.— WONOKA. 




Kangaroo - 


- koodla. 


Hand - 


- mura. 


Opossum - 


- peelda. 


2 Blacks - 


- alpilya tura. 


Tame dog - 
WUd dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 


- wilka. 

• 

- warrachie. 

- ngoorrir. 

- burndoo. 


3 Blacks • 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 


- oolparrie tura. 

- oobmana. 

- alpilya. 

- oolparrie. 

- alpilya- alpilya 


Laughing jackass 


Father 


- papie. 


Native companion 


Mother 


- ngummie. 


White cockatoo 


- woolaki. 


Sister-Elder 


- yacka. 


Crow - 
Swan - 


- worcala. 

- cootee. 


„ Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- yacka. 

- ngemga. 


Egg - 

Track of a foot 
Eish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 


- peepee. 

- erdna mulka. 
kooyea. 


„ Younger ngemga. 
A young man - ngumgarrie. 
An old man - poolka. 
An old woman - ngumbatoha. 


Mosquito - 


- gooleyrr. 


A baby 


- yackardie. 


Fly - 

Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


- wobna. 

- tura. 

- tura. 


A White man 
Children 
Head - 


- akartee. 


A Black woman 


- artoo. 


Eye - 


- mena. 


Nose - - 


- moodlaormudla. 


Ear - 


■■ urie. 





WONOKA. 


la! 




No. 61. — WoNOKA — continued. 




Mouth 


- ye-i-ya. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- eera. 


Hill - - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


- parpardlawichie. 


Wood- 


- widte. 


Beard - 


- ngooraka. 


Stone - 


- kadne. 


Thunder - 


- kamdoo, eum- 


Camp - 


- kemgoo. 




doo. 


Yes - 


- na. 


Grass - 


- mooroo. 










No - 


- mukka. 


Tongue 


- yerlie. 






Stomach 


- pombee. 


I - - 


- ngie. 


Breasts 


- ngaimna. 


You - - 


- 


Thigh 


- auti. 


Bark - 


- bidithi. 


Foot - 


- eedna, 


Good - 


- meringola. 


Bone - 


- walpo. 


Bad - 


- bidnyaoa. 


Blood - 


- kooroo. 


Sweet - 


- mooamurda. 


Skin - 


- peyee. 


Food - 


- mia, myee. 


Fat - 


- mume. 


Hungry 


- emba. 


Bowels 


- ngumbie. 


Thirsty - 


- yarbe. 


Excrement - 


- koodtiai. 






War-spear - 


- weenda. 


Eat - 


- arlgouda. 


Reed-spear - 


- wadne. 


Sleep - 


- meya. 


Wommera - 


- oomera. 


Drink 


- yappurda. 


Shield 


- eparoo. 


Walk - 


- knookurnda. 


Tomahawk - 


- 


See - 


- nacoo. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- yeounda. 


Svm - 


- yemdoo. 


Yesterday - 


- arlimga. 


Moon - 


- peera. 


To-day 


- yata. 


Star - 


- poordla. 


To-morrow - 


- wichumdoo. 


Light - 


- peerka. 


Where are 


the wanunga tura ? 


Dark - 


- weelja. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- manja. 


I don't know 


- yacoodla. 


Heat - 


- warlda. 






Day - 




Plenty 


- ngarda-oortoo. 


Night- - 


- weelja. 


Big - - 


- yoonga. 


Fire - 


- erdla. 


Little - 


- prednappa. 


Water 


- owir. 


Dead - 


- endathe. 


Smoke 


- booyoo. 


By-and-by - 


- wambi. 


Ground 


- yardda. 


Come on 


- yenaka. 


Wind- - 


- warrie. 


Milk - 


. 


Rain - 


- waparra. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


. 



126 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 62.— EASTEEN SHOEE OF LAKE T0EEEN8. 

By W. M. Gbebn, Esq. 

The following vocabulary, which differs but little from the 
last, was sent to me by Mr. W. M. Green, who informs me 
that the Kortabina tribe dwells on the eastern shore of 
Lake Torrens. In it, mother, breasts, and milk are all 
expressed by the single term ngummie. Mr. Green gives 
me the following additional words: — 



Teal - 


- marrar. 


Sandhill 


poomba. 


Diver 


- weoopa. 


Green - 


kadleka. 


Curlew 
Roek-wallaby 
Kangaroo-rat 
Frog - - 


- weeloo. 
■ karndo. 

- oolka, boorachie. 

- ngema. 


White 
Red - 
Black - 


yarldoo. 
yalthnohie. 
peimba or blow 
am. 


Blowfly 
Lame - 
Blind - 

Morning star 


- yappo. 

- teedna-ourrica. 

- mena-mela. 

- wildoo kyleela = 

eagles two. 

- buckala. 


Trousers 
Evil night spirit 
Demon 
Southern Cross 


cundeepetha. 
wangabbie. 
marrownya. 
■ mamburdi. 


Frost - 


Jupiter 


■ boordlaketha. 


Young 


- buppa. 


Uncle - 


ngoomamoo. 


A gentle wind 


- warree buppa = 


Aunt - 


- ngapperla. 




witid young. 


Cousin 


- mangurti. 


A dust storm 


- poota. 


Boy of about 


boldo. 


Lightning - 


■ wirra-wirra. 


three years old 




Crooked 


- wirra-wirra. 


Boy of about six 


yackerty. 


Rainbow 


■ ooranye. 


years old 




Clouds 


- marpenya. 


Female infant 


kirtigny. 


Cloudless - 


- keeree. 


Girl of six years 


ummeta. 



EASTERN SHORE OF LAKE TORRENS. 



127 



Besides individual names and appellations which depend 
on age, parents in this tribe distinguish their children as 
foUows: — 



1st son 
2nd „ 
3rd „ 
4th „ 
5th „ 

Ist daughter 
2nd „ 
3rd „ 
4th „ 
5th „ 



warrea. 

moonea. 

beerea. 

ngarlia. 

melia. 
• moonaroa. 

warngootoo. 

warreka. 
■ kerranye, 

murooka. 



Pine-tree - 
Large sort of pig's 

laoe 
Where (are you) 

going? 
Be gone 
Go that way 
Go back again - 
Isthere(any)water 

in the country ? 



peimba. 
cullimillinoo. 

wantha ngook- 

anya? 
ngookaka. 
ngooka warra. 
berratokaka. 
Kowie yeringa 

wandinga ? 



128 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 62.— EASTERN SHORE OP LAKE TORRENS. 



BtW. M. Geebn, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


koodla. 


Hand - 


- 


Opoasmn 


peedla. 


2 Blacks - 


- kylpela tura. 


Tame dog - 


wilka. 


3 Blacks - 


- coolpara tura. 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- koopmana. 


Emu - 


warrachie. 


Two - 


- kylepela. 


Black duck - 


tanthunnie. 










Three - 


- koolparoo. 


Wood duck- 


moondon-ngarie. 










Four - 


- merndoona-mern- 


Pelican 


weedley. 






Laughing jackass 






doona. 


Native companioi 


L 


Father 


- pappil. 


White cockatoo - 


younganna. 


Mother 


- ngummie. 


Crow - 


woooalla. 


Sister-Elder 


- 


Swan - 


oootee. 


,, Younger 




Egg - - - 




Brother-Elder 


- 


Track of a foot - 




„ Younger 


Fish - - 




A young man 


- meroo. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- poolka. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- yowrie. 


Mosquito ■■ 
Fly - 


gooley-gooley. 
buppa. 


A baby 


- markutck. 


Snake - 




A White man 


- goodenue. 


The Blacks - 


tura. 


Children 


- ngarlanna. 


A Blaokfellow ■ 


tura. 


Head - 


- karkata-pepa. 


A Black woman - 


carroo. 


Eye, - 


- mena. 


Nose - 


mootla. 


Bar - 


- urie. 



EASTERN SHORE OF LAKE TORRENS. 12 


No. 62. 


— EASTEKN SHOliE OF 


Lake Tokbens- 


—continued. 


Mouth 


- thied. 


Boomerang - 


- wadna. 


Teeth - 


- eera. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head parpardla | 


Wood 


- kudli. 




wiichie. 


Stone - 


- kudyna, undya 


Beard - 


- ngemka. 


Camp - 


- kemgoo. 


Thunder - 


- kamdoo. 


Yes - 


- kowoona. 


Grass - 


- 


No - 


- raurdla. 


Tongue 


- yarlie. 


I 


- ngie. 


Stomach - 


- pombey. 


You - 


- neena. 


Breasts 


- ngummie. 


Bark - 


- coolara. 


Thigh 


- kundee, walpo. 


Good - 


- merneta. 


Foot - 


- teedna. 






Bone - 


- warlpoo. 


Bad - 


- 


Blood - 


- certingey. 


Sweet - 


- merneta. 


Skin - 


- pee, peltha. 


Food - 


- mie. 


Fat - 


- murnee. 


Hungry 


- kernba. 


Bowels 


- ngumbie. 


Thirsty 


- therrie. 


Excrement - 


- koodna. 


Eat - 


- arlgoonda. 


War-spear - 


- weenda, 


Sleep - 


- wandeta. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


- thuppanda. 


Throwing-sticli 
Shield 


- meetla. 

- moodlawaroo. 


Walk - 


- ngookunda. 


Tomahawk 


- boomeroo. 


See - 


- mena. 


Canoe 




Sit •• 


- teekunda. 


Sun - 


- tintoo. 


Yesterday - 


- weeljara. 


Moon - 


- peera. 


To-day 


- yerta. 


Star - 


- poordley. 


To-morrow - 


- weeljar weelja 


Light - 


- perka. 


Where are the wantha tura ? 


Dark - 


- weelja. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- beeree. 


I don't know 


- whyu. 


Heat - 


- wardla. 


Plenty 


- ngarlana. 


Day - 


- biohu. 


Big - 


- manawarta. 


Night 


- weelja. 


Little - 


- wundey. 


Fire - 


- erdla. 






Water 


- kowi. 


Dead - 


- pardluuda. 


Smoke 


- booyoo. 


By-and-by 


- corrie. 


Ground 


- yardarra. 


Come on 


- kow-ii-e. 


Wind - 


- warrie. 


Milk - - 


- ngummie. 


Rain - 


- kowi. 


Eaglehawk 


- wildoo. 


God - 


- 


WUd turkey 


- wirdla. 


Ghosts 


- uuga matha(?) 


Wife - 


- 


VOL. II. 




I 





130 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 63.— GAWLER RANGE. 



By Mr. A. D. Sawees. 



Kangaroo - 


kurdloo. 




Hand - 


- murra. 


Opoasum 


pilla or pillpa 


2 Blacks - 


- kilbelly ura 


Tame dog - 


wilka. 




3 Blacks - 


- koolberri ura 


Wild dog - 


coortnini. 








Emu - 


warradi. 




One - 


- goo-o-mana. 


Black duck - 


maurra. 




Two - 


- kilbelly. 


Wood duck - 






Three - 


- koolberri. 


Pelican - 






Pour - 


- nulla. 


Laughing jackass 






Father 


- papi. 


Native companioi] 
White cockatoo 


yomgona. 




Mother 


- ngami. 


Crow - 


wongara. 




Sister-Elder 


- yakka. 


Swan - 


kooti. 




„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - - 


peppi. 




Brother-Elder 


- yunga. 


Track of a foot - 


tidni moonga. 


„ Younger 


Pish - 


kooya. 




A young man 


- ooltapa. 


Lobster 






An old man 


- meatta. 


Crayfish 






An old woman 


- oodlalli. 


Mosquito - 










Fly - 


yoombara, 


kud- 


A baby 


- poolyoo. 




lugi. 
wapma. 




A White man 


- 


Snake 




Children 


- kycherri. 


The Blacks - 


ura. 




Head - 


- kaka. 


A Blackfellow - 


ura. 




Eye - 


- meeua. 


A Black woman - 


balara. 




Ear - 


- euri, uri, or 


Nose - 


moodla. 






yoori. 



GAWLBR RANGE. 



131 



No. 63.— Gawleb Ba'sge— continued. 



Mouth 


-ya. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- ieera. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- koolda. 


Wood - 


- wumdoo. 


Beard - 


- umka. 


Stone - 


- kytmya. 


Thunder - 


- koorunna. 


Camp - 


- kumgoo. 




wongntta. 


Yes - - 


- uh-uh. 


Grass - , - 


- kurra, buree. 


No - - 


- mukka. 


Tongue 


- yarn. 


I - - 


- ngiee. 


Stomach 


- wurma. 


You - 


- nginai. 


Breasts 


- uumma. 










Bark - 


- patta. 


Thigh - 


- weeta. 






Foot - 


- tidni. 


Good - 


- munjeri. 


Bone - 


- wallpoo. 


Bad - 


- nunko. 


Blood - 


- kurrinji. 


Sweet - 


- ithleta. 


Skin - 


- pee. 


Food - 


- mii. 


Fat - 


- murini. 


Hungry 


- kumpa. 


Bowels 


■ bambi. 


Thirsty 


- kow-yanbitti. 


Excrement - 


- kurrta. 


Eat - 


- kurnba. 


War-spear - 


- kaia. 


Sleep - 


- mia. 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera - 


- midla. 


Drink 


- kowyappa. 


Shield 


- yalkoota. 


Walk - 


- cokita. 


Tomahawk 


- kundi. 


See - 


- nakoota. 


Canoe - 


- yoota. 


Sit - - 


- chikatta. 


Sun - 


- uno. 


Yesterday - 


- wilcherra. 


Moon - 


- biara. 


To day 


- 


Star - 


- boordli. 


To-morrow -- 


- muldarroo. 


Light - 


- wuUara. 


Where are 


the witha kootyoo 


Dark - 


- mullti. 


Blacks ? 


ura? 


Cold - 


- pialla. 


I don't know 


- yakootloo. 


Heat - 


- pooliji. 


Plenty 


- minna. 


Day - 

Night- - 


- yattunyarro. 

- muUdi. 


Big - - 


- minundoo. 


Fire - 


- kurdla. 


Little - 


- boolyoo. 


Water 


- kow. 


Dead - - 


- padloo. 


Smoke 


- kurdla-booioo. 


By-and-by - 


- yanyi. 


Ground 


- yukarra. 


Come on 


- burtni. 


Wind - 


- warri. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kooruna. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God . - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- goodnee. 


Wife - 


_ 



132 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 


63.— Gawler Range.— Additional Wobds. 


Red kangaroo 


- koordloo. 


Eyebrow - 


- pikkoo. 


Black kangaroo 


- warroo. 


Forehead - 


- uma. 


Rock-wallaby 


- kunoo. 


Cheek- , - 


- ootoo. 


Pigeon 
Curlew 
Native cat - 
Yellow snake 
Black snake 
Carpet snake 
Seven - 


- murnbi. 

- wiloo. 

- gedna. 

- wiparoo. 

- womgo. 

- waranbini. 

- merna. 


Nail - 
Wrist - 
Elbow - 
Back - 
Knee - 
Shoulder - 


- perri. 

- urndoo. 

- mungoo. 

- yardtia. 

- borra. 

- bilberri. 


Eight - 


- minnawutha. 


Neck - 


- moorni. 


Nine - 


- koortiUyi, 


Summer 


- pokurra. 


Ten - - 


- koorijuno. 


Winter 


- goorilli. 


Southern Cross 


- woUiberri. 


Uncle - 


- ummana 


Nostril 


- moodla upa. 


Aunt - 


- ummari. 


Lip 


- ngimi. 


Cousin 


- winja. 



The names of men and women which are also often the 
names of waterholes in the Gawler Range : — 

Men : Milta, Mooni, Yimbarro, Mamilti. 
Women: Mattoodni, Koonda, UpatilU'. 



No. 64.— MAEAOHOWIE. 

By Harry L. Beddomb, Esq. 

The following vocabulary was drawn up by Harry L. 
Beddome, Esq., who forwarded it to me through the editor 
of the South Australian Register, who had kindly pubUshed 
a letter of mine on the subject of the native languages. Mr. 



MARACHOWIE. 



133 



Beddome informs me that he has given the vowels gener- 
ally the value which they bear in Italian. He adds — " The 
words which I have spelt with lye might be more accurately 
rendered with gli^ if pronounced ci Vltalienne. Where I have 
spelt words with three r's, it is to show how very strongly 
they are rolled ; quite as strongly as in parts of France," 
Mr. Beddome notices that all the tribes in the neighbourhood 
have a word for devil. Many words in this vocabulary are 
found at Gawler Eange and Port Lincoln. 



No. 64.— Mabachowie.— Additionai Woeds. 



My - 


- artu. 


Little boy - 


- marailye. 


Uncle - 


- kanye. 


Finger-nails 


- murra-bede. 


Swim- 


- albutta. 


Wet - 


munla. 


Bite - 


- biteyena. 


Lips - 


- nymnyee. 


Cross - 


- botcha. 


A lie - - 


- orra. 


Very hot 


. bookara. 


To tell a lie 


- orra wonga. 


Very cold 


- byala. 


Knee - 


- poora. 


A boil - 


- bugroo. 


Creek - 


- paree. 


To die - 


- badleto. 


To kick 


- palda-thgun 


Parrots 


- dgeeda. 


Ankle - 


- pardla. 


Tail - 


- dginda. 


Dust - 


- poorba. 


Trousers 


- kantie-balda. 


Meat - 


- paroo. 


Armpit 


- kapura. 


Truth— yes 


- tookoo. . 


WaUaby 


- karndoo. 


Cut - 


- tukut. 


Five - 


- karpo. 


Kiss - 


- tarpanie. 


TokiU 


■ koonda. 


Body - 


- ubo. 


Little girl 


- katailye. 


To run 


- ummutta. 


Lice - 


- kooloo. 


To speak • 


- wonga. 


Country 


- kadma. 


Ant - 


- wEepa. 


Son - 


- kutche. 


Forehead - 


- waa. 


Devil ■ 


- munnunnunna. 


Gum-tree - 


- wirra. 


SweetheartjFemale mudla. 


Jealous — angry 


■ woUa. 


)) 


Male mudye. 


Cloud - 


- wera. 


Dry . 


- moola. 


Cousin 


- wingdya. 


Shade - . 


-•madlee. 


Lie down - 


- wannetie. 


Knuckles 
Hat - 


- mookoo. 


Give (me) - 


- yiingo. 


- moona. 


Whirlwind - 


- yeroo. 



134 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 64.— MARACHOWIE. 



■By H. L. Beddomb, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - - - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelioan 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow 
Swan 

Egg - - 

Track of a foot - 
Fish - - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Ely - - - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow - 
A Black woman - 
Nose - 



coordloo. 

wilga. 
coppa. 
karlye. 



wongala, 
peepee. 



koioloro. 
yumbera. 
juno, wabna. 

nanga, ura. 

moodla. 



Hand - 


- moorra. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


- cooma. 


Two - 


- cootera. 


Three - 


- murra. 


Four - 


- minna (many). 


Father 


- mumma, papee 


Mother 


- nammie, weea. 


Sister-Elder 


- 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- murree. 


„ Younger yunga. 


A young man 


- 


An old man 


- 


An old woman 


- 


A baby 


- 


A White man 


- coopa. 


Children - 


- 


Head - 


- kaka. , 


Eye - - 


- meue. 


Ear - 


- urii. 







MARACHOWIE. 


13 




No. 64. 


— Mabachowie — contimied. 


Mouth 


- 




Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- eera. 




Hill - 


- burnda, kadna. 


Hair of the head - manga. 




Wood - - 


- cudla. 


Beard - 


- anga, 




Stone - 


- kydwa. 


Thunder - 


- 




Camp - 


- 


Grass - 


- boolca. 




Yes - - 


- ngamye. 


Tongue 


- talanye. 




No - 


- mukka. 


Stomach 


- nyeeree. 




I 


- 


Breasts 


- eebe. 




You - 


. 


Thigh - 


- kantie. 




Bark - 


- 


Foot - 


- yedna. 




Good - 


- munyeri. 


Bone - 


- 




Bad - 


- meela, minga. 


Blood - 


- karrinye. 




Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- balda. 




Eood - 


- mar, maii. 


Eat - 
Bowela 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Eeed-spear - 
Throwiag-stick 
Shield- - 


- 




Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat .- 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 


- yangoo. 

- ookutta, wimiin 


Tomahawk - 


- 






iunie. 


Canoe - 


- 




See - 


- 


Sun - 


- dgindoo. 




Sit - 


- eecutta. 


Moon - 


- peera. 




Yesterday - 


- 


Star - - 


- kalka, poordlee. 


To-day 


- panye. 


Light - 


- 




To-morrow - 


- maldooroo. 


Dark - 


- 




Where are 


the 


Cold - - 


- 




Blacks? 




Heat - 


- 




I don't know 


- 


Day - 


- 




Plenty 


- 


Night - 


- muldi. 




Big - - 


- 


Eire - 


- kalla, cardla. 


Little - 


- 


Water 


- kowie, kapie. 


Dead - 


- 


Smoke 


- pooyoo. 




By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


^ 




Come on 


- 


Wind - - 


- 




Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kapie. 




Eaglehawk - 


- wolye. 


God - 


- 




Wild turkey 


- walla. 


Ghosts 


. 




Wife - - 


- 



136 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No, 65.— MOUNT REMAEKABLE. 

By J. C. Valentine, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and account of tlie Doora tribe 
were forwarded to me by J. 0. Valentine, Esq., of Adelaide, 
who received them from a gentleman well acquainted with 
the tribe. Unfortunately, the manuscript is so indistinct as 
to leave several words in the vocabulary doubtful. Mr. 
Valentine's informant begins by pointing out that the lands 
of the Doora were first occupied by the Whites in 1849 
or thereabouts, the area of their country being thirty miles 
by thirty, or 900 square miles, the tribe, it is thought, 
numbering between fifty and one hundred souls. Of these 
there are alive at present (1880) three men and five 
women, the major portion of the deaths being attributed 
to phthisis. 

The weapons and implements of the Doora (whose neigh- 
bours were the Bungeha and Manuley tribes) are those we 
commonly meet with, including the wommera and returning 
boomerang. "When the Whites first knew the tribe several 
of its members were marked with small-pox, which was called 
mingi, of which disease some of them had died' twenty 
years before. One of the ceremonies by which the status of 
young man was reached was circumcision. This tribe 
scarred the chest, arms, and back ; the corroboree was in use ; 
the knocking out of teeth was not practised, and marriage 
took place within the tribe, but not between near relations. 



MOUNT REMARKABLE. 137 

Cousins were not allowed to marry. My informant adds 
that tlie tribe believed in the existence of God, but furnishes 
no particulars ; the word even is not translated. To my 
mind no satisfactory evidence of an original belief in God 
on the part of our Blacks has yet been adduced. 



138 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 65.— MOUNT REMARKABLE. 



By J. C. Vaientine, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- kudla. 


Opossum - 


- bilda. 


Tame dog - 


- gardley. 


Wild dog - 


- quana. 


Emu - 


- karrie. 


Black duck 


- manou. 


Wood duck 


- neirey. 


PeUcau 


- mamunou. 


Laughing jackass picky. 


Native companion 


White cockatoo 


- quodockee. 


Crow - 


- walkuUa. 


Swan - 


- 


Egg - - 


- mooka. 


Track of a foot 


- thinda. 


Fish - 


- queea. 


Lobster 


- wolkoo. 


Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


- nowwiue. 


Ely - - 


- papou. 


Snake - 


- worma. 


The Blacks - 


- doura. 


A Blackfellow 




A Black woma,Ti 




Nose - 


- mudla. 



Hand - 


- mirra. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- kouman. 


Two - 


- boodUna. 


Three - 


mungweei 


Four - 


- 


Father 


- ludlaw. 


Mother 


- mungier. 


Sister-Elder 


- yukka. 


,, Younger 


- bimya. 


Brother-Elder 


- ounga. 


,, Younger Mmya. 


A young man 


- beela. 


An old man 


- botta. 


An old woman 


- namature. 


A baby 


- wolkalko. 


A White man 


- bingera. 


Children - 


- wolkalko. 


Head - 


- kokuUi. 


Eye - 


- mina. 


Ear - 


■ uree. 



MOUNT REMARKABLE. 



139 



No. 65. — Mount Remaekable — continued. 



Mouth 


- targa. 


Teeth - 


- yeera. 


Hair of the head - woolya. 


Beard - 


- mulda. 


Thunder - 


- kandou. 


Grass - 


- toota. 


Tongue 


- yarlee. 


Stomach 


- yookoo. 


Breasts 


- koondoo. 


Thigh- - 


- mattee. 


Foot - 


- tidna. 


Bone - 


- wipoo. 


Blood - 


- garoo. 


Skin - 


- bertpa. . 


Fat - 


- monee. 


Bowels 


- murkinya; 


Excrement - . 


- -kudna. 


War- spear - 


- winda. 


Reed- spear - 


- weeboo-winda 


Throwing- stick 


- wimee. 


Shield- - 


- womera. 


Tomahawk - 


- 


Canoe - 


- youkou. 


Sun - 


- tindoo. 


Moon - 


- biar. 


Star - 


- bundi. 


Light - 


- tindoo. 


Dark - 


- weeldya. 


Cold - - 


- mineya. 


Heat - 


- woldya. 


Day - 


- tindou. 


Night - - 


- weeldya. 


Fire - 


- kadla. 


Water 


- kowie. 


Smoke 


- booyoo. 


Ground 


- yeltar. 


Wind - 


- warrie. 


Rain - - 


- muckra. 


God - ■ - 


- 


Ghosts 


- kunyou. 



Boomerang - 


- worna. 


Hill - 


- turtoo. 


Wood - 


- 


Stone - 


- kanya. 


Camp - 


- wurley. 


Yes - 


- nee. 


No - 


- minbugoo. 


I- - - 


- nie. 


You - 


- neea. 


Bark - - 


- 


Good - 


- docknee. 


Bad - 


- mornetu. 


Sweet - 


- meer. 


Food - 


- mieh. 


Hungry 


- tindaget. 


Thirsty 


- moorlight. 


Bat - 


- meerkutcha 


Sleep - 


- 


Drink - 


- godliger. 


Walk - - 


- mimtchter. 


See - 


- nakutohar. 


Sit - 


- ticka. 


Yesterday - 


- "bokilou. 


To day 


- yatta. 


To-morrow - 


- tokilou. 


Where are 


the 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- nang-y-ama 


Plenty 


- 


Big - - 


- beena. 


Little - 


- meekappa. 


Dead - 


- tindeitcha. 


By-and-by - 


- yangaree. 


Come on 


- gubbi. 


Milk - 


- namee. 


Eaglehawk - 


- wildou. 


Wild turkey 


- walla. 


Wife - . - 


— kattou. 



140 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 66.— PORT PIRIE, FORTY MILES EAST OF. 
By Me. S. Le Bexjn. 



Kangaroo - 

Opossum 

Tame dog - 

Wild dog - 

Emu - - karde. 

Black duck - - nurry. 

Wood duck 

Pelican 

Laughing jackass 

Native companion . 

White cockatoo - 

Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - 

Track of a foot - 

Fish - - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito - 

Fly - - - 

Snake 

The Blacks - 

A Blaokf ellow - 

A Black woman - 

Nose - - - mudler. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- koomunti 


Two - 


- poodlina. 


Three - 


- munguina 


Four - 


- terralina. 


Father 


- 


Mother 


- 


Sister-Elder 


- 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- 


, , Younger 


A young man 


- pernappa. 


An old man 


- bookucka. 


An old woman 


- amaja. 


A baby 


- 


A White man 


- koonyoo. 


Children 


- 


Head 


- kockerti. 


Eye - 


- minnoo. 


Ear - 


- urri. 



PORT PIRIE, rORTY MILES EAST OP. 



141 



No. 66. — Port PmiE — continued. 



Mouth 

Teeth - 

Hair of the head - 

Beard - 

Thunder 

Grass - 

Tongue 

Stomach 

Breasts 

Thigh - - - terko. 

Foot - 

Bone - 

Blood - 

Skin - 

Fat - 

Bowels 

Excrement - - kudna. 

War-spear - 

Reed-spear - 

Throwing-stiok - 

Shield - 

Tomahawk - 

Canoe - 

Sun - 

Moon - - - perrie 

Star - 

Light - 

Dark - 

Cold - 

Heat - 

Day - 

Night - 

Fire - - - kurreler. 

Water - - kowi. 

Smoke 

Ground 

Wind - 

Rain - 

God - 

Ghosts 



Boomerang - 


- 


Hill - 




Wood - 


- 


Stone - 


- 


Gamp - 


- 


Yes - 


- nee. 


No - 


- murlunty. 


I 


- 


You - 


- 


Bark - 




Good - 


- thookoori. 


Bad - 


- wadlucki. 


Sweet - 


- 


Food - 


- maiyi. 


Hungry 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


Bat - 


- arkoonooa. 


Sleep - 


- wundiungy 


Drink - 




Walk - 


- 


See - 


- 


Sit 


- tekunny. 


Yesterday - 


- 


To-day 


- 


To-morrow - 


- 


Where are the 




Blacks? 




I don't know 


- 


Plenty- 


- 


Big - 


- 


Little - 


- 


Dead - 


- 


By-and-by - 


- 


Come on 


- kareung. 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Wife - 


- 



142 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 66. — PoRw PmiB. — Additional Words. 
Name of the tribe — Oanowie. 



North - 


- kowerta. 


Finger-nails 


- perringi. 


South - 


- patputta. 


Elbow 


- thingy. 


East - 


- morritta. 


Knee - 


- mutta. 


West - 


- wongitta. 


Meat - 


- bardbo. 


Sea - 


- bookooroorer. 


Twine - 


- thildeer. 


River - 


- kurry. 


Kangaroo-rat 


- bookurra 


Reeds - 


- wirto. 


Bandicoot - 


- mutty. 


Whiskers - 


- yunga. 







Denomination of Children. 

Male. Female. 



1st born - 


berrier 


kartunga. 


2nd „ - 


warrier 


warretoo. 


3rd „ 


coonooa 


coonertoo. 


4th „ - 


— 


— 


5th „ - 


murria 


munertoo. 


6th „ 


_ 


mnrretoot 


7th „ - 


milla - 


, milletoo. 



In asking for anytMng, Mr. Le Brun informs me that 
the word nee = yes is added to the substantive, as — 



Bardoo-nee 
Maiyi-hee 



give me meat, 
give me food. 



YORKE'S PENINSULA, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 143 



No. 67.— YORKE'S PENINSULA, SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA. 

By the Rbvd. Wilhelm Kuhn and W. Fowler, Esq. 

Of the language of the tribe which inhabits Yorke's 
Peninsula I have received the following specimen (which 
includes some additional words) from the Revd. Wilhelm 
Kiihn. It has many telrms in use at Mount Serle, Beltana, 
and other places. Information concerning this tribe has 
also reached me from Mr. W. Fowler to the following 
effect : — 

Yorke's Peninsula in South Australia (which must not 
be confounded with Cape York Peninsula in the north) was 
first occupied by the Whites in 1847 or thereabouts, but the 
Blacks relate that it had occasionally been visited by sealers 
prior to that date. In 1847, Mr. Fowler believes the tribe 
numbered some 600 persons, but that it was reduced to 
about half that number when he first became acquainted 
with the locality in 1856. In 1880, the date of Mr. 
Fowler's writing to me, the tribe numbered less than 100 
souls. This falling off in number he attributes chiefly to 
debauchery, infanticide, and to venereal diseases which 
were introduced by the Whites. The maximum duration of 
human life in the tribe of Yorke's Peninsula, Mr. Fowler 
estimates, from what he has seen, at 80 years. Cloaks 
made of opossum or kangaroo skins are worn by these 
Blacks. Girls deck themselves with . necklaces made of 
sea shells. Of course the men formerly greased their skins 
when they could obtain fat of any sort. For knives they 
employed shells and afterwards glass ; for they relate that 
they used occasionally to find bottles on the beach many 
years before the Whites came to reside in South Australia. 
Their weapons were rude spears, and wooden swords five 
feet long and slightly curved; the boomerang and 



144 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

wommera were unknown amongst them. Occasionally they 
baked their food in temporary ovens. Polygamy was 
practised, and girls became wives at ten years of age. 
iung diseases and enlargement of the liver are the 
maladies most prevalent in this tribe. A few years ago 
scarlet-fever and measles were introduced, and killed 
many. 

The males of this tribe are admitted to the privileges of 
men, or made young men as the term is, by being circum- 
cised ; such privileges being the right to get a wife, if one 
can be obtained, and the removal of a portion of the 
restrictions on food. When the time for the administration 
of this rite has come, the men seize the uncircumcised 
males of the proper age, and drive the women, after some 
show of resistance, out of the camp. The foreskin is then 
severed, and, it is asserted, swallowed by the youth's father. 
This tribe, it is related, believe in a future state, and that 
the dead go to the west ; to the country whence come the 
cool winds, and in which it is believed there is always 
abundance of fat fish. Kangaroo and emu are speared and 
also taken in nets. The dead are frequently buried in old 
wombat holes. 

Mr. Fowler relates the following as one of the modes 
of fishing in this tribe, witnessed by himself. A good-sized 
fish being roasted, and tied up in a bundle of rushes, is 
fastened round the neck of a strong swimmer, so that it 
hangs down his back. With this he swims out to sea a 
mile or more, and then returns to the sandy beach, the 
roasted fish still hanging behind him. When near the 
shore, the swimmer attaches the fish to a spear stuck in 
the sand, where the water is about three feet deep. In the 
meantime the men have got ready their long nets, and 
the shoal of fish, as soon as it arrives on the scent of this 
drag, is surrounded and taken, Mr. Fowler says that he 
saw an enormous quantity of schnapper secured in this way 
on one occasion. It is a mode of fishing I have not heard 
of before. 



YORKE'S PENINSULA, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



145 



In the AMitional Words, the equivalents for boots and 
blind are evidently composite words, and may be compared 
with foot and eye in the Common Vocabulary. It may 
be noticed that «?2W?2a is foot; dinnabalta, boots; and balta, 
coat. 



Blowfly 
Horsefly 
Stick - 


■ duboora. 

- dumboola. 

- wowac. 


Horse - 
Listen - 
Hat - 


nantoo. 

yooringooroo. 

caccaboonna. 


Meat - 
Awake 


- baroo. 

- wondini. 


Upper lip - 
Under lip - 


tabarlpa. 
adbaroo. 


Another 
Bread ■ 


- gootchoo. 

- miei. 


Lazy - 
Knee - 


idannie. 
mattoo. 


Branch 

Chest (male's) 
Bum - 
Boots - 


- wuddly. 

- buttna. 

- nairie. 

- dinnabalta. 


Female kangaroo 
Moustache - 
Moonlight - 
Mouse - 


worvie. 

- dabara yanca. 
birrayirka. 

- mantoo. 


Bury - 
BuUd - 


- bernitebernite. 

- tantooroo. 


More - 
Mist - 


- gurridoo. 

- maluna. 


Bag - 
Beach - 


- marndicoo. 

- worra. 


Neck - 
North - 


- monooworta. 

- karrana. 


Blind - 

Coat - 


- minnadampa. 

- balta. 


Net - 
Kangaroo net 


- winna. 

- mintie. 


Cry - 
Cloud - 
Dance - 


- moorkanoo. 

- maccoo. 

- currlbunguroo. 


Now - 
Poor - 

Exclamations 


■ gerrie. 

- woUinoo. 

- yakka ! gerta! 



146 



THE AUSTUALIAJSr RACE: 



No. 67— YOEKE'S PENINSULA. 



By the Revd. Wilhblm Kuhn. 



Kangaroo - 


nantoo. 


Hand - 


- mirra. 


Opossum 


bilta. 


2 Blacks - 


- bulUe niporie. 


Tame dog - 
Wilddog - 
Emu - - - 
Black duck - 


kadle. 

garrie. 
bulguna arrie. 


3 Blacks 
One - 
Two - 


- mangoore niporie 

- ariekoo, 

- bum. 


Wood duck 


woodla arrie. 


Three - 


- mangoore. 


Pelican 


dananka, wudlie. 


Four - 


- gerrie buUi. 


Laughing jackass 




Father 


- tchela. 


Native companion diddidilga. 
White cockatoo - agagala. 
Crow - - - gooa. 
Swan - - - guldyoo. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„ Younger 


- tcha. 

- yackana. 

- bunya. 


Egg - - 


mokka. 


Brother-Elder 


- 


Track of a foot - 


bultoo. 


,, Younger yuna. 


Fish - 
Lobster 


guya. 
danibutcha. 


A young man 
An old man 


- dingarra, 

- balkagerlie. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito 
Fly - 
Snake - 


worronguna. 
- goonintie. 
dababoo. 
worukoo. 


An old woman 

A baby 

A White man 


- balka ankie. 

- vocoacoo. 

- bindirie yerlie. 


The Blacks - 


niporie. 


Children 


- guanetti. 


A Blackfellow 


■ nipoo. 


Head - 


- kakka. 


A Black woman ■ 


ankle. 


Eye - 


- mmna. 


Nose - 


mudla. 


Ear - 


- daltie. 



YORKE'S PENINSULA, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 



147 



No. 67.— Yokkb's 'P^mmsTiLA— continued. 



Mouth 


- dabara. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- tea. 


Hill - 


- murdalpa. 


Hair of the heac 


- kakka wilya. 


Wood - 


- woodla. 


Beard - 


- yanka. 


Stone - 


- bemta 


Thunder - 


- garta. 


Camp - 


- wodlee. 


Grass - 


- dutta. 


Yes - 


- nee. 


Tongue 

Stomach 

Breasts 


- dallange. 

- wonkie. 

- ammie. 


No - - 
I- 


- mana. 

- ti. 


Thigh - 
Foot - 


- gantee. 

- didna. 


You •• 
Bark - 


- ninni. 

- garnica. 


Bone - 


- worlpoo. 


Good - 


- gurrana. 


Blood - 


- garroo. 


Bad - 


- wollinoo. 


Skin - 


- barlba. 


Sweet - 


- gurrana, merto. 


Fat - 


- numnfa, memie. 


Food - 


- datyoo. 


Bowels 


- wolcharie. 


Hungry 


- datyoorie. 


Excrement - 


- goodnarie. 


Thirsty 


- kabitoha, bad- 


War-spear - 


- durdla winta. 




waich. 


Reed-spear - 


- giea. 


Eat - 


- argooroo. 


Wommera or 


wiaroo. 


Sleep - 


- wondinie. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- dabbanie. 


Shield 


- muUabakka. 


Walk - 


- bommanie. 


Tomahawk - 


- balgarie. 


See - 


- nayoung. 


Canoe - 


- jnkkoo. 


Sit - 


- dikkanie. 


Sun - 


- tintoo. 


Yesterday - 


- bucciloo. 


Moon - 


- birra. 


To-day • - 


- gerrie. 


Star - 


- burlie. 


Tomorrow - 


- dargerrie. 


Light - 


- gallira. 


Where are 


the niporie wonna ? 


Dark - 


- wiloha. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- mamartoo. 


I don't know 


- woUi wompana. 


Heat - 


- wodoonabbie. 


Plenty 


- durlooroo, mirna 


Day - 


- gura. 


Big - 


- mirna. 


Night - 


- mallaboo. 


Little - 


- dookoody. 


Fire - 


- gurdla. 


Dead - 


- barluna. 


Water 


- kabie. 


By-and-by - 


- ganenarlie. 


Smoke 


- booyoo. 


Come on 


- bernie, bor- 


Ground 


- gerta. 




natcha. 


Wind - 


- worrie. 


Milk •- 


- 


Rain - 


- manya. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



K 2 



148 



THE AUSTRALIAN RAC^ 



No. 68.- ADELAIDE AND ITS NEIGHBOUEHOOD. 

By Messrs. Teichelmann and Schtjbmann, and Mr. W. Wtatt. 

The Adelaide tribe having become extinct somewhere 
about the year 1850, and no original information there- 
fore being now obtainable concerning its manners and 
language, I have taken the vocabulary and the few addi- 
tional words which follow from two works which agree 
very fairly in their translations. The first is entitled 
Outlines of a Grammar and Vocabulary, ^c, spoken by 
the Natives in and for some distance around Adelaide, by 
C. G. Teichelmann and C. W. Schurmann. Adelaide, 
1840. The other. Some Account of the Manners and 
Superstitions of the Adelaide and Encounter Bay Abori- 
ginal Tribes, with a Vocabulary of their Language, ^c, 
by Wm. Wyatt. Adelaide, 1879. 

The Adelaide tribe practised circumcision, and small-pox 
committed fearful ravages amongst them in 1830. They 
used to say that it reached them by way of the Murray, 
having been passed on from tribe to tribe. The Adelaide 
Blacks, like the Bangerang, when they first saw boiled 
rice, called it by their equivalent for maggots. The 
additional words are these :— 



Uncle 


- kouano. 


The sea 


kopoola koue 


Aunt 


- burnowe. 




(salt water). 


Nephew- 


- burrian. 


Salt - 


kopoola. 


Niece 


- wongare. 


Girl - 


munkera. 


Cousin 


- kou-wou. 


Fillet for the heac 


munga. 


North 


- kouanda. 


Distaff 


munga Riiuke. 


East 


- mare, 


Ground 


yerta. 


Black 


- boolyon. 


Country-man 


yerta mayoo 


White 


- burkon. 




(ground man). 


To fight 


- kondan. 


Country-woman 


- yerta ummaiche 



ADELAIDE AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



149 



Where? 


adle. 


A cough 


kolte. 


What - 


anna. 


The inner ' (lit. 


ummaiche 


To drink water by 


arkoonde koue. 


woman) rainbow 


kombo. 


lifting it with 




To fight 


kondan. 


the hands 




An imaginary 


koonyoo. 


To dive 


bokan. 


being 




To swim 


bookane. 


Animals females 


koongonda. 


Frost - 


boorka. 


must not eat 




Wrist ■ - - 


emdo. 


Flesh of animals 


ponoo koongonda 


Questions to a 


kadle adle 


females must 




dead man 


wangan. 


not eat 




The heart - 


kalto. 


Corroboree - 


koore. 


Sweat ■ 


kantarta. 


A young emu 


koore-koore. 


Evening 


karkalo. 


Tobacco 


koppe. 


Forest - 


kerta. 


To vomit 


koppeen. 



Some of the above phrases are very suggestive, as, 
Drinking water by lifting it with the hands; Questions to 
a dead man ; An imaginary being ; and are referred to in 
Vol. I. in the Chapter which treats of the Origin of the 
Eace. 



150 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 68.— FROM TEICHELMANN AND SCHURMANN, AND 
W. WYATT. 



Kangaroo - 


nanto, wauwe. 


Hand - 


mara. 


Opossum 


pilta. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


kadU. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


warru-kadli. 


One 


kuma. 


Emu - 


kari, korre. 






Black duck - 




Two - 


parlaitye. 


Wood duck - 




Three - 


marukutye. 


Pelicaii 


yeltu. 


Four - 


yerrabuUa. 


Laughing jackass 


ngungana. 


Father 


yerUmeya. 


Native companion 




Mother 


ngang-kitta. 


White cockatoo 


kurrake. 






Crow - 


. kua. 


Sister-Elder 


yakkana. 


Swan - 


kudlyo koolyo. 


,, Younger 


panyappi, nga- 


Egg - - 


muka. 




rauna. 


Track of a foot 


- tainga. 


Brother-Elder 


yanga. 


Fish - 


kuya. 


,, Younger panyappi. 


Lobster 


kunggurla. 


A young man 


- ngarUda. 


Crayfish 


ngaltaitye. 


An old man 


- burka, burtonna 


Mosquito - 


kuntipaitya. 


An old woman 


- paityabulli. 


Fly - 




A baby 


- pindiwadU. 


Snake - 


metteeka. 


A White man 


- pindi-meyu. 


The Blacks - 


meyu, mayoo. 


Children 


- wakwakko. 


A Blackfellow 


binna. 






A Black woman - 


ngamuia, ngam- 


Head - 


- makarta. 




maitye. 


Eye - 


- mena. 


Nose - 


- mudla. 


Ear - 


- yure. 



ADELAIDE AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



151 



No. 68. — From Teichblmann aud Schuemann, akd W. Wtatt — 
continued. 



Mouth 


- ta, naraparta, 


Boomerang - 


- 




taiappa. 


Hill - 


- karnu, mokoota, 


Teeth - 


- tia. 


Wood- 


- gadla, wirra. 


Hair of the heac 


- yoka. 


Stone - 
Camp - 


- pure. 

- werle, wodli- 


Beard - 


- malta. 


bulto. 


Thunder - 


- biturro, karndo. 


Yes - 


- ne. 


Grass - 


- ngurko. 


No - . - 


- yakko, madlanna- 


Tongue 
Stomach 


- tadlana. 
-• moonto. 


I 

You - 
Bark - 


- ngai. 

- na, nindo. 

- (dry) bakka, 

bokko. 


Breasts 


- ngammi, umme. 




Thigh - 


- yerko, mitti. 


Good - 


- mane. 


Foot - 


- tedna, tinna. 


Bad - 


- wakkenna. 


Bone - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Blood - 


- karro. 


Food ' 


- mai (vegetable), 


Skin - 


- parpa, yurinda, 




paru (animal). 




maikundo. 


Hungry 


- taityo, taitchoo. 


Fat - 


- womga, kurkur- 


Thirsty 


- 




la, mani. 


Eat - 


- mutandi, mai- 
endi. 


Bowels 


- kudna. 


Sleep - 


- medo, menur- 


Excrement - 


- kudna. 




nendi. 


War-spear - 


- winda. 


Drink - 


- narkone. 


Reed-spear - 


- kaya. 


Walk - 


- murreudi, mai- 


Throwing-stick 


- midla. 




endi. 


Shield - 


- muUabakka. 


See - 


- nakkondi, nang- 
andi. 


Tomahawk - 


- 


Sit - 


Canoe - 


- bokka yoko. 


Yesterday - 


- bukkilyelo. 


Sun - 


- tindo. 


To-day 


- 


Moon - 


- piki, kakirra. 


To-morrow - 


- paningolo, tarka- 


Star - 


- purle, willo. 




ryelo, yellar 
karri, 
the 


Light - - 


- gadlaieri. 


Where are 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- manyapaicenna, 


I don't know 


- 




manya. 


Plenty 


- tauata 


Heat - 


- wortla. 


Big - - 


- tauara, parto. 


Day - 


- 


Little - 


- tukkutya. 


Night - 


- ngulti. 


Dead - 


- medobulti, kadi- 

adli. 

- boora-boora. 


Fire - 
Water 


- gadla, peea. 

- kauwe. 


By-and-by - 






Come on 


- kawai. 


Smoke 


- puiyuoj-pooeyoo. 


Milk - 


- ngammi, ngarru, 


Ground 


- yerta, 




ummingaroo. 


Wind- 


- warre. 


Eaglehawk - 


- weelto. 


Eain - 


- kuntoro. 


Wild turkey 


- wolta. 


God - - 


- 


Wife - 


- yangarra, um- 


Ghosts 


- towilla. 




maiche. 



152 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 69.— EVELYN CREEK. 

By H. Crozieb, Esq., and Arthur Dbwhubst, Esq. 

I AM informed by Mr. H. Crozier and Mr. Arthur Dewhurst, 
surveyor, that the country inhabited by the Pono tribe may 
be roughly described as bounded on the south by Bencannia 
Lake, Telawonga and Kooningberri Ranges; on the east by 
Yancannia; on the north by Dep6t Glen; and on the west 
by Mount Arrowsmith. As several of these features do not 
appear on the map, I am unable to draw the boundary 
lines- of the Pono country with any approach to correctness. 
Evidently, however, Evelyn Creek is the prominent feature 
in the area in question. 

The Pono people having been much reduced in numbers 
of late years, it seems that many individuals from neigh- 
bouring tribes which occupy less desirable country have 
joined them, and so caused a great mixture of dialects. On 
the whole, however, language and the prevalence of circum- 
cision affiliate the Pono Blacks to the Cooper's Creek rather 
than to the Darling tribes. The absence of the Darling 
term Wimbija, and the presence of the Cooper's Creek term 
Kurna, both meaning Blackfellom, are also very strong 
evidence on this point. The practice of chewing pitcher ee. 
exists in this tribe, and cannibalism in the past used occa- 
sionally to be had recourse to. 



EVELYN CREEK. 153 

The country of the Pono forms a portion of the interior 
traversed by Captain Sturt in 1845 and described in such 
dismal colours as destined to be for ever uninhabitable by 
civilized people. It was here that, living in an underground 
room as a protection against the intense heat, his nails 
ceased to grow; the hairs of his head split at the end; lucifer 
matches dropped , from the hand, light of themselves on 
reaching the ground, and so on ; and yet this country has 
been found for several years to make good sheep-runs. 



154 



THE AUSTEALIAN RACE: 



No. 69.— EVELYN CREEK. 



By H. Crozieb, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- chukeroo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- murlu. 


2 Blacks - 


- kuma munderu. 


Tame dog - 


- koonai. 


3 Blacks - 


- kurma baralkeru 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 


- thirita. 

- kurlithe. 

- pundrewunga. 


One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 


- koola. 

- munderu. 

- baralkeru. 

- munderu-mun- 


Laughing jackass 

Native companion mulumpari. 


Father 


deru. 
- kooma. 


White cockatoo 


- kugalurinya. 


Mother 


- ngumma. 


Crow - 


- kowulka. 


Sister-Elder 


- kanuberti. 


Swan - 


- kuteruk 


,, Younger 


- karee. 


Egg - - 


- kupi. 


Brother-Elder 


- kaku 


Track of a foot 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 

Ply . - 


- tina. 

- kooia. 

- muracuru. 

- koonti. 

- ulberu. 


„ Young( 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 


3r neeyi. 

- karuwurle. 

- karu-karu. 

- koorilpu. 

- yalibuthe. 


Snake - 


- thuru. 


A White man 


- birre-birre. 


The Blacks - 


- yarlee. 


Children 


- 


A Blaekfellow 


- kuma. 


Head - 


- kukaminta. 


A Black woman 


- kumbuga. 


Eye - 


- mirlke. 


Nose - 


- minthe. 


Ear ■ - 


- kutcheras 



EVELYN CREEK. 



155 



No. 69. — Evelyn Creek — continued. 



Mouth 


- muma. 


Teeth - 


- murua-thunthera' 


Hair of the head 


- kukawincha. 


Beard - 


- ngunka 


Thunder - 


- thuna. 


Grass - 


- kuntha. 


Tongue 


- thurU. 


Stomach 


- mundera. 


Breasts 


- ngumma. 


Thigh 


- ngura. 


Foot - 


- tina. 


Bone - 


- moko. 


Blood - 


- kurte. 


Skin - 


- ngunya. 


Fat - 


- murne. 


Bowels 


- kumangundere. 


Excrement - 


- koodna. 


War-spear - 


- birra. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Throwingstiak 


- 


Shield - 


- puragu. 


Tomahawk - 


- nali. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- uku. 


Moon - 


- pirtall. 


Star - 


- purle. 


Light - 


- dudthera. 


Dark - 


- tinka. 


Cold ■ 


- muntha. 


Heat 


- nurtekurla. 


Day - 


- dudthera. 


Night - 


- tinka. 


Fire - 


- kurla. 


Water 


- ngapa. 


Smoke 


- moyu. 


Ground 


- nurte. 


Wind - 


- yurke. 


Rain - 


- koolpe. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- 



Boomerang - 


- kira. 


Hill - 


- pumperu. 


Wood - 


- kurla. 


Stone - 


- kumu. 


Camp - 


- nginchera. 


Yes - 


- ngagu. 


No - 


- punni. 


I 


- nginyi. 


You - 


- yine. 


Bark - 


- ngonyia-ngonyia 


Good - 


- minko. 


Bad - 


- winu. 


Sweet - 


- minko. 


Food - 


- munu. 


Hungry 


purangu. 


Thirsty 


■ wirltunga. 


Eat - 


- thulinu. 


Sleep - 


- ngurwanu. 


Drink - 


- thapernii. 


Walk - 


- purlkanu. 


See - 


- thitthanu. 


Sit - 


- pula. . 


Yesterday - 


- kulginyie. 


To-day 


- kerreri. 


To-morrow - 


- koonigoonirri. 


Where are 


the noweraku? 


Blacks 1 




I don't know 


- wertarie. 


Plenty 


- perriri. 


Big - 


- pirna. 


Little - 


- wakarraka. 


Dead - 


- 


By-and-by - 


- muta. 


Come on 


- kuba. 


Milk - 


- thunka. 


Eaglehawk - 


- kurrera. 


Wild turkey 


- kurlathura. 


Wife - 


- nongo. 



156 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 69.— EVELYN CREEK. 



By a. Dewhurst, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


turlda. 


Opossum 


pUta. 


Tame dog - 


kunnuya. 


WUd dog - 




Emu - 


kurlitchi. 


Black duck - 


kultappi. 


Wood duck 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 




Native companior 


puralko 


White cockatoo 


kilumburra 


Crow - 


kaulka. 


Swan - 


kutteroo. 


Egg - - 


kappi. 


Track of a foot 


tina. 


Fish - 


kuya 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


umpurra. 


Mosquito - 


kunti. 


Ply . . 


ilburroo. 


Snake - 


turroo. 


The Blacks - 


yalli. 


A Blaokfellow 




A Black woman 


kumbuka. 


Nose - 


minta. 



Hand ■ 


murra. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


koola. 


Two - 


boola. 


Three - 


- barlgo. 


Pour - 


krundoo. 


Father 


kuTTima. 


Mother 


umma. 


Sister-Elder 


- karaloo. 


„ Younger 


- kalawarri. 


Brother-Elder 


■ karkoo. 


„ Youngei 




A young man 


- kulta. 


An old man 


garroo-garroo 


An old woman 


- walgnnnuga. 


A baby 


- multa-bobbra 


A White man 




Children 


- kurndoo, wal- 




tanna. 


Head - 


- karkunta. 


Eye - 


- milparloo. 


Ear - 


- yuimerta. 



EVELYN CREEK. 



157 



No. 69. — Evelyn Creek — continuel 



Mouth 


- tia. 


Boomerang - 


- wunna. 


Teeth 


- 


Hill - 


- yanda. 


Hair of the head 


- kakowunta. 


Wood - 


- wi. 


Beard - 


- unkurroo. 


Stone - 


- yunda. 


Thunder - 


- kulpi. 


Camp 


- ichurra. 


Grass - 


- muttoo. 










Yes - 


" kow. 


Tongue 


- tarlindi. 


No - 




Stomacli 


- ayamuUa. 










I - - 


- uunjie. 


Breasts 


- numma. 






Thigh - 


- yaltarra. 


You - 


- yimba. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bark - 


- bindarra. 


Bone - 


- mookoo. 


Good - - 


- minko. 


Blood - 


- karti. 


Bad - 


- 


Skin - 


- parlatta. 


Sweet - 


- taukoo. 


Fat - 


- mulni. 


Pood - 


- talata. 


Bowels 


- naimoola. 


Hungry 


- boorakinnia. 


Excrement - 


- goomana. 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- kal-kurroo. 


Bat - 


- talindalto. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- unangi. 


Woimnera - 


- 


Drink - 


- 


Shield 


- gulgarra. 


Walk - 


- bulkarannia. 


Tomahawk - 


- karro. 


See - 


. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- ninaduimia. 


Sun - 


- yookoo. 


Yesterday - 


- bokanni. 


Moon - 


- pitali. 


To-day 


- kaiio. 


Star - 


- purli. 






Light - 


. 


To-morrow • 


- pamyinga. 


Dark - 


- 


Where are 
Blacks ' 


the 


Cold - - 


- muuta. 


JL^iVIV^^m • 




Heat - 


- nitiuUa. 


I don't know 


- narooringo. 


Day - 


- bookaninti. 


Plenty 


- gumdo. 


Night - - 


- neilba. 


Big - - 


- wilto 


Fire - 


- wi. 


Little 


- bumpata. 


Water 


• nappa. 


Dead 


- palino. 


Smoke 


- tooba. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- nulti. 


Come on 


- 


Wind - 


- yarlto. 


Milk - 


- tarpunda. 


Rain - 


- kulpi. 


Eaglehawk - 


- purti. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- kaldura. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



158 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No 69a.— NEAE THE NORTH-WEST CORNER OF 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 
By A. W. Morton, Esq. 
The following vocabulary and information concerning a 
tribe wliicli dweUs between Lake Torrowotto, the southern 
boundary of Queensland, and the country of the Pono 
tribe, were kindly forwarded to me by Mr. A. W. Morton. 
This gentleman gives Mulya-Napa as the name of the 
tribe in question, which differs but little from that which 
distinguishes the people which dwell on Lake Torrowotto. 
The vocabularies of the two tribes, however, differ very con- 
siderably. Napa it will be noticed means maUr, a word 
of which signification enters into the names of many 
Australian tribes. 

Mr. Morton's communication is accompanied by several 
valuable remarks by the Revd. William Webster in con- 
nection with this tribe, which both language and customs 
show does not belong to the Darling section of the Central 
Division. 

Mr. Morton relates that the country of this tribe was 
first stocked in 1864, at which period the Mulya-Napa are 
said to have numbered about 1,000 souls, but that when 
he went to reside there in 1880 their numbers had fallen to 
347 persons, ten of whom were half-castes. These people 
have rugs, some made of opossum skins sewn together and 
others consisting each of a single kangaroo skin. They wear 
by way of ornaments small bunches of feathers in their hair, 
also necklaces of reeds cut into short lengths, strung on a 
vegetable thread. They have also large nets made from 
grass for catching ducks, smooth stones for grinding nardoo 
into flour, stone tomahawks and knives of chipped quartzite. 
■On the march they carry water in bags, just as I have seen 
done in the country immediately to the north of Swan HiU 
in Victoria. For this purpose an opossum is skinned from 
the head downwards, the hide coming off inside out, without 
any further cutting of the skin except at the feet. The holes 



NORTH-WEST CORNER OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 159 

left are then tied up and the bag is ready for use, the far 
being inside. The Mulya-Napa have boomerangs of both 
sorts, the one which returns being called tikka-tikka and 
the war instrument marna. Their spears, which are thrown 
by hand, they tip with quartzite splinters, which are attached 
with beef-wood gum. Their boomerangs and large clubs they 
color with ochre. The Eevd. Mr. Webster remarks that on 
occasions of corroboree the men paint stripes on their skins 
with gypsum, or kopi as they call it. Their principal 
articles of food are kangaroo, opossums, lizards, snakes, 
ducks, crows, kites, and grubs ; also nardoo and portulacca. 
In this tribe there are certain restrictions on food which 
apply to the young males and women. Marks of small-pox 
have not been observed. Cannibalism prevailed to some 
extent at and prior to the period of our occupation, as the 
people themselves acknowledge, the parts said to have been 
eaten being the fat of the cheeks and thighs. That it was 
really limited to these, however, there is no reason to 
believe. 

The persons of this tribe do not object to tell their 
native names, of which Mr. Morton gives the following: — 
Male: Pingali. Females: Pingeriba, Pundarnika, Boolura, 
Bombiak, Moirguga, and Milpariche. Marriage occurs both 
within and without the tribe. Polygamy prevails. Infan- 
ticide accompanied by cannibalism is practised. The 
stomachs and backs of this people are ornamented with 
scars. The young males are admitted to the rights of 
manhood by circumcision, and the majority of them have 
to submit to the infliction of the terrible rite. Some of 
the women have two front teeth removed from the upper 
jaw. The septum of the nose is pierced, and a stick or 
feather occasionally worn in the orifice. The doctor or 
conjuror of the tribe carries about with him a small bag 
which contains bones and other things. The leaves of a 
plant called murradutta (supposed by Mr. Webster to be 
pitcheree) are dried in the sun for chewing, and are said 
to produce the same result as spirits. It is singular that 
accounts of the effects of pitcheree are so uncertain, and 



160 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



even contradictory. My own impression is that intoxication 
does not follow its use. In some of tlie caves which, exist 
in the country of this tribe painted figures of the out- 
stretched human hand are found. At their corroborees the 
performers tie small bunches of leaves round their ankles, 
streak their chests and arms with kopi, and imitate the 
actions of some of the native animals. Mr. Webster remarks 
that in burying the dead they in some cases smear the corpse 
as well as their own persons with kopi. Message-sticks are 
in use. It is related by Mr. Morton that a man being Ul, 
one of his friends placed a ligature round his own arm and 
opened a vein ; that the sick man drank a quantity of the 
blood which flowed from it, and then vomited. 

In the vocabulary of this tribe, hill and stone are both 
expressed by the word yanda. 



No. 69a.— NEAR THE NORTH-WEST CORNER OP NEW 



SOUTH WALES. 



Kangaroo 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - 

Track of a foot - 
Pish - 
Lobster 

Crayfish - , - 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blaokfellow - 
A Black woman' - 
Nose - 



By a. W. 

talda. 

pilta, 

koonoo. 

urlka. 

koleti. 

mungowri. 

kunarli. 

karbonera. 

pooralko. 

kuta. 

kowerulko. 

kuteru. 

karpi. 

tena. 

kooa. 

kutera. 

koonte. 

ulberu. 

turu. 

yarlye. 

yarlye-oorra. 

kumbukka. 

minti. 



MoETON, Esq. 
Hand - 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 

Pour - - - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger • 
Brother-Elder - 

, , Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 



Head - 

Eye - 
Ear - 



koola. 
boola. 

boolera-kulata. 
boolera-boolera. 
koomarde. 
armunde. 
piua karooloo. 
pumpa karaloo. 



koolta. 

karoo. 

pootoo. 

purta. 

too-too. 

(black) pina pur 

ta; (white) too 

too purta. 
kataminta. 
milpa. 
waimerta. 



NORTH-WEST CORNER OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 161 



No. 69a.— Neae the Nokth-west Corner of New South Wales— 





continued. 




Mouth 


taryarre. 


Boomerang - 


- wana. 


Teeth - 


teeyer. 


Hill - 


- yanda. 


Hair of the head 


puntu. 


Wood - 


- tulu. 


Beard - 


ankuroo. 


Stone - 


- yanda. 


Thunder - 


■ urrukunda. 


Camp - 


- narohara. 


Grass - 


mutu. 


Yes - 


- ka. 


Tongue 


tarlunya. 


No - 


- error. 


Stomach 


tookookooloo. 


I 


- onye. 


Breasts 


- ama. 


You - 


- ene. 


Thigh - 


- munka. 


Bark - 


- parlata. 


Foot - 


- tina. 










Good - 


- minko. 


Bone - 


- moko. 






Blood - 


- kurte. 


Bad - 


- wyuoo. 


Skin - 


- parlata. 


Sweet - 


- kulkalaunya. 


Fat - 


- murni. 


Food - 


- purra. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- purra karkinda. 


Excrement - 


- kurna. 


Thirsty 


- ike-marri-urra. 


War-spear - 


- kalkoroo. 


Eat - . - 


- purra-perte. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


■ meteru. 


Wommera or 








throwing-stiok 




Drink - 


- tapa-eta. 


Shield 


- kulgowra. 


Walk - 


- wolkutta. 


Tomahawk - 


- tarro. 


See - 


- tita-eta. 


Canoe - 


• pulturoo. 


Sit - 


- ninneroo. 


Sun - 


- yooko. 


Yesterday - 


- bokuimi. 


Moon - 


- petarli. 


To-day 


- poola-ookoo. 


Star - 


- purli. 


To-morrow - 


- pemye-inga. 


Light - 


- petri. 


Where are 


the wonda yarlye ? 


Dark - 


- owoo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- munta. 


I don't know 


- wondi-ee-pa. 


Heat - 


- yooera. 


Plenty 


- nunka. 


Day - 


- kyoo. 






Night - 


- tinkai. 


Big - 


- pina. 


Fbe - 


- kulba. 


Little - 


- pumpa. 


Water 


- napa. 


Dead - 


- tootoo. 


Smoke 


- topoilla. 


By-and-by - 


- parooloo. 


Ground 


- murnde. 


Come on 


- kaba. 


Wind - - 


- yarto. 


Milk - 


- ama. 


Rain - 


- kulpi. 


Eaglehawk - 


- kurrawerra. 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- kurlatora. 


Ghosts 


- pure. 


Wife - 


- kumbukka. 


VOL. II. 




L 






BOOK THE SEVENTH. 



I 2 



BOOK THE SEVENTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

{The tribes treated of in this book belong by descent to the 
Central Division.') 

Many tribes have traditions concerning their origin. Two 
instances of this have come to my knowledge in connection 
with the branch of our aboriginal race which I have classed 
as the Darling tribes. Both of them are interesting, and 
supported by the evidence of language and manners. The 
first to which I shall refer has been preserved by the tribes 
which dweU on the banks of the Lower Darling, and was 
placed on record by C. G. N. Lockhart, Esq., as he informs 
me, when Commissioner of Crown Lands, in his Annual 
Report to the Government of New South Wales, in 1852 or 
1853. It is to the effect that in the far past a Blackfellow, 
whose name I have not learnt, arrived on the banks of 
the Darling, which was then uninhabited. He had with 
him two wives, named Keelpara and Mookwara. These two 
Eves of the Darling Adam, as Mr. Lockhart calls him, 
bore their lord children, and in due time the sons of Mook- 
wara took as wives the daughters of Keelpara, and their 
children inherited Keelpara as their class-name ; and the 
sons of Keelpara married the daughters of Mookwara, and 
their children bore Mookwara as their class-name. Sub- 
sequently these two classes were divided, the Keelparas into 
Emus and Ducks, and the Mookwaras into Kangaroos and 
Opossums or some other animal; and thenceforth a male of 
the Emu class could not marry indiscriminately any girl 
descended originally from Mookwara, but only such as be- 
longed to the proper sub-class, and so on. And in this 
way, tradition says, these original class-names and their 



166 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

subdivisions have gone on regulating marriage amongst 
the descendants of the Darling Adam for who shall say how- 
many ages up to the present time.* What led the Darling 
Adam to expatriate himself with his two wives can only be 
conjectured, but the manners of the race render it probable 
that he had either committed some crime which the usages of 
his tribe punished with death, or what is more probable, that 
he had stolen one or both of the partners of his flight, who 
could only be kept possession of by the step he actually 
took. 

The second tradition to which I have referred belongs to 
the Narrinyeri tribes, which dwell at and near the mouth of 
the Murray, and is related in a work entitled The Folklore, 
Manners, Customs, and Languages of the South Australia 
Aborigines, edited hy the late Revd. George Taplin. At page 
38, he says that a party, the members of which were the 
progenitors of the Narrinyeri, originally came from the 
Darling, having followed down that river and the Murray to 
the sea. The other matters mentioned in this tradition do 
not concern us at present, but will be referred to further on. 

Of the correctness of these traditions I feel no doubt, for 
I find in the country which I have mapped as belonging to 
the Keelpara and Mookwara descended peoples just such a 
state of things as I should expect to result from such causes. 
As it would take a considerable period for the descendants 
of one man and two women to increase in numbers so as to 
people the country in which the Darling language now pre- 
vails, and as after eventually coming in contact with the 
outside population the position of the two bodies would long, 
if not for ever, remain hostile, I should expect to find — 

1st. That these long-isolated tribes would bear a common 
name, or rather that they would have a common equivalent 

* To this there is an exception on the Upper Darling, where the Darling 
Blacks have come into contact with a border tribe of the Eastern Division. 
This Darling tribe use the Eastern class names Hippi, Kumbo, &c., as 
Mr. Teulon points out, which is one instance out of several of a tribe 
relinquishing a custom, to take up one of a neighbouring tribe. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 167 

for the term Blackfellow, for I have already pointed out in 
, Chapter 2 that it is by means of this and one or two other 
words that associated tribes mark their connection. 

2nd. That these tribes, in lieu of a series of languages 
differing every fifty or one hundred miles, as always happens 
when the spread of the race has taken place in the normal 
way, would speak a language almost unbroken by dialect; 
because, being restricted on their marches by tribes speaking 
languages different from theirs, and therefore hostile, to a 
comparatively small area, a little world of theix own, com- 
munication within it would be well kept up. 

3rd. That this almost common language would differ 
very considerably from those around it, but retain, neverthe- 
less, some words by which the long-isolated tribes might be 
traced to the section of the race from which their ancestors 
had sprung. 

4th. That some of the customs peculiar to that section 
would have been preserved and others lost. And, 

5th. That as war would, for a considerable period, be 
unknown amongst the descendants of Keelpara and Mook- 
warra, some falling off in the construction of weapons would 
take place. 

Now, taking these expected peculiarities, we find — 

1st. That the Darling Blacks proper, that is omitting 
the Narrinyeri branch, and their descendants have a common 
term for Blackfellow peculiar to themselves. 

2nd. That speech varies so little amongst the several 
tribes that some of my correspondents are under the impres- 
sion that there is but one language on the Darling. 

3rd. That the languages of the Darling tribes differ so 
much from all others (though they possess their full share 
of the common Australian characteristics) that I had some 
difficulty in tracing them to their source. On the other 
hand, the absence of terms peculiar to the Eastern and 
Western Divisions, and the following agreements with the 



168 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



languages of tlie Central Division, sliow them to have sprung 
from that section of the Australian race : — 

Table showing the Connection of the Languages of the Darling 
Tribes with those of the Central Division. 



English. 


Darling 
Languages 


Languages of the Central Division North 
and West ot the Darling. 


Mother - 
Water - 


Amukka 
Ngamukka - 
Ngookoo 
Nookoo 


Umma 
Namika - 
Ngukka - 
Nukka - 


Evelyn Creek. 

Mount Serle. 

- Cooper's Creek. 

Wilson River. 


Rain 


Mukkra 


Ngappa - 
Mukkra - 


Kopperamaua. 
Mount Remarkable. 


Kangaroo 


Thurlda 


Thuldra - 
Thaldra - 


Wilson River. 
Cooper's Creek. 


Opossum 

Dog - - - 


Bilta - 
KulHe - 
Kallie 


Pilta 
Kadle - 


- Common. 
Yorke's Peninsula. 


Native companion 


Kooroolko - 
Koolarkoo - 


Pooralko 
Puraiku - 
Booralko - 


■ Warburton River. 

- West of Lake Eyre. 

- Cooper's Creek. 


One 


Neecha 
Nitcha - 


Ninta - 


- Macumba River, 


Mosquito 


Koondee 


Koontee - 
Koontee - 


- Cooper's Creek. 

- Warburton River. 






Koontee - 


- Lake Hope. 


Ear - - - 


Uri, ure 


Euri 


- Common. 


Mouth - 


Yelka - 


Yikga - 


- Mount Serle. 




Yalla - 


Yalla 


- Umbertana. 


Fire - 


Kurla - 
KuUa - 


Kurda 
Kalla - 


- Gawler Range. 

- Marachovie. 


Boomerang - 
Night - 
Shield - 


Wana - 
Tunka - 
Woolambora 


Wanna - 

Tinka 

Woodlawarroo 


- Beltana. 

- Kopperamana. 
Kartabiua. 



4th. As regards the preservation of some customs and the 
loss of others by the Darling tribes, Mr. Gason has recorded 
that the Dieyeri to the north dig pits in connection with their 
rain-making ceremonies, and Mr. Lockhart, in a letter to me, 
mentions the same practice amongst the Darling Blacks; 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



169 



and, on the other hand, circumcision and the terrible rite, 
which prevail to the north, and of which I shall speak pre- 
sently, are not found on the Darling. Again, in connection 
with weapons, we discover that few of the Darling tribes use 
the wommera to this day, those which do, having no doubt 
taken the practice from neighbouring tribes differently de- 
scended from themselves. 

We next come to tradition of the Narrinyeri, that their 
ancestors descended the Darling and located themselves at and 
near the mouth of the Murray. The first fact I shall adduce 
in support of this tradition is, that the horrible mutilations 
of the person common in the tribes near the Narrinyeri — that 
is in the country around Adelaide, on the Gulf of St. Vincent, 
Spencer's Gulf, &c. — are not practised by them, and that in 
this they agree with the Darling tribes, as well as with the 
whole of those which I have traced to Keelpara and Mook- 
wara. Turning to language, we find that the Narrinyeri 
have a few words found on the Darling, and even as far north 
as Cooper's Creek, which do not exist amongst the tribes 
which inhabit the country next to theirs but practise the 
mutilations just referred to.* They are as follow : — 



English. 


Narrinyeri. 


Darling. 


Places North of the DarUng. 


Water 


Nguke- 


Ngookoo - 


Ngukka - Cooper's Creek. 
Nukka - Wilson River. 


Kangaroo - 


Tulatyi 


Tulta - 


Thuldra - Wilson River. 
Thaldara - Cooper's Creek. 


Stone - 


Marti - 


. 


Murda - Cooper's Creek. 


Mosquito - 


MoorooUee - 


Muninnerie - 


NoonaruUy Wilson River. 


Stomach - 


Mankoori - 


Monda 


Mandree - Warburton River. 



Hence we see that the tradition of the Narrinyeri is sup- 
ported by the absence of certain mutilations and the presence 
of certain words prevalent on the Darling and to the north 

* It is noticeable that Komi, or some other related "word, is the 
equivalent of BlachfdUm in the Cooper's Creek, Adelaide, and Narrinyeri 
tribes. It seems probable that the Darling Blacks used the same word 
originally and relinquished it after the departure of the Narrinyeri. 



170 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

of the country occupied by the Darling tribes, but non- 
existent amongst the tribes adjacent to the Narrinyeri on 
the north side of the embouchure of the Murray. These facts, 
it seems to me, can only be explained by the acceptance .of 
the tradition that the Narrinyeri are descended from the 
Darling tribes. 

Touching the Narrinyeri there are two circumstances 
which lead me to think that at the period at which their 
ancestors left the Darling and descended the Murray was but 
a few generations after the arrival of Keelpara, Mookwara, and 
their husband on that river. The first is, that had the exodus 
occurred at a later period, we should probably find in the 
Narrinyeri vocabulary a word or two which had come into 
.existence on the Darling, and which of course would be 
unknown on Cooper's Creek ; this, however, as far as I can 
judge, is not the case. The second is that language shows 
that the descendants of the Narrinyeri, gradually as they 
increased, ascended the Murray, and kept on occupying the 
land on its banks, until at length they met the Darling tribes 
at or near Menindie. Of this the languages leave no doubt. 
But had population on the Darling been numerous at the 
time of the Narrinyeri exodus, the point of meeting would 
have been lower down that river or on the Murray. 

Another thing which we learn from the comparison of 
languages is the territory which the decendants of Keel- 
para and Mookwara eventually came to occupy. This will 
be seen by reference to the map in Vol. IV., and may be 
roughly described as extending from Lacepede Bay to the 
mouth of the Murray, thence upwards along the banks 
of that river to its junction with the Murrumbidgee and 
Lachlan ; also from the junction of the Murray and Darling 
to the junction of the Culgoa and Darling; from that point 
north to about lat. 29°; thence west to the 141st degree 
of longitude; and thence south to the Murray. Taking the 
two traditions mentioned, facts derived from language, which 
admit of no doubt, and the peculiarities of the tribes in the 
east, west, and centre of the continent, minutely detailed in 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 171 

a former chapter, tlie principal circumstances connected 
with the settlement of what I have called the Darling 
tribes may be epitomized in this way: The husband of 
Keelpara and Mookwara reached the Darling, having 
travelled from Cooper's Creek, then but sparsely peopled, 
or possibly from some water still further north. After a few 
generations, a party of their descendants left the Darling, went 
down the Murray to its mouth, and established themselves 
there. These were the Narrinyeri, who, as they increased 
in numbers, spread to Lacepede Bay, and also up the 
Murray until they came in contact near Menindie with 
the tribes from which their ancestors had separated several 
generations before, and with a tribe of the Eastern Division 
a little higher up the Murray than its junction with the 
Darling. 

But the reader wiU say, if the ancestors of the Darling 
tribes came from the north, and not from the east, how 
IS it that we find wanting amongst their decendants cir- 
cumcision and that other mutilation so general in the north ? 
In considering this question, we must remember • that the 
Darling Adam marched a long distance through a country 
more than semi-desert, and found himself entirely cut off 
from the rest of his race. Being thus isolated with his 
two wives, in country in which abundance of food must 
have been easily procurable, there would be no reason to 
induce him to follow customs, the objects of which were to 
economize food by keeping down population, and to prevent 
the young men from intriguing with the girls whom the 
old men habitually monopolize as wives. Besides these, 
mutilations are not inflicted by a father on his son, and they 
often result in death, a loss to which a small party would 
not be likely to expose itself; hence the first man who 
dwelt on the Darling would have no object to serve by 
inflicting the terrible rite or circumcision ; his children 
would never have heard of them, and the practices would 
naturally be lost. Had the party consisted of several men 
with their wives, no doubt it would have been different. 



172 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

From this account of the Darling tribes, a few facts of 
interest which bear on the race at large come into view. It 
exemplifies what I have before stated, that population was 
sometimes spread by means of small parties, which marched 
long distances into the wilderness, where they remained 
isolated for a considerable time, and that out of such 
beginnings especially grew associations of tribes and great 
differences of language. Not less interesting is it to find 
that it was in consequence of the flight of the Darling 
Adam, and of his descendants spreading themselves to the 
mouth of the Culgoa on one hand, and to the mouth of the 
Murray on the other, that those horrible mutilations of the 
person which prevail from the north coast, as far nearly 
as Adelaide, were prevented from being carried further south. 

In thus viewing the Darling tribes as a whole, I am 
reminded of the incident already related", which led me some 
twelve years back to take up the study of Australian 
ethnology, as well as of the fact that, however much same- 
ness there may be in the manners of our tribes, one never 
contemplates any large section of the race, or compares the 
languages of extensive areas, without being rewarded by the 
discovery of some fact which throws a light on the general 
history of the aboriginal of this continent, or in some cases 
claims a page in the history of the human family at large. 



NORTH-WEST OP THE BARRIER RANGE. 



173 



No. 70.— COUNTEY NOETH-WEST OF THE 
BAERIER EANGE. 

By Anonymous. 



The following words, contributed anonymously, some of 
wMcli correspond with those of the Common Vocabulary, 
show that the tribe which uses them is of Darling descent: — 



Kangaroo - 


- tulta. 


Yes - 


- eh-eh. 


Tame dog - 


- kalli. 


No - 


- nanger. 


Emu - 


- kalati. 


Good - 


- kungella. 


White cockatoo 


- packoo. 


Bad - 


- meeka. 


Crow - 


- wako. 


Neck - 


- bumba. 


Snake - 


- tooroo. 


Chest - 


- kumunia, pc 


Hand - 


- murra. 




doola. 


Head - 


- turtoo. 


Back - 


- tuma. 


Hair of head 


- hoolkee. 


Arm - 


- wankara. 


Beard 


- melka-bulkie. 


Finger 


- melinga. 


Grasa 


- murtoo. 


Creek - 


- pangil. 


Thigh 


- yalchara. 


Plain - 


- peecha. 


Foot - 


- tenola. 


Waterhole 


- tarkarooloo. 


Fat - 


- merni. 


Eatable 


- memo. 


Tomahawk - 


- koorka. 


Gum-tree - 


- bungoo. 


Star - 


- poorli. 


Pine-tree - 


- pinpa. 


Fire - 


- kooneka. 


Sundown - 


- yoko-upi-ana. 


Water 


- millyera. 


Sunrise 


- baapanannia. 


Rain - 


- wongaroo. 


Midday sun 


- moretinki. 



174 



THE AUSTRALIAI^ RACE: 



No. 71.— OOUNTEY ABOUT SIXTY MILES NORTH- 
WEST FEOM A POINT ON THE DARLING 
MIDWAY BETWEEN MENINDIE AND WIL- 
CANNIA. 

By William Haines, Esq. 

The object of inserting these iniperfect vocabularies is to 
mark the country occupied by the Darling tribes, by which I 
mean the descendants of Keelpara and Mookwara, and to 
allow the reader to form his own opinions on the subject. 



Kangaroo - 


thulda. 


Hand - - - murra. 


Opossum 


yerungee. 


2 Blacks - 


Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 


thultee 


One - 


Black duck 




Two - 


Wood duck 




Three - 


Pelican 




Four - - - 


Laughing jackass 




Father 


Native companion 




Mlother 


White cockatoo - 




^V-Lw Ul.Lv'X 


Crow - 


warko. 


Sister-Elder 


Swan - 




,, Younger - 


Egg - - - 




Brother-Elder ■ 


Track of a foot - 


yuppar. 


„ Younger 


Fish - 




A young man 


Lobster 




An old man 


Crayfish - 




An old woman - 


Mosquito - 




A baby 


Fly - 


wongarra. 


A White man 


Snake 


thoro. 




The Blacks - 




Children 


A Blackfellow ■ 


wimbacha. 


Head - 


A Black woman - 


wichoon. 


Eye - - - may-kee 


Nose - 


mendolo. 


Ear - 



BETWEEN MBNINDIE AND WILCANNIA. 



175 



No. 71. — CouNTKT BETWEEN" Menindie ajtd Wilcannia — Continued 


Mouth 




Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- undee. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- thurtolkee. 


Wood- 


- yerra. 


Beard - 


- warkowlkee. 


Stone - 


- kumoo. 


Thunder 




Camp - 


- immarna. 


Grass - 


- moto. 


Yes - 


- 


Tongue 


- thurlunia. 


No - 


" 


Stomach 


- koomtoo. 


I 


- ingardarapa. 


Breasts 


- poona. 


You - 


- imba. 


Thigh - 


- karreka. 


Bark - 


- 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Good - 


- pooleera. 


Bone - 


- 


Bad - 


- thuluka. 


Blood - 


-. 


Sweet - 


. 


Skin - 


- 


Food - 


, 


Fat - 


. 






Bowels 




Hungry 


- 


Excrement - 


. 


Thirsty 


- 






Bat 




War-spear - 


- karlkool. 






Reed-spear - 


_ 


Sleep - 


- umbaba. 


Wommera or 




Drink - 


- 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- 


Shield 


- pimpa. 


See - 




Tomahawk - 


- tharunia. 


Sit - 


■ 


Canoe 


- 


Yesterday - 


- 


Sun - 


- yoko. 


To-day 


- 


Moon - 


- woyohuka. 


To-morrow - 


- kerankee. 


Star - 


- poortie. 


Where are 


the 


Light - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Dark - 


- 


I don't know 


_ 


Cold - - 


_ 






Heat - 


- thurto. 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 


_ 


Big - 


- 


Night - - 


- 


Little - 


- 


Fire - 


- koneeka. 


Dead - 


- pooree. 


Water 


- moko. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Smoke 


- pumdoo. 


Come on 


- 


Ground 


- 


Milk - - 


„ 


Wind - 


_ 






Rain - 


- mukurra. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - - 


v_ 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 





176 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 72.— BOOLCOOMATTA. 

By W. J. Lake Dix, Esq. 

Me. Dix informs me tliat the Boolcoomatta Blacks, who 
are evidently connected with those of the Darling, neither 
circumcise nor practise the terrible rite. They caU the 
tribes which circumcise Buerndoppa, and those which do 
not Talara. 

No. 72.— BOOLCOOMATTA. 



Kangaroo - 


kurloo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


pilta. 


2 Blacks - 


_ 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - - 
Emu - - - 
Black duck 


kalley. 
kaltee. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 


- koola. 

- barkloo. 


Wood duck 


koonallee. 


Three - 


- barklarroo. 


Pelican 




Pour - 




Laughing jackass 




Father 


- gumbja. 


Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - - - 
Swan - - - 


wagoo. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„ Younger 


- ami. 


Egg - 


berty. 


Brother-Elder 




Track of a foot - 




„ Younger 


Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish - 
Mosquito - 
Fly - 
Snake - 


wiugeroo. 


A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 


- thundukoa. 


The Blacks - 


weembabitcha. 


Children 


- 


A Blackfellow - 




Head - 


- tartoo. 


A Black woman - 


koombutoha. 


Eye - - 


- megie. 


Nose - - . 


mendolo. 


Ear - 


- urie. 



BOOLCOOMATTA. 



177 





No. 72. — BooLCOOMATTA — Continued. 


Moutli 


- 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- anndil. 


HUl - 


_ 


Hair of the hea^ 


- tartoo-hoopa. 


Wood- 


- yarra. 


Beard - 


- wauk-hoopa. 


Stone - 


- kumo. 


Thunder - 


- kurndoo. 






Grass 


« 


Camp - 


- yeppra. 


Tongue 


- tarelunia. 


Yes - 


- koo. 


Stomach - 


- karnunia. 


No - 


- mangee. 


Breasts 


- amma. 


I 


- appa. 


Thigh - 


- karraka. 


You - 


- imba. 


Toot - 


- didna. 


Bark - 


. 


Bone - 


- 


Good - 


- murracha. 


Blood - - 


- 


Bad - - 


- toolacka. 


Skin - 


- palta. 


Sweet - 


„ 


Fat - 


- murnie. 


Food - 


_ 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- willcucca. 


Excrement - 


- koodna. 


Thirsty 


.. 


War-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- ditchua. 


E«ed-spear.- 


- 






Wommera or 




Sleep - 


- 


throwing-sticb 




Drink - 


- wiega. 


Shield 


- 


Walk - 


- parapa. 


Tomahawk - 


- 


See - 


- bimme. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- yookoo. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- piechyka. 


To-day 


- 


Star - - 


- booerlee. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- tunkem. . 


Blacks? 




Cold - - 


- yackee. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- bookara. 


Plenty 


- wobo-wobo. 


Day - 


- 


Big - - 


- wortoo. 


Night - 


- 


Little - 


- berloo. 


Fire - 


- kudnicka. 


Dead - 


- bookalacha. 


Water 


- ookoo. 


By-and-by - 


- wouko-wouko 


Smoke 


- 


Come on 


- 


Ground 


_ 










Milk - 


- 


Wind- 


_ 






Eain - 


- mukkara. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


_ 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


1 Wife - - 


■ 


VOL. II. 




w 





178 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 73.— TOEEOWOTTO. 

By James A. Reid, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and facts connected witli the 
Milya-uppa tribe were kindly forwarded to me by Mr. James 
A. Eeid:— 

The Milya-uppa occupy the country within a radius of 
about fifty miles from the centre of the Torrowotto Lake 
or Swamp. The Whites settled there in 1862 or 1863, 
the tribe at that time numbering some 200 souls. By 
1872 the tribe had fallen to 150 persons, and in September, 
1879, only about sixty remained, half of whom were under 
fourteen years of age; besides, several of those included in 
this number were Blacks from less desirable country, who 
on the reduction of the Milya-uppa and the partial break- 
down of old customs in the neighbourhood had made 
Torrowotto their home. 

The- Milya-uppa, whose country is extremely hot in 
summer but frosty on winter nights, wear opossum-rugs. 
They ornament the person (or used to do) with the usual 
long scars, which, however, in their case are on the 
stomach. They also wear necklaces of bones, and in deco- 
rating for the corroboree paint the person with stripes of 
pipe-clay, and stick the down of birds on to the back and 
chest with blood, one of the men bleeding himself at the 
elbow for the purpose. 

Their tomahawks were of stone, of the common pattern, 
ground to an edge. They had also the instrument general 
in the continent, which is shaped like a chisel, but used 
also as a knife. Besides these, there were nets for the 
capture of ducks and emu, but not for fish, as Torrowotto 
Swamp contained none, my informant says, until they were 
introduced by the Whites. This tribe have also the boom- 
erang and clubs and spears of various kinds. The wom- 
mera is not used. Their shields were sometimes carved, 



TOEROWOTTO. 179 

the implement employed for that purpose being as usual 
a bone. Kangaroo, emu, wild-fowl, nardoo, and pig-weed 
(the two latter especially) were their chief articles of 
food, and were cooked on the fire or in the ashes, ovens 
not being used. Since the arrival of the Whites there 
have been many changes in their ways of life and 
customs. 

Cannibalism existed amongst them, but the women 
were forbidden to taste human flesh, as it was thought 
to make them barren. They had no objection to tell 
their names, as was the case with many tribes, and Mr. 
Eeid gives the following as specimens : — 



Poorpa. 

Wamby. 

Boolbelly. 

Wilbooly. 

Koonmelly. 

Kathally. 

Wately. 



Women. 
Yonga. 
Piltery. 
Koorlgoo'. 
Neilthery. 
Wooatoha. 



Regarding marriage, my informant says, neither men 
nor women married outside of the tribe. Polygamy pre- 
vailed ; the tribe was divided into two classes, and no man 
was allowed to marry a woman of his own class. Children 
belonged to the class of the mother. Possibly the system 
was more elaborate than Mr. Eeid was aware of. When 
a woman had a baby (the former child being still young), 
it was killed immediately after birth. This people did not 
circumcise, though that practice was common in the 
neighbourhood. They believed, says my informant, in the 
existence of Grod, which I think doubtful, and that after 
death they would be transformed into birds. They buried 
their dead in the ground, and when the deceased had 
been a warrior they cut one another's heads and let them 
bleed on the corpse as it lay in the grave. When a man 
had given another cause of complaint, custom required 
that he should allow his head to be struck by the indi- 
vidual offended till blood came. Message-sticks were in 



180 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



use. After a long separation men used to hag on meeting. 
The tribes whicli bound tbe Milya-uppa are the Ngurunta 
on the west, the Momba on the south, those of the Paroo 
on the east, and the Karengappa on the north. 

For the cure of wounds, earth and in some cases 
charcoal were applied as a plaster. Mr. Eeid also says 
that water in which certain herbs had been steeped was 
used as a laxative, but does not say whether this occurred 
before the arrival of the Whites or not. For myself, I 
never knew any uncivilized Black who took any heed of 
the state of his bowels or believed. that it had anything 
to do with health. 

The equivalents of tongue, food, and eat are evidently 
from one root. 





No. 73.— TOEROWOTTO. 




Kangaroo - 


- tharlta. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- yoranga. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


- kaltha. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 


- poolkaga. 


One - 


- neecha. 


Emu - 


- kathie. 


Two - 


- barcoolo. 


Black duck - 


- ngalta. 

- koormaly. 






Wood duck - 


Three - 


- barcoolo neecha 


Pelican 


- thampano. 


Pour - 


- barcoolo-bar- 


Laughing jackass (none). 




coolo. 


Native companion koorltho. 


Father 


- kumbidgi. 


White cockatoo 


- korkanda. 


Mother 


- homochi. 


Crow - 


- wakoo. 


Sister-Elder 


- cinchi. 


Swan - 


- youngooli. 


,, Younger 


- whirtooka. 


Egg - 


- birty. 


Brother-Elder 


- kogoi. 


Track of a foot 


- tiutha. 


„ Young 


er burlogi. 


Fish^ - 
Lobster 


- (none). 


A young man 


- thumba. 






An old man 


- wirtoo. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- kondie. 


An old woman 


- wirtoo oonbuca. 


Ply . 


- wingorlo. 


A baby 


- kichingo. 


Snake 


- thora. 


A White man 


- boree. 


The Blacks - 


- wimbiga. 


Children - 


- 


A Blackfellow 


- wimbiga. 


Head - 


- tarto. 


A Black woman 


- nongo. 


Eye - 


- mee-ee. 


Nose - 


- miudolo. 


Ear - 


- ure. 



TORROWOTTO. 



181 



Mouth- 
Teeth - 

Hair of the head 
Beard - 
Thunder 
Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 



Thigh ■ 
Foot - 
Bone - 
Blood - 
Skin - 
Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Wouunera or 
throwing-stick 
Shield - 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - 
Heat - 
Day ■ 
Night - 
Fire - 
Water - 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind - 
Rain - 
God - 
Ghosts 



No. 73, 
yalla. 
thande. 
tartawoolka. 
warkawoolka, 
pimdi. 
mootho. 
tarlina. 
koontoo, 
ama. 
karka. 
tintha. 
pima. 
kandara. 
paltha. 
mume. 
koomowa. 
kooma. 
karkooro. 



uUumburra. 
taronga. 

yako. 

bichirka. 

poorly. 

minkee. 

tonka. 



•ToBROwoTTo — continued. 
Boomerang - 



poohee. 

bokara. 

tonka. 

koonaka, 

nocho. 

pomdo. 

mumdy. 

yartoo. 

mukkara. 

boree. 



Hill - 


- kanpo. 


Wood - 


- yara. 


Stone - 


- kano. 


Camp - 


- yatha. 


Yes - 


- kurry-kurry. 


No ■ 


- natha. 


I - - 


- upa. 


You - 


- imba. 


Bark - 


- paltha. 


Good - 


- kamgilla. 


Bad - 


- toolaka. 


Sweet - 


- 


Pood - 


- thiala. 


Hungry 


- 


Thirsty 


- yarka. 


Eat - 


- tiala. 


Sleep - 


- boompopa. 


Drink 


- weohana. 


Walk - 


- parapoo. 


See - 


- pome. 


Sit - 


- ninga. 


Yesterday - 


- ellemo. 


To-day 


- kalpo. 


To-morrow - 


- wambama. 


Where are 1 


the winga wimbiga ? 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- wingana. 


Plenty 


- woolurty. 


Big - 


- parooro. 


Little - 


- kichirloo. 


Dead - 


- tamboro. 


By-and-by - 


- kana. 


Come on 


- kowo. 


Milk - 


- ama. 


Eaglehawk - 


- billara. 


Wild turkey 


- thurlchega. 


Wife - 


- nongo. 



182 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



1^0. 74.— THE LOWER PORTIOISrS OP THE PAROO 
AND WARREGO RIVERS. 

By G. Scbivenbr, Esq. 

The dialects of the Lower Warrego and Lower Paroo, of 
wliicli latter the attached vocabulary is a specimen, are 
undoubtedly off-shoots of the Darling languages. From an 
account of the Parooinge* tribe, which dwells on the lower 
portion of the Paroo, given me by Mr. Q. Scrivener, I gather 
as follows : — 

When the Whites first occupied the Paroo country, in 
1863, this tribe is thought to have numbered about 500 
souls, but has fallen off considerably since. In cold weather, 
the Parooinge wear opossum-rugs. They have boomerangs 
of both sorts, but not the wommera, all spears being 
thrown by hand. Their weapons generally are much carved 
and painted. My informant notices that there are undoubted 
signs of small-pox having visited this tribe about thirty 
years ago, and that it is said to have half exterminated 
it. This people object to tell their native names, but wUl 
do so if pressed by a White man. Mr. Scrivener gives the 
following: — Males: Okomine, Milta, and Bareo. Females: 
Kutteri, Nambala, and Binjilla. Marriages, which are 
chiefly made within the tribe, are regulated by classes, 
which Mr. Scrivener calls Mukkwaroo and Kilparoo. 
Widows are said to remain their own mistresses for a year, 
after which they generally become the property of the best 
fighting-man of the proper class. The girls become wives 
whilst mere children and mothers at fourteen, and the old 
custom was to kill the first-born by strangulation. At 

* People of the Paroo. 



PAROO AND WARREGO RIVERS. 183 

present abortion is so prevalent tliat very few children are 
reared. This is generally effected in Australia by pressing 
on the stomach. It is a novelty found in this tribe, that the 
usual ornamental scars are produced, not by incision, but by 
the lighted stem of a burr, which is placed on the part and 
allowed to burn into the skin. Neither circumcision nor the 
terrible rite are practised. The septum of the nose is 
pierced; and the rights of manhood are said to be conferred 
at about fifteen years of age by knocking out two of the 
upper front teeth. When rain is much needed, I am told 
that the men pluck out their whiskers, bleed themselves, 
and abstain from cohabitation with women for about ten 
days. Pitcheree is not chewed by this tribe. Canoes are 
not used, and fish are caught with nets only. Burials take 
place immediately after death; graves are about four feet 
deep, and over them is erected a little hut in which is placed 
a vessel holding water, the ground being carefully swept 
for a short distance round. The bearer of an important 
communication from one party to another often carries a 
message-stick with him, the notches and lines on which he 
refers to whilst delivering his message. This custom, which 
prevails from the north coast to the south, is a very curious 
one. The reader has already been told that no Blackfellow 
ever pretends to be able to understand a message from the 
notched stick, but always looks upon it as confirmatory of 
the message it accompanies. As early, perhaps, as 1844, 
the Bangerang Blacks showed me sticks of the sort, and said 
that they had used the Like from time immemorial, and that 
they answered the purpose of the White man's writing. 
Finding that none of them could read the lines and notches, 
I rejected the whole story of their antiquity and general 
prevalence, thinking them a mere imitation of our practice 
of writing letters; and it was not until many years after 
that I found I was wrong as regards their antiquity. 
Whether the idea was brought with the first comers to 
these shores or whether it originated in this continent I 
know not. The extent to which it prevails in Australia, at 



184 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



all events, shows the custom to be one of very ancient date, 
so that, in either case, we find the savage mind originating 
an idea which might develop into writing. Of hieroglyphics 
I have found no trace. 



No. 74.— THE LOWER PORTIONS OP THE PAROO AND 
WARRBGO RIVERS. 

By G. ScBivENBB, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- tulta. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- wirrikoo, yar- 


2 Blacks - 


- barkoola wimbit 




ingi. 




cha 


Tame dog - 


- kuUi. 


3 Blacks - 


- barkoola itcha 


Wild dog - 


- bulkitcha. 




wimbitcha. 


Emu - - - kulti. 
Black duck - - mingara. 
Wood duck - - koonali. 
Pelican - - booloooh. 
Laughing jackass (none). 


One - 
Two • 

Three - 
Four - 


- itcha. 

- barkoola. 

- barkoola itcha. 

- barkoola-bar- 

koola. 


Native companion kooloorka. 
White cockatoo - (none). 
Crow - - - warkoo. 
Swan - - - yoongooli. 
Egg - - - birti. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 
,, Younger 


- kumbitcha. 

- ummaka. 

- wertooki. 

- warticha. 


Track of a foot 


- tinna. 


Brother-Elder 


- karkuga. 


Fish - 


- namba. 


„ Younger burluoha. 


Lobster 


. 


A young man 


- tumba. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- koongoola. 

- gundi. 


An old man 
An old woman 


- dulbil. 

- kooritcha. 


Fly - - 

Snake - 


- wingero, 

- dooroo. 


A baby 

A White man 


- burloo. 

- tundook, bori. 


The Blacks - 


- wimbitoha. 


Children 


- burloo-burloo. 


A Blaokfellow 


- marli (?) 


Head - 


- turtoo. 


A Black woman 


- noongoo. 


Eye - 


- mikki. 


Nose ■ 


- mindoolo. 


Ear - 


- uri. 



PABOO AND WARREGO RIVERS. 



185 



No. 74. — Lower Portions of the Paeoo and Wabrego Rivers — continued. 



Mouth 


- yulka. 


Boomerang - 


- wuna. 


Teeth - 


- ngundi. 


Hill - 


- unikkoo (?) 


Hair of the heac 


- turtoo bulki. 


Wood - 


- yerra. 


Beard - 


- waka bulki. 


Stone - 


- kurnoo. 


Thunder - 


- bumdi. 


Camp - 


- yeppera. 


Grass - 


- mootho. 


Yes - 


- ngu. 


Tongue 


- tarlinya. 


No - 


- ngater, ngarter- 


Stomach 


- kumunga. 




berri. 


Breasts 


- ununa. 


I- 


- uppa. 


Thigh ■ 


- yalko. 


You - 


- imba. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bark - 


- pultha. 


Bone - 


- birna. 


Good - 


- mariga. 


Blood - 


- kamdera. 


Bad - 


- tulukka. 


Skin - 


- puttha. 


Sweet - 


- wartink. 






Food - 


- mewulk. 


Fat - 


- mumi. 










Hungry 


- wilka-wilka. 


Bowels ; 


- kitohakumunya. 






Excrement - 


- gooma. 


Thirsty 


- yerka. 






Eat - 


- tundel. 


War-spear - 


- karlkooro. 










Sleep - 


- immarela. 


Reed-spear - 


- (none). 


Drink - 


- wichal. 


Thro wing-stick 


- (none). 


Walk - 


- wommole. 


Shield- 


- ooloomburra. 


See - 


- bummy. 


Tomahawk - 


- turroin. 










Sit 


- arngle. 


Canoe - 
Sun - 


- (none). 

- ooko. 


Yesterday - 


- yillon. 


Moon - 


- bychook. 


To-day 


- kimbo. 


Star - 


- boorle. 


To-morrow - 


- wombin. 


Light - 


- meerinki. 


Where are the 


wimba wimbit- 


Dark - 


- malara. 


Blacks? 


cha? 


Cold - 


- mukoora, yeku. 


I don't know 


- winjarto. 


Heat - 


- bootohi. 


Plenty 


- oolirti. 


Day - 


- meerinki. 


Big - 


- wertoo. 


Night - 


- malara. 


Little - 


- kichalko. 


Fire - 


- wi, goonikka. 


Dead - 


- booka. 


Water- 


- ooko, noko. 


By-and-by - 


- kunni, bulyardo. 


Smoke 


- boomdoo. 


Come on 


- yoon berrip. 


Ground 


- mumdi. 


Milk - 


- unmialora. 


Wind - 


- yertoo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- boolyara. 


Rain - 


- mukkera. 


Wild turkey 


- dikkera. 


God - 


- koolerberri. 


Wife - 


- noongoo or 


Ghosts 


- bukkemberri. 




taminyi. 



186 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 75.— BOURKE, DARLING EIVER. 

Bt Geevillb N. Teulon, Esq. 

The following account of the Bahkunjy tribe and vocabulary 
of its language bave been drawn up by Mr. Teulon, to whom 
I am particularly under obligation for the great pains he has 
expended on the matter. In one particular only do I differ 
with my contributor, namely, as to the amount of frontage to 
the Darling which he assigns to this tribe. This, accounts of 
the neighbouring tribes show to have been less extensive. It 
will be noticed that the Bahkunjy have as neighbours above 
them on the Darling tribes which belong to the Eastern 
Division, in which are found the class-names Kombo and 
Hippi, and not Keelpara and Mookwara. 

In my description of tribes it has been my custom to 
reduce to a narrative form the replies received to my series 
of printed Questions, but in this instance I shall insert 
exactly Mr. Teulon's replies to my questions. The following 
is an extract from the letter which accompanied that 
gentleman's contribution: — 

" In these vocabularies there are but few words that have 
been suffered to pass without confirmation from at least one 
entirely independent source. I trust, therefore, that errors 
also are but few. The work of collecting information in the 
present day from the Blacks of the Upper Darling is equally 
trying to the patience and bewildering to the wits. The old 
man retains a most indistinct remembrance of the long past, 
and is suspicious of any raking of its ashes; while the man 
in his prime, distracted between the two stools of the two 
eras (willing to be communicative about that, were this 
away), makes mistakes, is discovered, and resents discovery 
by cutting off supplies. Moreover, the tribes are not sun- 
dered as of old : the common misfortune has drawn them 



BOURKE, DARLING RIVER. 187 

together; consequently, tongues have become mixed, words 
have become changed, or have fallen out of use or out of 
memory, so that what one cannot confirm by reference to 
one's own memory or recollection calls for many siftings 
before any accepting. I have appended a vocabulary of 
words and sentences. It contains nearly every word men- 
tioned in the pages preceding it, besides other words. In 
a note further on I shall give a list of words and their 
counterparts — in sound, not in sense. There are several 
compound words that follow the lead of these, and are 
perhaps as innocent of meaning anything whatsoever in 
connection with their apparent derivations as ludicrous 
ventre-bleu itself, and its kin. Such are goorra-bootta (whirl- 
wind — grey thunder!); yeulta-wulkka (vein — string of the 
water-monster ! ! ) ; turtoo-woollee (doctor — hole in the 
head ! ! !) ; &c. Moonnoo-moorra, to hum, means (if it has a 
meaning) upper lip — to think; which may or may not mean 
further — to hold the lip in a state of quiescence, which one 
certainly does when humming? But — these extravagances 
set aside — one finds in the Kornoo tongue, even at the 
eleventh hour of now-a-days, words sufficiently sensible and 
eloquent (those for God, morning star, evening star, mirage, 
for example) to have entitled it to something beyond bare 
Non omnis moriar, and to make one ask — If the shallows 
can supply such 'inestimable stones,' what may not the deep 
have held?" 



188 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Address — Alma Terrace, Ohapel-street, Bast St. Kilda. 
Sir, Melbourne, 18 . 

Allow me to bring under your notice tbat I bave been 
engaged for several years in collecting for ethnological pur- 
poses, and witb a view to publication, specimen vocabularies 
of the aboriginal languages and dialects of this continent, of 
which, as the result of the support which I have received 
from the several Colonial Grovernments, stock-owners, police 
magistrates, inspectors of police, and others, a very large 
number are in my hands. In the course of my inquiries I 
have, however, come to see how important it is for those who 
interest themselves in such studies that correct and syste- 
matic information on many matters connected with our 
aboriginal race should be obtained before it is too late, and 
from all parts of the continent. Under these circumstances, 
and as my object is of a public rather than a personal nature, 
I trust I shall be excused for the liberty I have taken in for- 
warding to you copies of my Questions and Vocabulary, and 
in begging for such information in connection with them as 
you may have opportunity or leisure to communicate. In 
order to avoid misconceptions, I may notice that it is not 
anticipated that the gentlemen to whom these papers are sent 
will in general be able to reply to the whole of my queries, 
but that some will be able to give information on one point, 
and some on another, and all on a few; and I may add that, 
however meagre, the contribution will be received with 
thanks. 

Concerning the vocabulary, which is a very important 
feature, experience has proved that four-fifths of the words, 
at least, can be very quickly taken down with the aid of a 
moderately intelligent Blackfellow. The aboriginal words 
should be written very distinctly, and without using capital 
letters, which are often very puzzling; and it should be borne 
in mind that budgeree, bael, gin, lubra, &c., are not aboriginal 
words, though they pass for such. 
I am. Sir, 

Your obedient servant," 

EDWARD M. CURE. 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES. 189 

Questions Concerning the Aboeigines of Australia.. 
My questions to Teuton and his replies are as follow: — 

1. What country does (or did) ttie tribe to which your 

answers refer inhabit ? It is essential that this question 
should be answered in such a way that the locality can 
be set down on a map, approximately at least, and that 
all your replies should have reference to this particular 
tribe and to no other ? 

1. The tribe inhabits both banks of the Darling from 
about Bourke on the left bank to about Tilpa on the 
right bank, a length, by road, of upwards of 100 miles. 
Towards either limit the dialect shows itself affected by 
other dialects ; but, indeed, one may question whether, 
at the present time (1884), it is spoken unmixed any- 
where, so whitewashed, so to speak, are the few Blacks 
now to be seen, and of these so great is the proportion 
of what would once have been regarded as Warregals, or 
Tanqui (hostile persons). 

2. What is the native name of the tribe ? 

2. Bahktinjy. 

3. In what year was their country first occupied by the 

Whites ? 

3. Probably about 1845. 

4. What was the number of persons composing the tribe at 

the time ? 

4. Probably not fewer than 3,000. 

5. In what year did you first reside on the country in 

question ? 

5. 1863. 

6. How many did the tribe number in that year ? 

6. Probably not fewer than 1,000. 

7. How many does it number now ? If you can, please 

specify the men, women, youth of both sexes, boys and 
girls, at present composing the tribe. 

7. Probably not more than 80 ; namely (say), 25 men, 
35 women, 10 boys, 10 girls. 



190 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

8. If there has been a decrease in numbers, to what do you 
attribute it ? 

8. There has been a decrease to . an extent scarcely- 
short of annihilation (the majority of the remnant being 
decrepit in the extreme), owing in part to the diseases 
that accompany the White man ; in part to what must 
almost ever be the result of putting " a piece of a new 
garment upon an old." 

9. Were there any old Blacks when first you knew the 
tribe. 

9. Yes. 

10. As far as you can judge, what ages did the oldest ones 

reach ? 

10. Their looks were the looks of White men of 70 
years. 

11. Are there any old persons in the tribe now ? 

11 Fully half of the adults remaining look old, but 
the actually old are few. 

12. Did they wear clothes before the coming of the Whites; 
and, if so, what clothes ? 

12. None, except the loin-net (weerlppa-pulkka) or 
the fringed apron (weerlppa) supported by the loin- 
line (weerlppa-weenya), the head-band (merry-merryja) 
or the head-net (turtoo-weerlppa) ; and, in cold weather, 
the skin-rug (kombee). 

13. Do they wear any now ? 

13. Yes; but never with grace, and seldom with a 
good grace. This latter assertion is proven by the 
alacrity with which they disrobe as soon as camp is 
reached. 

14. If they had no clothes, how did they manage on cold 

nights, or when mosquitos, &c., were troublesome ? 

14. Their fires warmed them; and the smoke of their 
fires, aiding the fish-grease with which they daubed 
their bodies, was potent to hold at bay the most blood- 
seeking mosquito. 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES. 191 

15. Do or did the men or women wear any ornaments of the 
person, and what are they ? 

15. The women wore the necklace (pernba-wulkka) ; 
the men wore tufts of feathers in head-net or head-band; 
both sexes wore the nose-stick (meundeeahrra). 

16. Do they smear their persons with grease, red ochre, pipe- 

clay, or other substances; and, if so, on what occasions ? 

16. Grease, as being repulsive alike of insects and of 
weather, was employed universally in place of clothing, 
with the occasional admixture of red ochre (koottee) 
and pipe-clay (ko-pajja). Red ochre was utilized also 
as war-paint, pipe-clay as dance-paint. Pipe-clay, 
moulded to the head, is still the mourner's head-dress. 

17. What bags, nets, baskets, or other utensils had your 

tribe in its natural state ? 

17. Their principal utensils were the fish-net and 
duck-net (mulkka), the fish-spear (tintee), the spade 
(boppara), the yam-stick (werkka), the large wooden 
bowl (yookooja), the small wooden bowl (yerra-koo- 
rooka), the mat (pintooka), the basket (koorooka), the 
little net (worroka), and the fly-switch (weerlppa). The 
duck-net was very large, reaching from the one bank to 
the other of the river, and to a height of many feet 
above it. The process of duck-hunting was very simple. 
Two Blacks would take charge of the out-stretched net, 
and a third down-stream would disturb the ducks ; 
which, thoroughly frightened, as they neared the net, 
by the kite-like cries and missiles of the enemy about 
it, would almost infallibly drop and become enclosed. 

18. Have they any implements of stone, such as tomahawks 

or flint knives ? "Were they ground smooth or only 
chipped ? Please describe them. 

18. The stone instruments used by these Blacks were 
the tomahawk (durrinya), the chisels (mundooba and 
mooUee), and the knife (yernda). These were all 
ground smooth, not chipped. The head of the toma- 
hawk was fixed to its handle by means of gum and 
string. 



192 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

19. What weapons have or had they ? Is the boomerang 
used ? Does it return when thrown ? Do they throw 
their spears with the hand or with the throwing-stick 
(wommera) ? Are their weapons ornamented with carv- 
ing, or colored with ochre, &c. ? 

19. In addition to the common fish-spear, their spears, 
available equally for fighting and for hunting, were at 
least four, namely, goolleer, unbarbed; wirra-mirroty, 
barbed on one side ; kulkaroo and nunndeebooka, barbed 
on both sides. AU barbs were cut out of the wood, and 
were not splinters of stone inserted in it. The barbs of 
kulkaroo and mrra-wirroty were stout and short, those 
of nunndeebooka were very fine and very long, and lay 
parallel with their shaft ; nunndeebooka was used as a 
fish-spear as well as for other purposes. The wommera 
was unknown to the tribe ; so, probably, was the reed- 
spear. Boomerangs were of two kinds — wonggee, which 
would return; wonna, which would not return. Nullah- 
nullahs, or clubs, also were two — koloroo, that for the 
fray ; poonggoroo, that for the chase. Waddies (clubs) 
were two — the rounded poondee, the flat mung-abuttaka. 
Some of these weapons were ably employed in seconding 
woolloomburra, the shield, in the work of defence. The 
shield was invariably colored with red ochre; sometimes 
it was carved ; then it would display alternate stripes of 
red ochre and pipe-clay. Speaking of weapons, one is 
specially justified in using the past tense. It may be 
seen of no grandly-framed Wimbaja* now-a-days " quo 
turbine torqueat hastam" no bird falls to the lesser 
nullah-nullah, no stranger quails before the boomerang 
returning. A broken boomerang here and there, a 
battered unregarded shield, a toothless spear — these 
are the " sole remaining " representatives of the not 
despicable armoury that was. T^^qja fuit indeed. 

20. With what implements do they make and carve their 

weapons ? 

20. With durrinya, mundooba, and yernda. 

* Black man. 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES. 193 

21. With, what do they cut open, skin, and divide animals 
when killed ? 

21. With the shell-knife (kahra),the emu-hone knife 
(kulttee-pinna), and the kangaroo-bone knife (tultta- 
pinna). 

22. What are their principal articles of food ? 

22. The seeds of nardoo (tundukka), of pig-weed 
(toong-ara), &c., bruised and kneaded into a paste 
(womppa) between flat stones (yeltta), and either 
scooped up with the forefinger and advanced to the 
mouth at this stage, or baked into a cake (bookala) ; 
sow-thistle (bullumba), trefoil (poontta), pig-face (kahn- 
bee), yam (koonpinya), gum (tunninya); eggs innumer- 
able in their seasons; and of the animals under him, 
every one, without exception, perhaps, from the kan- 
garoo (tultta) to the pisant (moonnee). 

23. How do they prepare their food ? 

23. Most of the plants eaten by them, and a few of 
the smaller animals, they ate raw. Meat they cast 
whole or piecemeal into the fire, and little more than 
singed it. The Wimbaja is conservative, and still prefers 
his food thoroughly underdone. 

24. Have they ovens ? What are they like ? How large are 
they ? How are they used ? 

25. Are there many of them ? Have any fallen into disuse ? 

24. 25. Of old they used the oven (wong-a), a mere 
hole in the ground, for the cooking of large game. 
Having well heated it, they would place it in the carcase 
to be cooked, and, having " topped-up " with a good 
fire, sit awaiting patiently the kindred cries, nahtooko 
(take it out !), putta-puttako (cut it up !). Ovens have 
been out of use for very many years ; the existence, 
therefore, of any of them in the present day is doubtful. 

26. Have your tribe any restrictions with respect to food; if 

so, what are they ? 

26. Nowhere on the Darling do the Blacks recognize 
any restrictions in regard of food, saving such as may 



194 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

come of super-sufficiency within or of deficiency without. 
(See 72.) 

27. Had any of your tribe marks of small-pox when first 
you knew them ? Were such marks strong or light ? 

27. I can recollect but one Black having pock-marks, 
which, in his case, could not be called light, although 
less strong than those ordinarily seen on a White man's 
skin. This Black answered to the name Shylock; and 
certainly in his sinister features and furtive glances, and 
subdued sullen bearing, one could trace little of the open, 
hearty (I would say honest) expression that stamps the 
Wimhaja in general. 

28. Are any still alive with the marks ? How many, and of 

what ages ? 

28. AU answers to this question and to the half-dozen 
following it were so conflicting as to be all but valueless. 
I saw probably two-thirds of the Blacks, now living, of 
the tribe, but not one, howsoever slightly, pock-marked; 
on the other hand, I was informed that some having 
marks are yet to be seen. The early explorers affirm 
that the disease had plainly done its work before their 
time, whereas the Blacks (many of them at least) main- 
tain that the White man introduced it. 

32. Did many of the tribe die of it ? 

32. Yes. 

38. What did they call small-pox ? 

33. Mungga. 

34. Did they bury those who died of it ? 

34. Not known. 

35. Are your Blacks cannibals ? Please mention the grounds 

of your opinion or belief of this subject. 

36. If they are cannibals, to what extent; and what are their 
practices with respect to cannibalism ? 

37. Please state any facts you know on the subject. 

35. 36, 37. There appears to be no reason to suppose 
that they were at any time cannibals. Until stock 
littered their simple harvest, and dogs and horsemen 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES. 195 

and fowling-pieces scared and thinned their lawful 
furred and feathered prey, and the effeminacies bred of 
apparel-wearing debarred them from fishing in the old 
fashion that insured a hauling, not chanced a hooking, 
they were abundantly supplied with food, and ex- 
perienced, therefore, no provocation to a feast so gross 
as the cannibal's. 

38. Have your Blacks any objection to tell their native 
names. 

38. They hesitate, and in a manner so suspicious 
that when at length they tender a name, one cannot 
help doubting the genuineness of it. They always 
show an extreme repugnance to hearing mentioned, as 
to mentioning the name of one dead. 

39. Please give me as many of their names as you are able, 
distinguishing those of men and women, boys and 
girls. 

39. Men: Kahppo, Booldo, MnkkSrally, Mahrttm, 
Ttin-gulyara., MathabSrin, Eeburry, Mtirroorry, KShbo- 
reeka. Women: Ydomma, Melnma, GoorgoogoogS., 
Neelppee-bundtika, Murrinjara, Kahbobnjara, Niim- 
moonjara. The children of the period (1884) affect 
English names in toto. 

BittolS-gooUee {i.e. moon-house) is the name of an 
isolated hill, near the river, right bank, at about the 
centre of the territory, on Dunlop Station. This hill is 
marked in a map annexed to MitcheWs Expedition in 
Eastern Australia. 

Kttlkulkobeekareejee is the name of ,a creek at the 
foot of Bittola-gooUee. 

40. Have they any class-names ? "What are they ? To what 

do they refer ? 

41. Do your Blacks (or did they originally) marry women 
of their own tribe or of some other tribe or tribes ? 

40. 41. The tribe was divided into (I believe) only 
two families, Kombo and Hippi ; any member of 
the one of which might marry with any member of the 

N2 



196 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

other. The marriage of a Kombo with a Kombo, or of 
a Hippi with a Hippi, constituted an offence against 
law. Marriage out of the tribe, being a matter of vis, 
commonly involved the summons ad arma. 

42. Have any of the men more than one wife ? What pre 

portion had more than one ? 

42. A very small proportion had more than one wife, 
probably none but a redoubtable warrior could compass 
such an accession to his household, or, having com- 
passed, sustain. 

43. At what age do the males marry, and at. what age the 

females ? 

43. The males might marry at 19, the females at 13 
or 14. 

44. At what age do the females bear children ? 

45. If the females marry out of the tribe, into which tribe 

do they marry. 

44. 45. I could get no answer to either of these 
questions. 

46. How do the men of your tribe obtain wives ? 

46. A man wishing to marry a girl of his own tribe 
expressed the wish to her parents, on whose application 
a meeting of the tribe was called, where the banns, so 
to speak, were published, and the girl was exhorted to 
be a faithful wife. The meeting dissolved, bride and 
bridegroom retired, as on their honeymoon, into other 
parts, until the possible shrew had been duly tamed ; 
they then returned, and if the inquiry put to the girl by 
her mother as to whether she is happy could be answered 
satisfactorily, the pair continued to live together ; 
otherwise they separated — that is, the girl went home 



[This answer must be taken " for what it is worth," 
as it was not confirmed. The most romantic part of it 
is omitted.] 
47. Have they any laws about marriage; and, if so, what ? 
47. See 40, 41. 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES 197 

48. What becomes of widows ? 

48. A widow (boortooka) returned to her parents, but 
might marry again if she willed. It was according to 
rule that she should give preference to the brother, next 
younger than him, of her deceased husband. 

49. Do children belong to the father's tribe or the mother's? 

49. Marriage was within the tribes. Children belong 
to the mother's class. 

50. On an average, how many children did each woman 

bear ? 

50. No answer obtainable to this question. 

51. Is infanticide practised ? To what extent ? What is 
the cause of the practice ? Are you aware whether it 
prevailed before the coming of the Whites ? 

51. The Blacks deny that infanticide was ever prac- 
tised among them, but I can certainly recollect rumours 
of it, and I distinctly remember the case of one babe-in- 
arms which disappeared suddenly, " and nothing said." 
I fancy that the crime rarely occurred unless a mother, 
intolerably overburdened, found the poor thing an en- 
cumbrance — as ourselves say. If the custom existed at 
all, the coming of the Whites doubtless extended it, as 
a half-caste child was seldom to be seen. 

52. To what diseases are your Blacks subject; and of what 

do they die ? 

52. The most common aboriginal disease was that 
still known by the name " giggle-giggle " (moorkka), a 
form apparently of scrofula, arising from uncleanHness 
and dearth of vegetable food. This disease showed itself 
in whitish blotches, chiefly about the legs. The Blacks 
died less, perhaps, of any specified disease than of that 
mysterious inability (and uncarefalness too) to live, to 
which those succumb who are (and have discovered that 
they are) not " the fittest." 

53. Do they raise scars on any part of the body by way of 
ornamentation; if so, describe the process, the age at 
which the operation is performed; the part of the body 



198 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

on whicli the scars are raised, both as regards males and 
females ? 

53. On the back about the shoulders, on the outer 
side of the biceps, on the breast, never about the legs: 
they raised blisters that look like so many swollen 
leeches laid in rows. Either moollee or kahra was used 
in the operation, which took place before early youth 
had passed. If much pain followed, iguana fat was 
rubbed into the wounds; in any case they were bathed 
with water. The same parts of the body female (plus 
abdomen) were tattooed (scarred) as of the body male. 

54. Do they circumcise ? With what object ? Do they 
intermarry with tribes which do not circumcise ? Are 
all the males circumcised ? 

54. Circumcision is unknown. 

55. Do they practise any other rite of the sort? If so, 

describe it ? 

55. No. 

56. Do they knock out any of the front teeth? "Which teeth ? 
At what age ? For what purpose ? How is it done ? 

56. They knocked out the tooth, most fronting one, 
of the upper jaw of every lad as he neared manhood. 
None would account him man while full-mouthed. The 
tooth was expelled by means of two pieces of stick 
placed on each side of it (so as to form an obtuse angle 
— tooth vertex), and struck alternately until it gave 
way. (See 72.) 

57. Do they pierce the septum of the nose, and wear a bone 

or stick through it ? 

67. A hole (yerra-wooUee) is made in the septum of 
the nose, and a menndeeahrra is worn thrust through it. 

58. Do they mutilate the body in any other way ? 

58. No. 

59. Are there any differences of customs between the cir- 

cumcised and uncircumcised; if so, what are they ? Do 
enmities exist between them ? 

59. Circumcision is unknown. 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES, 199 

60. Have they any religious belief ? Do they believe in an 
Almighty Creator or Ruler ? 

60. They believe in one God (Wahtta^noorinya), the 
ample-handed maker and preserver of all things, but 
have neither knowledge, nor desire for knowledge, of 
him; nor does any man expect to see him, even should 
his delighted soul attain to its star. Some assert that 
they will exist after death as White men, the increasing 
number of these and the decreasing numbers of them- 
selves leading them not unnaturally to such conclusion; 
others, that the evil one {Boorree) removes indiscrimi- 
nately all souls, nobody knows whither. 

61. Have they any superstitions; if so, what ? 

61. They still cherish a superstitious belief in a pair 
of snake-like water monsters {Neittee and Yeutta), en- 
dowed not with huge teeth only, but also with a special 
craving for the Wimbaja; also in Boorree, just men- 
tioned, in whose despite, that the devoted camp may 
escape, nature engages the curlew (willaroo) to sound 
alarums from evening till morning; also, in a god of the 
winds, one Pindee, author of thunder, who gathers the 
clouds and (but sparingly) breaks them with a blow. 
They hold, too, that the spirits (koylppa) of the departed 
walk the earth after dark, and that the whisperings of 
leaves, when all else is still, are the murmurs of ghostly 
voices; nevertheless, they are not utterly averse from 
moderate travel by night. In respect of death, they 
somewhat illogically maintain (or maintained) that no 
man can die a natural death except through the ill- 
offices of an enemy, and that the manes of the dead 
cannot be appeased until that enemy has been discovered 
and despoiled of his kidney fat. This deed done, the 
kopajja* of sorrow may be removed. The Bahkunjy 
Blacks, Like most aborigines of regions subject to 
drought, kept in pay, as an item of necessary furniture, 

* Pipe-clay worn on the head as mourning. — E. M. C. 



200 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

a rain-maker (boontairramukkra). The process by 
whicb this man compelled the rain-clouds was to take 
of bark one strip, to knead blood and kopajja into a 
lump in it, and to deposit the mixture, sprinkled with 
feathers and coated with mud, at the foot of any gum- 
tree growing on the slope of a bank leading to water. 
In seven days from that moment rain might be ex- 
pected; in seven days, or more, it would assuredly fall. 

62. Have they any account of the Creation, or of the Deluge, 
or any traditions of the origin of their race ? 

62. Yes ; but they plainly confuse their own traditions 
with what they have heard of our beliefs. For example, 
they speak of the Deluge as the big water that devoured 
the White man. 

63. Is pitcheree or any other narcotic or stimulant used by 
your tribe; if so, how is it prepared and used; and what 
are its effects ? 

63. No aboriginal narcotic is known to the tribe; a 
fact deplored by all to whom this question was put. 

64. Have your Blacks any crests or totems? What are 
they ? To what do they refer ? 

65. Do your Blacks use signs instead of words ? To what 
extent, and what particulars can you state ? 

66. Did your Blacks draw or paint in their wild state ? 

64. 65, 66. To these three questions the answers were 
invariably No, but I feel inclined to believe that, except- 
ing so far as painting is concerned, they were false. I 
do not think that the Blacks painted, there being no 
caves and but few rocks in the territory. 

67. Describe the canoes used by your tribe ? 

67. The canoes of this tribe were the gum-canoe 
(koombahla-booltaroo) and the box-canoe (koorkooroo- 
booltaroo). They were made of bark, somewhat 
"bowed" at either end, where would be placed a lump 
of clay as supplementary prora or puppis, and were 
propelled by a long pole (werkka), pulled with long 
firm strokes. The sides were kept apart by sticks 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES. 201 

(yerkaka), laid thwartwise, abaft and forward of a third 
lump of clay (koony-kahn-go, or fire-place). More of 
this very handy clay was used for caulking, should any 
fissure occur. 

68. How do they kill kangaroo and emu ? 

68. By surrounding them, and narrowing the circle 
until poondee and poonggoroo could be used to advan- 
tage. Or by noosing. The animal in this case was his 
own doomster. 

69. Do they procure fish ? With nets, spears, or hooks ? If 
with hooks, describe them. 

69. They both speared fish and netted them. Hooks 
were unrecognized as expedient until the more straight- 
laced days of the era of apparel-wearing. Net-fishing 
was the work of two Blacks, who grasping, each of 
them, a pole of the net, would swim hither and thither 
for a few minutes, and finally bring up against some 
gently shelwng bank, or on some shallow. 

70. Can you give me any information concerning their 
corroborees ? 

70. I remember little more myself of their corroborees 
beyond the facts that the chief bones (in front) of each 
performer were marked out, skeleton fashion, with 
kopajja* that his knees and ank s were fringed with 
gum-leaves, and that daring a part of the performance 
he would sweep the air above the ground, rhythmically 
from side to side, with bunches of green leaves, making 
the while with his mouth a hissing sound, as though in 
imitation of that made by the leaves; and that the 
gins, and very old men, and little children, who formed 
the appreciative audience, kept up a sing-song accom- 
paniment, and beat time; the females by thumping 
their opossum-rugs, folded into pads, and the males by 
clashing their boomeranges together as cymbals. Per- 
haps the most striking feature of such corroborees as I 
witnessed was the ever-recurring transformation scene ; 

* Pipe-clay. 



202 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

backs would be suddenly turned to one, and lo I " the 
coUied night"; faces, and presto! an array of gesticulat- 
ing, or leaping, or quivering skeletons. The Blacks of 
the present day are singularly reticent touching all their 
ceremonies — will not, indeed, refer to them in the pre- 
sence of a gin (who generally manages to continue 
present); and of the many names supplied to me of 
their various corroborees I could substantiate none, save 
one — mahnee. 

71. What is the average height of the men; also of the 
women? Describe their hair. Are their any cripples 
or Albinos ? 

7 1 . The men average in height about five feet and seven 
inches ; the women are, in proportion, somewhat taller. 
The hair of the Blacks is black and strong and straight; 
heads even partially bald are rarities. I never heard 
of either cripple or Albino. 

72. Do they make the youth into young men? At what 
age ? With what ceremonies ? 

72. The lad (kornoondoo) became the pree-adult 
(wilyahng-o), and thence the adult (tummba), at the 
age of about eighteen years. Six weeks or so before 
the day on which the ceremony of his initiation had 
been appointed to take place he retired from the camp, 
preceded by an old man, and following by cuttings of 
bark flung at him by his youngest brother, or other 
boy, the women lying perdues behind a screen of boughs, 
erected lest any of them, seeing the direction taken, 
should curiously attempt to follow it. The old man 
conducted him to some secluded spot, where or where- 
abouts he remained, without communication with any 
but his possible fellows in probation, and without fire, 
until recalled. Food was brought to him daily by an 
elder (sole exception to the rule just cited), from whom 
at length he would learn of his promotion to the estate 
of wilyahng-o ; whereupon, for a period of three days, he 
would fast. On the third day of the three the closing 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES. 203 

ceremonies — the expulsion of the tooth, and whatever 
might pertain to that ordeal — took place ; and these 
were followed by a corroboree, in which, as being then 
tummba, he was permitted to make one. 
73. How do they dispose of their dead? Describe their 
funeral ceremonies, if any. Have they any form of 
mourning? 

73. They bury their dead beyond highest flood-mark 
in the soft, easily-worked sand of the red sandhills. 
Nowhere, perhaps, may be met more face to face than 
at the funeral of a Black that touch which makes the 
whole world kin. The procession in twos or threes, for 
fellowship's sake ; the hanging of heads, and the 
wringing of hands ; the wailings in camp, on route, 
and at the grave's mouth, that come plainly from no 
hired lips ; the carefully swathed body ; the carefully 
swept holy ground containing it ; the green leaves 
(flowers being none) laid under it and over it; the green 
boughs protecting it, all testify to recognition of the 
fact that a member has been taken, and that the 
members suffer and prize the worth of the lacked and 
lost. Nor may any sound be heard more plaintive, 
hardly more musical, than the varied intonations of 
the mourners, as each raises his or her peculiar cry of 
relationship: — KSh-koo-jai-S^f^ — Alas, my brother! 
Wimba-rai-a-ray — Alas, my child ! Wah-pa^nyai-a-ray 
— Alas, my child's child ! . . . . On one occasion 
I was present at a burial, when the widower* (as the 
chief mourner chanced to be) leapt into the grave, and, 
holding his hair apart with the fingers of both hands, 
received from another Black, who had leapt after him, 

* The bereaved man's name was Towney. Towney was a chatty 
pleasant little " nugget" of a fellow, who, if one might judge him by his 
self-contained fearless manner, and by the fact of the presence of a bullet 
in his neck, had not held back from doing his part versus the invader. He 
went to Bourke shortly after the death of his gin, and was made tracker 
there; and when, through an accident, he died some years ago he received 
the honor of a public funeral. 



204 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

a smart blow with a boomerang on the " parting." A 
strong jet of blood followed. The widower then per- 
formed the same duty by his comrade. This transaction 
took place, I fancy, on the bed of leaves, before the 
corpse had been deposited. I may add that, wlule 
walking lately (1884) on the other side of the river 
from Bourke, I came across a recently-made grave, 
about three and a half feet by two feet, swept and 
levelled, and bordered with pieces of round wood. 
Twenty pieces of kopajja, each of the shape and size of 
an emu egg, long drawn out at the ends, covered most 
of the space enclosed, while at the grave's head lay a 
much larger piece, and globular, that had apparently 
been worn. Quite a gunyah (hut) of boughs shadowed 
this grave. 

74. What are the causes of their wars? How are they 
carried on ? 

74. The ordinary origin of a war between two tribes 
of Blacks was the offence of gin-stealing ; the tribe of 
the intruding Black being aggressor, in case of their 
kinsman's death; the other tribe should he have escaped. 
Not that the word war in its extended sense applies 
to what would actually occur; there would be a few 
duels, and, perhaps, a m^lde, in which, by reason of 
the address of the combatants, not a life in all like- 
lihood would pay forfeit; and then two ancients, one 
from each army, would step to the front, and exchange 

. peaceful words, an example anon followed generally. 
The Wimbaja does not foster for long alta mente 
repostum, what we call bitterness and wrath — may be 
he is too indolent to do so, and, perforce, therefore, 
too indolent to prosecute a war. 

75. How are disputes vrithin the tribe settled? 

75. The settlement of disputes within the tribe was 
left to a conclave of old men, who, having heard both 
parties, would do their best to bring about a recon- 
ciliation. Failing in such endeavour, they would con- 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES. 205 

sent to the breaking of the peace which they had 
found themselves powerless to make. Nothing more 
serious, though, than a duel, and that, possibly, all 
but bloodless, might be expected; worse threatening, 
the kindly services of the old men would be again 
brought into play. The will and pleasure of these 
ancients (only form of government in the tribe) seems 
to have consisted largely of deprecation, but little of 
dictation, and to have been conveyed ever with a view 
to the rest and quietness of the community. 

76. It has been said that messages are sent from one tribe 
to another by figures painted on bark or cut on sticks ; 
will you give me your experience on the subject? 

76. I have been told that, in the event of the loan 
of a net being required of another tribe, a waddy (club) 
having the image of a net scratched or carved on its 
nob, would be despatched thither; and that bark, too, 
was used as a means of communication. 

77. Have they any mode of salutation amongst themselves, 

such as shaking hands, &c. 

77. Two men, not necessarily related but friendly, 
when meeting, would salute by standing side by side, 
and casting, each of them, his nearer arm round his 
fellow's neck, with the greeting kahmbeeja or bahlooja 
(father or younger brother), according to the age of the 
addressed. 

78. What was the extent of country which belonged to the 

tribe ? 

78. About 100 miles, as the crow flies, of river front- 
age. The extent of back country was probably unde- 
termined, the act of trespass among such people as 
Australian aborigines being ordinarily the meeting 
anywhere of two ahen companies. 

79. Name the tribes with whom their boundaries conjoin. 

79. The adjoining tribe, up the river, is BurrunbinyS. 
That down the river is Nullttlgo. That back of left 
bank (Mulga country) is Nyammba. That back of 



206 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

right bank (towards Warrego) is Kahtegftlly. That 
back of right bank (towards Paroo) is Bahrunjy. The 
tribe Wahmbunjy comes next above the tribe Btirrfim- 
binya; the tribe Tungga next below NuUulgo. 

80. Have your Blacks any masonic signs ? 

80. I never heard of any. 

81. Have the Blacks any Government, or council of old 
men ? If so, please give full information. 

81. See 75. 

82. Does the native bee exist on your run ? What is their 
economy ? What are they like ? Do they swarm ? 
What is the weight of their comb, and quality of their 
honey ? Can they do without water ? 

82. The native bee (tintee-noorra) did formerly exist 
on the run. It was slim and stingless. It needed 
water. The honey made by it was both pleasant to the 
taste and fragrant, but wanting in clearness untU 
strained. I do not know whether native bees were 
given to swarm, nor yet what was commonly the weight 
of their comb. Here and there about the clayey front- 
age of the Darling grows a low small-leaved running 
plant (mummalarooka), which secretes a tenacious 
milky juice. With a speck of this juice (honey being 
required) a tiny piece of down would be attached to a 
bee's back (the bee having been caught while settled), 
and serve not only to retard the flight of the insect, but 
also to aid the eyesight of the Black pursuing. 

83. Have your Blacks any cures for sickness ? How do 

they treat wounds ? 

83. Except in the case of some mysterious disease 
calling for " treatment," when the doctor (turtoo- 
wooUee) would beat and sweep with leaves the air and 
the ground about his patient, knead him with knuckles, 
mutter over him, and eventually gladden him with 
sight of a stone or piece of wood as causa morbi, the 
remedies applied by the Blacks accorded very closely 
with nature ; the severest flesh-wound (beingga), for 



QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ABORIGINES. 207 

instance, being merely sucked, and tlien poulticed with 
a poultice of earth, or of chewed green leaves, or of 
bruised bark; while for the most badly-fractured bone 
(yahkoUojy-pinna) nothing more than splints of bark 
and comparative rest would be considered necessary A 
man suffering from rheumatism (gahn-gala) would con- 
tent himself with a poultice of boiled* marsh mallow 
(perndeecha). To remove a headache (turtoo-meeka), 
he would dive repeatedly, or hold the head over a fire of 
green twigs, or apply hot to it smoked green leaves, or, 
the pain in it becoming extreme, bandage it with a strij) 
of green opossum skins; sandy-blight (meeky-koUala) 
and swelling-blight (tillunggoonna), he would cure with 
the juice of the pig-face, when this was to be obtained. 
Cold water within for a fever (koUala); cold water 
within and the heat of a fire without for a cold (koon- 
dinya), cold water both within and without for indiges- 
tion (koonto-meeka), are other examples of the simple 
" course " adopted aforetime by the Wimbaja. His 
alleged philosophic prescription for snake-bite, however, 
is open to question. If the snake's harmless, no 
remedy will be needed ; if he's not harmless, none wiU 
avail. 



* I fancy that before the arrival of the Whites boiling was unknown 
to the Darling tribes.— B. M. C. 



208 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 75.— BOURKE, DARLING RIVER. 
By Grbnville N. TEULOif, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- tultta. 


Hand - 


- murrS,. 


Opossum - 


- yarinjy. 


2 Blacks - 


- booUa wimbaja 


Tame dog - 


- multtara. 


3 Blacks - 


- booUa-neecha 


Wild dog - 


- poolkgja. 




wimbaja. 


Emu - 


- kulttee. 






Black duck - 


- ming-ara. 


One - 


- neecha. 


Wood duck- 


- koonahly. 


Two - 


- booUa. 


Pelican 


- booleeja. 


Three - 


- boolla-neecha. 


Laughing jackass kOrrookahkahka. 


Four - 


booUa-booUa. 


Native companion goolSrkoo. 


Father 


- kahmbSeja. 


White cockatoo 


- kollybooka. 


Mother 


- nUmmahka. 


Crow - 


- wahkoo. 


Sister-Elder 


- wahttooka. 


Swan - 


- yoon-go-lee. 


,, Younger 


- wahttegja. 


Egg - - 


- p6rtee-gull6. 


Brother-Elder 


- kahkooja. 


Track of a foot 


- tinna. 


,, Younger bahlooja. 


Fish - 


- (nogeneralname). 


A young man 


- tummba. 


Lobster 


- (not known). 


An old man 


- mertta. 


Crayfish 


- koon-gooloo. 






Mosquito - 


- koondee. 


An old woman 


- nahnggO. 


Fly - 


. 


A baby 


- ki-chttngga. 


Snake - 


. 


A White man 


- tundooka. 


The Blacks - 


- wimbaja. 


Children 


- berloo-berloo. 


A Blackfellow 


- wimbaja. 


Head - 


- turtoo. 


A Black woman 


- burrtlkka. 


Eye - 


- meeky. 


Nose - 


- pulkka-pinna. 


Ear - 


- eilrree. 



BOURKE, DARLING RIVER. 



209 



No. 


75. — BouRKE, Darling River — crnitinued. 


Month 


- yelka. 


Boomerang - 


- wonn§,. 


Teeth - 


- nunndSe. 


Hill - 


- bol6. 


Hair of the head 


- tiirtSo-wooIkky. 


Wood - 


- yerra. 


Beard - 


- wokka-woolkky. 


Stone - 


- gibba. 


Thunder 


- bootta. 


Camp - 


- yuppara. 


Grass - 


- moottS. 


Yes - 


- marrayta. 


Tongue 


- tuUSenna. 


No - 


- nahttS,. 


Stomach 


- koontS, 


Me - 


- ahppa. 


Breasts 


- poonna. 


You - 


- imba. 


Thigh - 


- mungka. 


Bark - 


- tulkfiroo. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Good - - 


- giinjillla. 


Bone - 


- pinna. 


Bad - 


- tooUaka. 


Blood - 


- kondara. 


Sweet - 


- gunjillla. 


Skin - 


- pultta. 


Food - 




Fat - 


- munn6e. 


Hungry 


- wilkahka. 


Bowels 


- koonna-wulkka- 








wulkka. 


Thirsty 


- yerlkka. 


Excrement ■ 


- koonna. 


Eat - 


- ti-ee. 


War-spear - 


- kulkaroo. 


Sleep - 


- 6-margala. 


Reed-apear - 


- 


Drink - 


- toonjala. 


Throwing-stiok 


- 


Walk - 


- wong-a. 


Shield - 


- woolloombttrra. 


See - 


- bonimSS. 


Tomahawk - 


- wokkaka. 


Sit - 


- neengga. 


Cauoe - 


- booltaroo. 


Yesterday - 


- iUahgS. 


Sun - 


- mengkeeiillO. 


To-day 


- keilppS. 


Moon - 


- bi-chooka. 


To-morrow - 


- wahmbeenya. 


Star - 


- booUSS. 


Where are 


;he weendya wim 


Light - 


- mengkfeS. 


Blacks? 


baja. 


Dark - 


- wongka. 


I don't know 


- weendyah-n-no 


Cold - 


- yerkkee. 


Plenty 


- noollada. 


Heat - 
Day - 


- boyttyee. 

- yiikS. 


Big - 


- koombaja. 


Night - 


- toongka. 


Little - 


- kelch61k6. 


Fu-e - 


- koonyka. 


Dead - 


- bookka. 


Water- 


- uo-kk8. 


By-and-by - 


- pooly-ahtta. 


Smoke 


- poondoo. 


Come on 


- yo-thahnSS. 


Ground 


- mundee. 










MUk - 


- nummaloo. 


Wind- 


- yerttS. 






Rain - 


- mtikkra. 


Eaglehawk - 


- bil-yahra. 


God - 


- wahtta-noorinya. 


WUd turkey 


- tikkara. 


Ghosts 


- koylppa. 


Wife - 


- koombahka. 


VOL. II. 










210 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 75. — Additionai Wokds. 

The long mark and the short mark are employed in this vocabulary, not 
only to insure, as far as possible, with the help of the hyphen, a correct 
pronunciation, but also to indicate the exact number of syllables in a word. 
In a compound word, the place of the long mark depends generally, as with 
ourselves, on the context : turtoo-woolkky, for instance, stands in contra; 
distinction to wokka-woolkky; turtoo-woolkky, to turtoo-pinna. 

Soft c or « does not exist in the tongue ; for hard c, I have used h, aa 
being unmistakable; j for soft g; ee for long e; ay for a, as in baby 
ah for a, as in father; a elsewhere is as the one or the other of the two 
vowels in manna. The softer consonants are often preferred to the harder 
— ^ to b, t to d, and, now and then, Ic to g. Double consonants have been 
constantly employed, even where a single consonant may seem enough (pp 
in mulppa, nn and kk in noonntoolkko, e.g.). The cause of this is the great 
emphasis which the Wimbaja lays on some one particular syllable, or two, 
of almost every word spoken by him, an emphasis so great at times as to 
convert into a mere by-the-way the portion left without emphasis. The 
emphasis is most apparent if the word be of two syllables, in which case he 
favors the penultimate, no ultimate being lengthened except in order to the 
strengthening of an exclamation. 

Pronounce al, all, as in valley; 
uU, as in gully; 
th, as in thought; 
arr. err, irr, orr, urr, respectively, as in barrow, ferry, mirror, sorrow. 



Southern Cross — Mirrabooka. 

Alpha, Southern Cross — N8r-ry- 
aldy. 

Pointers — KoUybSoka (i.e,, cocka- 
toos). 

MUky way — P6rr6-wo-th6. 

Orion — Toolorlaja (the Wimbaja). 

Pleiades — Burlti-ch6 (the Bur. 
rukka). 

Hyades — Poondool6 (poondoo, 
cloud). 

Meteor — Bahnggala. 

Comet — Nulppa. 

Heat — Boyttyee, bookahra. 

Cold — YerkkSe, koylySe. 

Rain — Mukkra. 

Water— N5-kk6, guUinggS (cf., 
gully, gvki; gurgle, 
gurgulio), milydry 



God — Wahtta, noorinya(ie.. He of 

the right hand). 
Heaven, sky — KOrobbyna. 
Sun— Mengkeealle, yukOiilW. 
I.Ioon — Tlntiinny, bittSla, bi-chooka 

(i.e., white). 
Star — BooUee. 
Morning twilight, sunrise — Wahm- 

bee. 
Evening twilight, sunset — Kahlkka. 
Day, light— Mengk6e, yuk6. 
Night, darkness — Toongka, wongka. 
Morning star — Wahmbeg-booU^, 

wOngkahloo (i.e., that 

which darkness 

brings). * 
Evening star — M6ngkaimairny (i.e. , 

that which daylight 

brings). * 



*Mark the original beauty of these two conceptions. 



BOURSE, DARLING RIVER. 



211 



No. 75. — Additional 

Drop of water — Tttrtoo-darS. 

Bubbles— NuUdya-nttUdya. 

Rainbow — Mfindunbara,. 

Clouds (various) — NinndS,, poondoo, 
koolarSo, taung-ara. 

Lightning — Ktilla-koonyka, berla. 

Thunder — Bootta (cf., boyttyee), 
pindee. 

Wind— Yertt6. 

Whirlwind — GoorrS-bootta, yen- 
dltnya. 

North wind — KoUy -willy. 

South wind — Bukkin-ySrttO. 

East wind — ^Tow-arra. 

West wind— Ko-ly-grttO. 

Sunlight— BeinbSkka (?of., bokka, 
leaf). 

Shade, shadow — Koylppara (cf., 
koylppa, soul, ghost, 
and Umbra), mor-r6. 

Land, ground — MundSe. 

Mirage (water on ground) — Tool- 
laka-no-kk6, (i.e., false 
water). 

Mirage ("gin and water")— Boy- 
ty6e-mungk6-mungk6, 
(i.e., heat, blinking). 

Hail— Werloo. 

Dew— Keltta. 

Hoar frost — Bahnggara. 

Ice — Nelleeng-flrra. 

Fog — Poondoo-poondoo (i.e., smoke 
and smoke, or smoke 
of smokes ; so our " red 
red." Cf. poondoo, 
cloud, and also nebula, 



Mud— Bulla. 
River — Parkka. 
Bank— Mendda. 
Point — Mertfee. 
Bend — Tookktlrra. 
Reach — BBppumba. 



WoKDS — continued. 

Ford- Kahnba. 

Reef — KernnO. 

Island — Poolppft. 

Flood— Toolppa. 

Wave — Koolaroo (? of. koolaroo, 
cloud). 

Current — Kahneenya. 

Eddy— Mirrttnya. 

Water returning by bank-side — 
Nermoo. 

Creek — Kulppa, dalyy. 

Ana-branchT — Daiyy-vulkka. 

Waterhole — KahkSoroo. 

Lagoon — Bee-ree. 

Rain-water pool — Moolttinya. 

Pool left by flood — Yembtinya, no- 
kkO-mtilia, thanaka- 
roo. 

Wet ground — Tukka. 

Ground of such a wetness that the 
feet sink in it — ^Ydo- 
larSO. 

Ground of such a wetness that water 
lies on it — Poing-aroo. 

Rut left by flood— Pulkkary. 

Fissure left by flood — Yelkky. t 

Hollow, hole — Meengga, wooUee. 

Sand— Temna. 

Hill— BooUa, bolS. 

Sandhill— Temna-bo611a. 

Mountain — MukkO. 

Open country — PuUara (cf. puUara, 
flame, whereby coun- 
try is made open; and 
puUara, bald). 

Scrub country — Mulppa. 

Plain — Boolkka. 

Dust — Boottara. 

Gum-tree — Koombahla. (Is it by a 
chance or by a conceit 
that maiden also ia 
koombahla?* " ATha 
ligustra, * Vaccinia 
nigra!") 



• Other doubles are— Ternna (sand, back) ; booUa (hill, two) ; multtara (tame dog 
feather) ; merry (brow, very) ; mungko (lower arm, to wink) ; geerra (coimtry, quickly) 
wong-a (oven, to walk); hulkka (string, to kill). 

t See mtmth, page 209.— B. M. C. 

02 



212 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 75. — Additional Words — continihed. 



Box- tree — Koorkooroo. 

Saltbush (gigas) — Bahlaka. 

Cotton-bush — ^Noorpoorooj &. 

Polygonum (p. junoeum) — Ween- 
dda. 

" Roly-poly"— Kahnaia. 

Sowthistle — (" warregal cabbage ") 
btillitmba. 

Trefoil — Poontta. 

Pigface — Kahnbee. 

Nardoo— Ttindukka (? cf. tukka). 

Pig-weed — Toong-ara. 

Yam — Koonpinya. 

Mushroom — BooUee (cf. our star- 
wort, starfish). 

Marshmallow — PerndSSch^. 

Bee-plant — Ntimmalarookka (num- 
maloo, milk). 

Native spinach — K611atyla-muimo6. 

Cress — Bahnacha. 

Cowslip — Kooroonggooroo. 

Lily — Bahlahmbahthara (pronounce 
th as in this). 

Native pear* — Kaht:01a. 

Sturt's pea — ^Meekyliika, goolSlkoo. 

Toadstool— B6611ee-wee-ra (cf . mush- 
room), belttee. 

Herbages— Borddee. 

Grass — MoottS. 

Root — Pulyara. 

Sap — Yoong-a. 

Trunk — Tahree (cf. tahreenya, per- 
pendicular). 

Bark — Pultta (i.e., skin; cf. pelt, 
pellis), tulkeroo. 

Bough — Woota-yfirra. 

Branch — Wol-y6rra. 

Leaf — Bokka. 

Blossom, flower — WindSo. 

Seeds — ^Ding-y-dlng-y, pahppa. 

Gum — Tunninya. 

Honeycomb — KuUoo. 



Honey — ^Wahrahna. 

Opossum hole — Piintfin^. 

Kangaroo — Tultta. 

Wallaby — Murrinya. 

Kangaroo-rat — ^Wong-ar68. 

Tame cat — Maroon-baroo. 

Tame dog — Multtara. 

Wild dog— Poolkgja. 

Bandicoot — Poolk6ny5. 

Rat— PoolkO. 

Mouse — Mung-5. 

Opossum — ^Ya-Vinjy, worrfibooka. 

Emu — KulttSe. 

Curlew — Willar56. 

Native companion — GoolSrkoo. 

Swan — Yoongolee . 

Turkey— Tikkara. 

Pelican — BoolSSja. 

Eaglehawk — Bilyahra. 

Kite — Goorkka. 

Crow — Wahkoo. 

Sulphur -crested cockatoo — KoUy- 

booka. 
Tricolor-crested - cockatoo (Lead- 
beater's) — Kahgoola- 

rinya. 
Rose-breasted cockatoo — KiUitmba. 
Black cockatoo — Pinnya-koUyja, 

teeahro. 
Parroquet — Killiinggoonya. 
Laughing jackMS — Korrookah- 

kahka, takkooka. 
Morepork — Woopooga, noorrkoon- 

ya. 
Black duck — ^Ming-ara. 
Wood duck — Koonahly. 
Teal — Kooltapa. 

Squatter pigeon — Bahndee-wootta. 
Crested pigeon — -GooliimbtLlla. 
Speckled dove (g. ouneata) — Kor- 

woSthoo. 
Magpie-lark — Koolootaroo. 



* Not the wooden frait commonly known under this name, but a rind of moderate 
hardness and thickness, containing a mass of soft spun glass-like fibre, encased in a coat 
of bright green scales. 



BOURKE, DARLESra RIVER. 



213 



No. 75. — Additionai. Wobds — continued. 



Swallow — Nmebytmby. 

Wagtail — Tirry-girryka (cf. mota- 
cilia). 

Hornet — ^Windyady. 

Bee — TintSS-noorra. 

Butterfly-^Billtibyleukka (of. pa^ 
pilio, schmetterling, 
farfaUa, mari/posa). 

Mosquito — KoondSe (? cf. koonnee, 
sting). 

Blow-fly — KootrOty. 

March-fly — Pimp6ry. 

Eye-fly — ^Wing-oroo, mo-kay. 

Sand-fly — Neelee-ooppyka. 

Ants (various) — Kulk6ry, pint&etSe, 
beeptinbtllla,, memda, 
moonnSe, mlpparoo. 

White ant — Thunninya. 

Grasshopper — ^Nahrooka, bendSe. 

White grub — ^Mi-chungga. 

Centipede — Kelkka, eurrygarttkka. 

Tarantula^Mmramarakka ("The 
spider taketh hold with 
her haTids "). 

Scorpion — Kahlee-koonda,ra (" They 
had tails like unto 
scorpions "). 

Louse — Noolltto. 

Snakes (various) — ^Meetindy, dahn- 
goo, moondara,, mul- 
kgry (or tooroo). 

Iguana — Tarkooloo. 

Lizard — ^Yendooroo. 

Worm — lUandooroo. 

Tortoise— Boomalabooka. 

Frog— Buubtilla (bulla, mud). 

Crayfish — Koon-gooloo. 

Mussel — lUeSja. 

Cockle — Bokkojjara. 

Periwinkle — Meemeejary. 

Fishes (various) — Tahpooroo, pung- 
ara, nahmba, ytlm- 
mahja, kdonbahlee, 
pemdoo. 

Fur — Poolkky (in composition, soft- 
ened to woolkky). 



Tail — Kooudara. 

Claw — Mellinya (naU). 

Beak — ^MoounSo (upper lip). 

Wing — Wunyge (upper arm). 

Feather— Multtara, poolkky. 

Down — Poolppa, poolkky. 

Egg— Pgrt^-gtillO. 

Nipper — ^Nimnd^ (tooth). 

Sting^ — Koonnee. 

Soul, ghost — Koylppa. 

Body — Mahnba. 

Bone — Pinna. 

Hair — Poolkky. 

Head — Turtoo. 

Hair of head — Tiirtoo woolkky. 

Hair at back of head — Bomby- 

woolkky. 
Skull — Tiirtoo-pinna. 
Brains — Tiirtoo-nummalSo (i.e., head 

milk). 
Forehead — Beekkoo. 
Brow — Merry. 
Eyebrow — M6rry-woolkky, meeng. 

a- woolkky. 
Eye — Meeky. 
Eyelid — ^MSeky-bo-la. 
Eyelash — MSSky -woolkky. 
Tears— Nahkka. 
Nose — Pulkka-pinna ( ? cf . pulkka, 

string ). 

Nostril — Menndamtillo. 

Ear — ^Eurr6e (of. auris, oiie ; also, 

avKij, arip). 
Upper lip — Moonnoo. 
Hair of upper lip — MoonndS- 

woolkky. 
Lower lip — Meemee. 
Hair of lower lip — Meemee, 

woolkky. 
Tooth — Nunnd66. 
Gums — ^NunndSe-bahndee . 
Tongue — Tulleenna. 
Saliva — ^NuUtcha. 
Cheek — ^NuUSe. 
Chin — ^Wokka. 
Beard, whiskers — ^Wfikka-woolkky. 



214 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 75. — Additional 

Throat— YelkkS. 

Neck — Pernba. 

Gullet — Koon-gim-giirra (of. gul- 
linggo, water). 

CoUar-bone^Bimbary. 

Breast — PoondSlo. 

Breast — {i.e., uber) — pooima. 

Nipple — ^Numma (cf. mooimoo and 
meemee, and also 
mamma). 

Milk — Numnial55. 

Rib — Tirra-kSeky-pinna. 

Heart — Borloo. 

Lungs — Thulkka. 

Belly, stomach — Koont6. 

Naval — Winggoo. 

Liver — Tung-gtinya. 

Dung — Koonna. * 

Bowels — Koonna- wulkka-wiilkka 
(pulkka, string... ,...)• 

Kidneys — ^Yeerltto. 

Urine — Tippara. 

Shoulder — Kultta. 

Shoulder-blade^Nellee-pinna, 

Back — ^Ternna. 

Backbone — T6rnna-pinna. 

Hip — Tingka. 

Upper arm — WunySe, turtee. 

Biceps — Weingkara. 

Elbow^ — KoopO. 

Lower arm^ — Mungk6. 

Hand — Murra. 

Wrist — Werttft-mttrra («.e,, the heel 

of the hand). 
Palm — KoohtS-mtirra (i.e., the belly 
of the hand; " the hol- 
low of his hand." Cf. 
alveus, ahius). 



Words — continiied. 

Fingers — (first and secondf) — No- 
kkakoo-mahmbiinya. 

Fingers — (third and fourthj), fourth 
finger — Nulkkee- 
mttrra. 

Thumb — Koondahmahka. 

Nail— Mellinya. 

Thigh-joint — Bilkinny. 

Upper leg — Mungka. 

Knee— Dlnggy. 

Lower leg — Yelkkb, dindd8. 

CaU— Yelkk6rrS. 

Shin — Dindoo-pinna. 

Ankle — Menggoonya. 

Foot — Tinna. 

Heel— Wertta. 

Sole — KoontS-tinna {i.e., the belly 
of the foot). 

Toe — Merloo. 

Big toe — ^Weetyoo. 

Skin— Pultta. 

Perspiration — Kung-ara. 

Vein — Yentta-wttlkka (pulkka, 
string ). 

Blood — Kondara. 

Fat, marrow — MunnSg (e.g., 

yeerltto-munnee, kid- 
ney fat ; mungka-mun- 
nee, leg-marrow). 

Small-pox — Mungga. 

" Giggle-giggle. "§ — Moorkka. 

Fever — Kollala. 

Sandy blight — Meeky-koUala {i.e., 
the fevered eye) ; 
meeky-kondara {i.e., 
the bloodshot eye). 



* Note the series of which this word is head and front — Koong^ungurra, koonto, 
koonna-wullska-WTillcka, koondara, koonnee. 

t To the best of my rememberance, all Blacks, when drinking', flirted the water into 
their mouths with these two fingers (the third may have been included) of the right hand; 
and the women, when net making, employed as mesh-frarae the same fingers of the left 
hand; hence, doubtless, the conjoining of them as above. Likely enough, too, they 
formed the paint brush of the artist— in-kopajjar— when adorning a comrade tor the 
corroboree. 

t It is an interesting fact that the subordinate place in all ages allotted to the third 
finger should have obtained among these Blacks, toio divisi orbe as they were. 

§ The eruptive disorder common amongst our Blacks is, I think, meant by this word.— 
.M. C. 



BOURKE, DARLING RIVER. 



215 



No. 75. — Additional Words — continued. 



Swelling blight — TlUtlnggooima. 

Rheumatism — Gahn-gala. 

Flesh woimd, scar of wound — Being- 
ga. 

Broken bone — YahkSUojy-piima. 

Cramp — Menteeja. 

Indigestion — Koont6-m§eka. 

Headache — Turtoo mSeka. 

A cold — Koondinya. 

A boil — MentSo. 

White man — Tundooka. 

Black man, Black men — Wimbaja. 

Black woman — Burrtikka. 

Black women — Burrabartlkka.* 

Old man, head man — Mertta. 

Old woman — NahnggQ, Koombahka 

Husband — Mahlee, nooundaja. 

Wife — NahnggO, Koombahka. 

Father — KahmbSeja. 

Mother — NummShka (numma ; of. 
maman, mamma.) 

Son, daughter — WimbarS. 

"Our mutual child." — (Expression 
used by either parent 
to the other when 
speaking of one of the 
children of the family) 
— Wimbara-n-ulleenna 

Elder brother — Kahkooja. 

Younger brother — Bahlooja. 

Elder sister — Wahttooka. 

Younger sister — WahttSeja. 

Father's brother — KahmbSeja (i.e., 
father). 

Father's sister — ^Nummooja. 

Mother's brother — Wahkaja. 

Mother'ssister — Nahllooja. 

Nephew, niece — Gain-gSoja. 

Cousia (male) — Kahkooja {i.e., elder 
. brother. )t 

Cousin (female) — Wahttooka (i.e., 
elder sister.^ 



Father's father — ^Mahtaja. 

Father's mother — Meetooja. 

Mother's father — Nahttaja. 

Mother's mother — Gahneeja. 

Grandchild — ^Wahpa-nya. 

Father-in-law (to the husband) — 
Wahkaja (i.e., mother's 
brother). 

Mother-in-law (to the husband) — 
Nahllooja {i.e., 
mother's sister. )t 

Son-in-law — GaSn-gooja (i.e., 
nephew). 

Father-in-law (to the wife) — 

Kahmb^eja (i.e., fa- 
ther's brother) .t 

Mother-in-law (to the wife) — 

Nummooja (i. e., fa- 
ther's sister. )t 

Daughter-in-law — Gain-g66ja (i.e., 
niece.)+ 

Baby — Ki-chiingga. 

Twins — Boollama. 

Child— Berloo. 

Children — Berloo-berloo. 

His (mother's husband's, i.e.) fa- 
ther's boy — Mahlee- 
bSrloo. 

Her (father's wife's, i.e.) mother's 
girl — ^Nahnggo-bgrloo. 

Lad, youth — Kornoondoo. 

Lass, maiden — Koombahla. 

Young man, immediately before ini- 
tiation — ^Wilyahng-6. J 

Young man, after initiation — 
Tummba. 

Widower — Yerkkeeja(?of.yerkkee). 

Widow — Boortooka. 

Orphan- Wtilkinya. 

Rainmaker — Boon-tair-ra-mukkra. 

Doctor — Tiirtoo-woollee. 

Manslayer — Bulkka-bSokka. 



* The plural, by reduplication of some sort, appears to be the chief, if not the sole, form 
of plural in the language. 

t Theae are only auggeationa founded on analogy. 
} See page 119.— E, M, 0, 



216 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 75. — Adbitional 
Country (regio, patria) — Geerra. ■ 
News — Pulkkoo. 
Corroboree — MahnSe. 
Fight — Goo-rmya. 
Mll^e — NooUada-goorinya. 
Duel — Barkooloo-goorinya. 
Devil — Boorr^. 
God of the winds — Pindee (whence 

piudee, thunder). 
Monsters of the waters — Yeutta, 

nHtt6e. 
Burial - ground — MundSg-mundfee 

(i.e., ground and 

ground, or the ground 

of grounds, i.e., God's 

Acre). 
Grave — Toonggahra (see toong-g- 

ahty,* to bury; and cf . 

sepulchrv/m, sepelire). 
Well— Keetcha. 
Road — Yengka. 
Track (i.e., "spoor") — Tinna (so 

Kurd voSag, on the 

tracks). 
Stone — Gibba. 
Wood — Yerra. 
Fire — Koonyka. 
Fireplace — Koony-kahu-gG. 
Flame — PuUara. 
Sparks — Teewee. 
Smoke — Poondoo, poondooma. 
Charcoal — Nekkee. 
Ashes — pulppa. 
Bread — Munnoo. 
Meat— Wongga. 
Paste of seeds — Womppa. 
Cake of seeds — Bookala. 
Flat stones, wherewith to bruise 

seeds — Yeltta. 
Oven — ^Wong-a ( ? of wong-aroo, 

kangaroo-rat). 
Break-wind — Kahtrotoo. 
Sun-shade — Tahng-ftroo. 



Words— continued. 
Camp — Yuppara. 
Aboriginal hut — Goollee. 
Ridge-piece— Yerkaka (i.e., y-gool- 

lee). 
Front upright — Meenggooka. 
Rafter — noo-ahkka. 
String, cord — Pulkka (sometimes 

hardened to bulkka, 

sometimes softened to 

wulkka). 
Canoe — Booltaroo. 
Canoe-pole — werkka (i.e., b- 

werkka). 
Canoe-cord — Wahw6ry-wiilkka. 
Thwart-stick — Yerkaka. 
Net — mulkka. 
Fish-spear — Tintee. 
Spears — (2-barbed) — kiilkaroo, 

nunndSe-booka. 
Spear (1-barbed) — Wirra-wirrOty. 
Spear (unbarbed) — GooUeer. 
Shield — WooUoombtirra. 
War boomerang — Wonua. 
Returning boomerang — Wonggee. 
Large club — Ko-lo-roo. 
Small club — poonggOroo. 
Club of another sort — Poondee. 
Club (flat)— Mttng-a-buttaka. 
Tomakawk — Wokkaka, pirrambo- 

na. 
Stone tomahawk — DOrrinya. 
Spade — Boppara. 
Yam-stick — Werkka. 
Stone chisels — Mundooba, mooUSe. 
Stone knife — ^Yernda. 
Shell knife — Kahra. 
Bone knife — Tultta-pinna, kulttee- 

pinna. 
Stick, with which tooth is expelled 

— YentoorSS. t 
Punch, for " giggle-giggle " — Poon- 

goota. 
Red ochre— KootteS. 



* As a rule, noun, verb, and adjective, and occasionally adverb, are the same word 
exactly. 

t The Blacks open the innumerable pimples which arise from this disorder with a little 
pointed stick.— E. M. C. 



BOURKB. DARLING RIVER. 



217 



No. 75. — Additional Wob,t>s— continued. 



"Pipe-clay" (sulphate of lime) — 

Ko-pajja. 
Wooden bowl (large) — Yookooja. 
Wooden bowl (small; wherein to 

heat water) — ^Y6rra- 

koorooka. 
Mat — Pintooka. 
Basket — Koorooka. 
Net (small, for odds and ends) — 

Worroka. 
Rug — Komb6e. 
Fringed apron — Weerlppa. 
Loin-line, supporting it — ^W^rlppa- 

weenya. 
Loin-net (for bracing the body) — 

Weerlppa-pulkka. 
Fly-switch — ^Weerlppa (i.e., e.g., 

wingoroo-weerlppa). 
Nose-stick — M6und6gahtla {i.e., 

mexmdamullo-yerra ; 

i.e., nostril-stick). 
Head-band — M6rry-merryja. 
Head-net — Ttirtoo-weerlppa. 
Feathers in tufts {e.g., emu-feathers) 

placed therein — KuU- 

tSe-woolkky. 
Necklace — Pemba-wtilkka. 
Hole in septum of nose — ^YSrra- 

woollee. 
Ornamental scars — Ningka. 
Gap in front teeth — Bing-o-lo6. 
Hat — Ttirtoo-paroo. 
Good— Gunjalkka, gunjttUa, b61- 

leerra.* 
Bad— TooUaka, tooUaktilly. 
Fat — Noorree. 
Old— To-tayly. 
Truthful — Marrayta. 
Untruthful — Tan-g56ja. 
Hot — B^tyee. 
Cold — YerkkeS, bundSSng-iilla. 



Tall, lofty — B6o-rijjary-turt66 {i.e., 
head afar), turtoolaja. 

Big — Koombaja. 

Little— Kelch61k6. 

Perpendicular — TahreenyS,. 

Horizontal — ^Eeppa. 

Right-handed, using the right hand 
— Ndo-rinya. 

Left-handed, using the left hand — 
Yanggooja. 

Using both hands, ambidexterous — 
Mullttk-mulltik-noo- 
rinya. 

Angry — KooUa. 

Ill — Meeka, meekaja. 

White — Bi-chooka. 

Black — Kerkreeka. 

Red — Nahllkeeka. 

Blue — Ko-kr§gka. 

Green — Noonbaraka. 

Hungry — ^Wilkahka. 

Thirsty— Yerlkka. 

Empty — ^Dikkiilla. 

Lame — Poolkka. 

Grey — Goorra. 

Blind — Wontooja. 

Bald — PuUara. 

Deaf — ^Nahppaja (? cf . n-ahppa, 'tis I: 
i.e., 'tis only I; the 
compulsorily unsoci- 
able; pass on). 

Dumb — Mitndting-ingga. 

Insane— Ttirto6-wulkkat(?cf.bulkka, 
to kill ; or pulkka, 
string . . . .). 

Dead — ^Bookka. 

To Hear, to understand — Tulleetee 
fshows how aflfined in 
the wimbaja are ivg 
and vovg). 
SmeU — B6-ootta. 



* These three words (which are adverbs also) may be joined indifferently with any 
noun or pronoun that is to be favorably qualified, the occasion supplying the full sense 
intended. They stand, therefore, for grood, sweet, new, &c. TooUaka and toollakully^ in 
like manner, answer to our bad, lazy, quarrelsome, &c. 

t See page 213, turtoo woolkky = hair of the head.—E. M. C. 



218 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 75. — Additional Woeds — continued. 



To See — Bommee. 

Summon by whistling — ^Koyl- 

ppee (?cf. koylppa). 
Call by name — Kulppra. 
Fetch— WottOla^. 
Seize forcibly — ^Noo-rinya (noo- 
rinya, as verb or as ad- 
verb, takes the long 
mark - on the first 
syllable). 
Tattoo — Wahmma, bahtSa. 
Kiss — Moonnoo-inja (moonnoo). 
Tickle — Noonnda-noonndiinda 
(cf. kinda-kindunda, 
the event of noonnda 
noonndunda). 
Pinch — BeettS. 
Stroke — Toinbomba. 
Strike — Pertta. 
Kill— Bulkka (cf. bookka). 
Bury — Toonggahty. 
Breathe, to sigh — Tow-6rry. 
Sniff — ^Wahnggttnya. 
Sniff, rubbing the nostrils with 
the finger — Mennda- 
miillabiitta. 
Blow the nose — ^N5nd6rry. 
Sneeze — EnchoochS. 
Crawl — Bungga. 
Dance — ^W66mb6mboollee, 
Swim — Yeekka. 
Dive^Burriing-a. 
Walk — Wong-a. 
Run — Kolyara. 
Pant — Moott6-moott5. 
Stumble headlong — Nahnggahla- 
tanggoorSe (? of. nah- 
nggo). 
Fall— Beekka (cf. bookka). 
Sit down, remain — Neengga. 
Sitcrosslegged— Pintee-pinteejy. 
Lie down, recline— Eemma [cf. 

eeppa]. 
Think — Moorra. 
Sleep — E-margala. 



To Dream — Bookoylppy (? cf. 
koylppa). 
Snore — PoompOppa, bahndiinda. 
Yawn — Tahppapa. 
Wink — Miingko. 
Blink — Mungko-miingko. 
Stare — Wahmba. 
Get up — Dingggiy (dinggy: 
" A hand touched me, 
which set me upon my 
knees "). 
Smile — M6-ki-y8. 
Laugh — Kinda-kindiinda. 
Hum — Moormoo-moorra. 
Whistle — ^WeelpSolkO. 
Sing — Yengke. 
Gabble — ^YtLnda-yiindadS. 
Shoot out the lip — Moonnoo- 

booteeja (monnoo). 
Sulk — Breerry. 
Stamp foot — ^Niimmbiiddy. 
Fight — Goo-rmya. 
Sob — ^NSnnggo-neimggary . 
Cry — Neerra, nahng-aroo 

(nahnggo : " Women. 
must weep " — Kinga- 

ley). 

Groan — Yerkiilko. 

Cluck with tongue — Noonn- 

t661kk6. 
Drink — Toonjala, tweendya. 
Hiccough — Tunttinda, numm- 

btiUa. 
Blow with mouth — Poorppa, 
Eat— tl-6e, tar-enjary. 
Gorge — Wertto-tiee, beUeerra- 

tiSe, noorinya-tiSe. 
Be ill— KullttUa. 
Spit— Nulltcha. 
Cough — GoonkOko. 
Vomit — Mundtinda. 
Stammer — Mundiilka. 
Whisper — Mahra-bulkkoo. 
Shiver, tremble — YiJrly-iirly. 
Paint — Wahloo-wahloolbS 



BOURKE, DAHLING EIVER. 



219 



No. 75. — Additional Wobds — continued. 



To Die— Bookka. 

Smell iU — Bookka-bookka (ie.,to 
be dead indeed). 
Very very long ago — Kahndeen 
merry kahndeen yok6 
(i.e., yako). 
Very long ago — Kahndee-kahndSen- 
ya, m6rrym6rry kahn- 
dSen y6k0. 
Long ago — Kahndeenya, kahndSSn 

yOkO, 
Lately — KeIlpp&-kSlpp6, 
The day before yesterday — Kah- 

rookO, 
Yesterday — IllahgO, 
To-day — Now, almost (cf, our pre- 
sently) — KeilppS. 
To-morrow — Wahmbeenya, Kah- 

reengky. 
To-morrow morning — Wahmbo- 

ahmby. 
The day after to morrow — Kahkah- 

rSengky. 
The day after the day after to- 
morrow — Kahkahkah- 
rSengky. 
In five days hence — ^Yenta tiima 

yokO. 
In ten days hence — Tinna ohllb 

y6k6. 
By-and-by — Pooly-ahtta. 
Some day or other — Boorijjary 
kahn^ {i.e., afar to 
come) — kahn^-ee- 
kahn^. 
Forthwith — TundSgj a. 
Often — Tim-ga, 
Always — Tun-ga m6rry. 
Never — Ealla. 
For long — ^WerkO-6-ta (cf. kitto-o- 

ta, farewell). 
One — Neecha. 
Two — Barkooloo, booUa. 
Three — Bark6ol6 neecha. 
Four — Barkooloo barkool65. 



Together — BooUa. 
Apart — ^Neecha-neechS {i.e., one by 
one ; cf, dvo Svo, St. 
Mark vi. 7). 
To the right — ^Noorinya. 
To the left— YanggO. 
On the hither side — WOrronarukka, 

w6r-ang6ry. 
On the thither side — MttUarka. 
Anigh — Teilppa. 
Afar — Boo-rijjary, boo-reelly. 
Indoors — Koont6-g6ollee {i.e. the 

belly of the house). 
Out of doors — Tahna-muUaka, 
The end — Tintee-wulkka. 
The middle — TmtSe-fSkka, ttirtoo- 

no-kk6. 
Everywhere — Tinto6-n6-kk6. 
Very, thoroughly — Merry. 
Plenty — NooUada. 
Lo 1 — Bommee. 
Hark ! TflUeetee. 
What?— Minna? 
Where ? — Weendya, weendyara. 
Well said ! Well done ! Hooray ! 
All right I — Gunjiilkka, 
gunjftUa, bSUeerra. 
You don't say so ! — Aht6gng-a. 
Yes, truly — Naho-, nay (cf. vd,) 

marrayta. 
Yes, indeed — Marrayta, m6rry. 
No — Nahtta. 

Certainly not — Nahtta mgrry. 
Have done ! — Nahohtta, nahtahtta. 
I — Ahppa. 

You — imba, indoo, o-mma. 
He, She, It— Wahtta, wahtt6. 
The man yonder. That woman. This 
thing — Wahtta- eennO. 
One more — Neecha binna. 
It's all one to me, I think with you 
— Eiinee-n-ahlppy, en- 
neenya-n-ahppa. (cf. 
unus). 
Ah me ! — N-ahppa guUago. 



220 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 75. — Additional Words — continued. 



Take care ! — Wirra-miUa. 

Cheer up I Don't make a fuss! Hush! 

Moonda-neengga. 
My dear — Mahmbo-li. 
Come hither — Yo-thahn6e, yo-vah- 

rfeepa.* 
Go hence — Wahra-thahnSe, wahra- 

vahreepa.* 
Come hither quickly ! — Yo-mSrry- 

thahnee, yo-m6rry- 

vahreepa. 
Fetch it hither ! — Yah-wahttQ. 
Take it hence ! — Wahra-gahndee. 
I'm off — Thahnee ahppa, ahppa 

thahnSeng-ting-a. 
You stay behind — Imba neengga. 
Which way shall I go ? — Weendya 

ahppa thahneeng- 

iing-a. 
Go that way — Wahtt6-a-rahn&e. 
Quickly, quickly ! — Geerra geerra. 
Halt there ! — Neengga. 
Keep to the road — Yengka binna. 
I don't want to go ! — Killhan6Sng- 

ahppa. 
I shan't go ! — MooUtflrreeng-ahppa. 
I'm very tired — Boolyahppy-wah- 

nda-ahppa. 
I have too huge a corporation — 
Koonna-na-p611a-ahppa. 
I'm very ill — Meeka-1-ahppa. 
Come, no more of that gabble — 

Weendy ak miindy y ttn- 

da ytindada indoo. 
Go and have a drink — Beelkka 

toonjala. 
Where are the Blacks? — Weendya 

wimbaja. 
I don't know — Weendyah-n-no. (i.e., 

ay, where indeed ?) 
I have seen it — BOmmSe wahttO. 
I have not seen it — KiUa bSmmSe 

wahttO. 



I have heard of it — TuU^tee wahttS 
I understand — TuUeetee ahppa. 
What do you say? — K6-pa kooray. 
There's a Black coming — Thahnfeeng- 

tlng-a nfeecha wimbaja. 
Seize the fellow ! — ^Noo-ringa wahttS. 

("With aU our main 

of power.") 
Why so ? — ^Minna mundy. 
There's not a Black about the place 

— Killa nahtta wtmbaj - 

ettee. 
Is a Black here? — Wimbaja nSengga. 
Yes, I ! — N-ahppa. 
"Good morrow to thee ! Welcome" 

— Geerra - thahnee, 

geerra-vahrSepa, (i.e., 

come quickly! adsisl). 
Where's another Black ? — ^Weendya 

kahroo wimbaja. 
A Black's coming — Wimbaja been- 

dal6ng. 
Come, I want one of you with me — 

Yo - thahn^, niHlee 

bSrroo thahnee. 
Come quicjkly, one of you ! — Geerra- 

geerrahnS. 
Come quickly, numbers of you! — 

Geerra - geerrahnfeeng 

ohllo. 
Make a big blaze ; it's very cold — 

Noollada wahttS koon- 

yka ; bUndeeng - iilla 

keekky. 
Get more wood — KahroS y6rra 

wahttS. 
Where is it ? — Weendyah-t-t8. 
It's all gone — Nahtta winnOty. 
You're a humbug — ^Nahtta mfiny 

imba. 
I'm no humbug, I'm in earnest, I 

speak the truth — Mar- 

rayta mSriy ahppa. 



* In the yo- and the wahra- of these words, one can almost see the welcoming and the 
repelling action of hands and lips. 



BOURKE, DARLING RIVER. 



221 



No. 75. — Abditional Words— continiied. 



You're a lazy fellow — ^Toollaktllly 
turtooja. (Turtoo: of. 
caput, — e.g., "care ca- 
put.") 

You're another — N-imbah-kaytlS. 

Where shall I put it? — ^Weendya 
Semma ]'a-gy. 

Here — KItterryda. 

There — Eettona. 

More this way ! — Yo-mSrry. 

More that way ! — Wirra-mSrry. 

That'll do; I don't want it— Na- 
hshtta; kiUa wahtt6 
ahltS. 



What do the Blacks name this ? — 
Minna wlmbaja 
keekky. 

I'm aU but a Black myself— KeilppS 
wlmbaja n-ahappa 

Who are you ?— Minna wahn-ga 
imba. 

Where's your country ? — Weend- 
yara gSer-r-o-mma. 

Afar on the other side of the river 
— MuUarka parkka 
boorijjary. 

The net's at the camp on the other 
side — Mulkka 
6-mama milllarkyna 
moollee-n-ytlpparunna. 

The sun's just setting ; come, be quick, be quick, and get over, and set 
off to the camp together — KeilppS ytlko-illl6 beekka kfinnah, geerra geerrah- 
n6eng-(5-tah, geerra geerrah, yuppara milnday. 

Good-bye ! Good-night ! — Kilt6-6-ta, neenggtingga. 

The very expressive words following — contained above, but not there 
noted, many of them — seem to me worthy of special mention: — Wahkoo 
(crow), woopooga (morepork), koonahly (wood-duok), korwoo thoo 
(speckled dove), korrookahkahka (laughing jackass), tirry-girryka (wagtail), 
eurree (ear), moonnoo and meemee (upper lip and under Up), tuUeenna 
(tongue), yelkka (throat), koongung-urra (gullet); gullinggo (water), 
bootta (thunder), towerry (to breathe), poompoppa (to snore), enchoo-cho 
(to sneeze), goonkoko (to cough), mootto-mootto (to pant), nennggo- 
nennggary (to sob), yurly-urly (to shiver, to tremble), mungko-mungko 
(to blink), kinda-kindunda (to laugh), tahppapa (to yawn), weelpoolko (to 
whistle), noonntoolkko (to cluck with the tongue), nuUtcha (to spit), poorppa 
(to blow with the mouth), moonnoo-inja (to kiss), moonnoo-booteeja (to 
shoot out the lip), menndamuUabutta (to sniff, rubbing the nostrels with 
the finger), nahnggahla-tanggooree (to stumble headlong). And what can 
better example Shakspere's "quick cross-lightning" than kuUa-koonyka ; 
the quiver of a brandished spear, the quiver and whirr of a launched spear, 
than wirra-wirroty ; the fitful ways of a butterfly, than billubyleukka ? 

One may reasonably doubt whether, from a vocabulary so limited, could 
be furnished by any civilized tongue such a galaxy of speaking words. 

The following is a list of words either not confirmed or having some- 
thing suspicious about them, but not necessarily unworthy; inserted because 
some of them might possibly be confirmed by, or confirm, those of another 
contribution : — 



New moon — Buttoo. 

Pull moon — Koombaja (i.e., big). 

Moon on wane — ^Winna. 



Evening star — Nooahlok-mttttee- 

mutteeka. 
Sunrise — Kulchftlka. 



222 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 75.— Additionai 

Midday — Kulk6iy (also, bull-dog 
ant.) 

Sunset — Pilkka, pilkahna, piilkka- 
wahttS Cpilkahna was 
given to me at various 
times not only as sun- 
set, but as child; and, 
joined with booUee, as 
meteor). 

Night — Nahmoodee. 

Meteor — BooUee-pilkahna. 

Comet — Yengka (also road). 

Heat — Kahla-kahla. 

Water — KoUy (this word savours of 
boojery and the like, 
as do wee-wee, ill; 
ewoho, sun ; bimble, 
ground). * 

Mirage — Ahppee-n6-kk6. 

Ford — Nairree-nQ-kkO. 

Island — Kurla-poolppo . 

Waterhole — N6-kk6-y6rra, n6r- 
ahla. 

Pool— Gahttilyka. 

Open country — -JUilkkah (also 
brackish water). 

Saltbush — BSkka-bootta (thunder 
leaf). 

Cotton-bush — B66kumbaroo,bunnba. 

Trefoil — Goorra-goorra. 

Nardoo — Wahn-goo. 

Pig-weed — T6ol6rlflnggarinya. 

Yam — Giimni, tahnee. 

Mushroom — Boo-rungga. 

Bee-plant — Buthim-bftthy (th as in 
thin). 

Sap — Billa-n9-kk6. 

Sapling — Menttinya. 

Bough — ^Woombaja. 

Leaf — KahrSrSe, 

Seed — Poonbdlka. 

Hive — ^WooUSS (i.e., hole; is wurley 
a corruption of wool- 
lee?). 



WoEDS — continued. 

Honeycomb — Thi-6-ee (th asinthin). 

Kangaroo — Gilpyja. 

Kangaroo-rat — Martooka, b6-inya. 

Bandicoot — K6ndara-booka. 

Porcupine — Ktlltoo, kullgtSe. 

Curlew — Burtulaka. 

Turkey — Toolkeeka. 

Sandfly — MoonnSe-nlrreeka. 

Ants (various) — Meetooja, bultta, 

teerala. 
White ant — Moominya. 
Snake (a) — Yerr61k8. 
Iguana — Purnna, w6116reeima. 
Lizard — Boonnoo. 
Tortoise — Kerky-mtilka, poorkSo. 
Periwinkle — Neemma, mooUairry. 
Pishes (various) — PuntahlSe, wee- 

g6er, pumt6-oka. 
Soul— Toob6ry. 
Tears — Meeky-mahla, mSeky-nullee 

(nuUee, cheek). 
Septum of nose — Tahppa. 
Cheek— NoolkkS. 
Chin — MooltteS. 
Kidneys — Bahnda. 
Back — Nahroo, bahlaroo. 
Hip — Kooloo-pinna. 
Ankle — Keng-g5o. 
Sole — Poonna. 
Big toe — Bunna. 
Joint — Moorkka (also, " giggle- 
giggle"). 
Blister— KuUa. 

Swelling blight — MSSky-boylloo. 
Child— Pilkahna. 
Children — Gorwa, kahtcha-wuUoo- 

koo. 
Maiden— Ptllkahly. 
Male child — Willya-roong-a. 
Female child — Ki-chtinggoo. 
Young man — Miill6o-S5lta. 
Young man, before initiation — 

Wilyaroo, nulkktt, 

kahndee. 



* I had warned my contributors, in a letter attached to my list of words, against setting 
down without inquiry a few such words as boojeri=good, &aeZ= nose, which the early settlers 
had learnt from the Sydney tribe, the impression with some persons being that there is but 
one language in Australia.— E. M. C. 



bourKe, darling river. 



223 



No. 75.— Additional Womts— continued. 



Young man, after initiation — Kool- 

ta-mttrra, mooleenya. 
Widow — NOnnj^e. 
Woman who has left her husband — 

Ginmee. 
Fatherless child, motherless child — 

Mornnee. 
(A woman speaks to her nephew of 

his father as taralby.) 
Breakwind — Ttirt5o-da-burtta. 
Corroboree — Bahkitnya, yengkO, 

nommba, moolgahlly, 

dinnabi. 
Road — ^Pulttoo, etironedO. 
Small flrewood^ — Mookooja. 
Large firewood — Tahlara. 
Front supports of gunyah — UllSe- 

engkara. 
Back supports of gunyah — Tooltto- 

ungkara. 
Rafters — Tilkee-gooUee. 
Charcoal — Kimba. 
Fish-grease — Wilkahra. 
Cake of seeds — ^Windda. 
Poultice of warmed leaves — Poon- 

bahmba. 
Oven — Kurkooroo, nooa. 
Fish-spear — Kurttee, biinda. 
Nullah-nullah (small) — Keikka. 
Yam-stick — Kwingka, kootaka. 
Red ochre — Kurkkoo. 
Wooden bowl (small) — Keenyy. 
Mat — Pintooroo. 
Net (little)— Mirra. 
Head-band — Nootong^a. 
Necklace — Keewara. 
Strong — KoorkrSe. 
Weak — Eella-koorkr^S. 
Courageous — Eella-ooUyaloo. 
Afraid — OoUya. 



Tall — Berlooroo. 

Short — Kardooka. 

Unthruthful- 

Thievish — Kernmahja. 

Lame — Kookka. 

Deaf— Mo-ko. 

One-eyed — Y6ntta-meekaja. 

Angry — Bee-r6-r§e. 

Lazy— Btlndee-biindeej a. 

Industrious — Bopparaka. 

To stroke — Koonna-koonneenya 
(probably to pat with 
satisfaction ; a well- 
filled stomach). 

To fondle— BahndahkO. 

To dive— NahppSo-orkala. 

To get up — Pumda. 

To sing — Pukkinya. 

To sob — Boqu§epa, yahndalahna. " 

To drink — Weejja. 

To stammer — TooUaka-bulkkoo. 

To stop ears — ^Nahjja. 

Yesterday — lUana. 

Ho, there ! — Mee. 

Stop ! — TahrSe (also trunk) . 

Come hither I — Burreeba. 

Be quick !^-Moorra-moorra. 

Is it a fact ? — Injee. 

For a while — Btilyahda (suspiciously 
like — soften it and it 
becomes pooly-ahtta, 
by-and-by). 

I don't know — Yoon-gahnjy, 

Tribes (incidentally mentioned) — 
Ahn-g66k6, Mi-piilk6, 
Tungga, Wahtta-waht- 
ta,* Letcha - 16tcha, 
Kahtchee-tahkka, 
Ung-i-ung-i. 



When a child died, it waa buried near to a young tree, round which bands alternate 
(from the bottom) of black, red, yellow, red, white, were drawn ; a path to the grave was 
marked out. No kopajji was placed on the grave of a child. 

* It is curious to note that the names of two tribes below Swan Hill, on the Murray, 
were known on the Upper Darling.— E. M. C. 



224 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 76.— FIFTY MILES BELOW BOURKE ON THE 
DARLING. 



By Sir Samuel Wilson aot) W. Hendekson, Esq. 

Or this vocabulary, wliicli has a good deal in common with 
the foregoing one, I have received two renderings, one 
from Sir Samuel "Wilson, and the other from Mr. William 
Henderson ; they agree well. 



Kangaroo - 


- dulta. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- yerringee. 


2 Blacks - 


- boola weim- 


Tame dog - 


- kuUi. 




butha. 


Wild dog - 


- kudill. 


3 Blacks - 


- boola nicha 


Emu - 


- kulthi. 




weimbutha. 


Black duck - 


- mengera. 


One - 


- nicha. 


Wood duck - 


- ninyea. 


Two - 


- boola. 


Pelican 


- nunkoor, nan- 


Three - 


- boola nicha. 


Jsura. 
Laughing jackass kurra-ka-ka. 
Native companion gultook. 


Four - 
Father 


- boola-boola. 

- kombitha, gam- 

biji. 

- ummaka. 

- wirtooka. 


White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - - 


- kullepooka. 

- wakoo. 

- ungoli. 

- purti. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„ Younger 


Track of a foot 


- tinna. 


Brother-Elder 


- wertiga. 


Fish - 


- (no generic 


„ Younger kakooga. 




name). 


A young man 


- kooltha. 


Lobster 


- (none). 


An old man 


- murta. 


Crayfish 


wegiga. 


An old woman 


- burruga. 


Mosquito - 


- oonthi. 


A baby 


- kaiohungo. 


Fly - 




A White man 


- weUbuUa. 


Snake - 


mulkeri. 


Children - 


- kiioha-buUuko. 


The Blacks - 


■ weimbutha- 


Head - 


- thertoo, thurt- 


A Blackf ellow 


■ wombage. 




woola. 


A Black woman 


burraburraka. 


Eye - 


- mikey. 


Nose - 


mendoomuUa. 


Ear - 


- yoori. 



BELOW BOUEKE ON THE DARLING. 



225 



No. 76. — PiJTT Miles below Bou 


EKE ON THE Daelinq — Continued. 


Mouth 


- yelka. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- undi. 


HUl - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- therteboolka. 


Wood - 


- yarra. 


Beard - 


- wakaboolka. 


Stone - 


- yernda. 


Thunder - 


- brinda. 


Camp - 


- yeppara. 


Grass - 


- molo, muttoo. 


Yes - 


- 00-00, naya. 






No - 


- nata. 


Tongue 
Stomach 


- therlunnia. 

- moonda. 


I 

You - 


- uppa. 

- Lmba. 


Breasts 


- umma. 


Bark - 


- pultha. 


Thigh - 


- mulka or monka. 


Good - 


- kungala. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bad - 


- boolagalli. 


Bone - 


- brinna. 










Sweet - 


- murga. 


Blood - 


- karnthurra. 










Food - 


- ooquanna. 


Skin - 


- pultha. 


Hungry 


- weilkukka, yar- 


Fat - 


- murni. 




range. 


Bowels 


- koonawoon. 


Thirsty 


- nookoowerthi- 


Excrement - 


- koona. 




knppa. 


War-spear - 


- karkooro. 


Eat - 


- kari. 


Reed-spear - 


- (not used). 


Sleep - 


- immerkuUa. 


Throwing-stick 


- (not used). 


Drink - 


- toonjella, dun- 


Shield - 


- oolumburra. 




gera. 


Tomakawk - 


- wakukka, tur- 


Walk - 


- taminjerri. 




rinya. 


See - 


- pommi. 


Canoe - 


- boolyimga. 


Sit - 


- narnguUa. 


Sun - 


- yooko. 


Yesterday - 


- karlkunna. 


Moon - 


- brittella. 


To-day 


- kailpoo, kiporta 


Star - 


- poolia, burle. 


To-morrow - 


- wambi. 


Light - 


- wombe. 


Where are 


the wingera wim- 


Dark - 


- toonka. 


Blacks? 


bagi? 


Cold - 


- bundinyella. 


I don't know 


- wingera moora 


Heat - 


- boorchi, tila. 




kitthi. 


Day - 


- mimkay. 


Plenty 


- oolurti. 


Night - 


- kailka. 


Big - 


- wertoo. 


Fire - 


- kurla. 


Little - 


- kurtalooko. 


Water 


- nurko. 


Dead - 


- booka. 


Smoke 


- burndoo. 


By-and-by - 


- gooni. 


Ground 


- murndi. 


Come on 


- yonatani. -. 


Wind - 


- yerto, 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- nina, mukra. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- boori. 


Wife - 




VOL. II. 




P 





226 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 77.— WILCANNIA. 



By Murray Rogers, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


turlta, telta. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 


yarungee. 


2 Blacks 


barkool wimbuta. 


Tame dog - 


bulkaja. 


3 Blacks 


barkooleacheree 


Wild dog - 


kuUee. 




wimbuta. 


Emu - 


kultee. 


One - 


neecha. 


Black duck - 


mingera. 


Two - 


barkool. 


Wood duck- 


koongnallee. 


Three - 


barkooleacheree. 


Pelican 








Laughing jackass 
Native companion 




Four - 


barkool-barkool. 




Father 


gombigi. 


White cockatoo - 




Mother 


■ ummiki. 


Crow - 


waakoo. 


Sister-Elder 


wertoki. 


Swan - 


yungolee. 


„ Younger 




Egg - 


bertee. 


Brother-Elder 


kokogi. 


Track of a foot - 


tinna. 


„ Younger 




Fish - 




A young man 




Lpbster 




An old man- 


mambee, gombigi 


Crayfish 




An old woman 




Mosquito 


koondee 










A baby 


burloo. 


Ely - - 


wingeroo. 






Snake - 


mingera. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


. 


Children 




A Blackfellow 


wimbuta. 


Head - 


turto. 


A Black woman 


uungo. 


Eye - 


meekee. 


Nose - 


mendolo. 


Ear - 


yurree. 





WiLCANNIA. 


227 




No. 17.— WiLCANTSiA— continued. 




Mouth - 


yelko. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


undee. 


Hill - 


- bole. 


Hair of the head 


- turto bulkee. 


Wood - 


- yerra. 


Beard - 


- wauka bulkee. 


Stone - 


- kemo. 


Thunder 


- pirndee. 


Camp - 


- yapra. 


Grass - 


- mootoo. 


Yes - 


- ungua. 


Tongue 




No - 


- atha or artha 


Stomach 


- koontoo. 




berree. 


Breasts 


- ummi. 


I 


- appa. 


Thigh - 


- 


You - 


- Lmba. 


Toot - 


- tinna. 


Bark - 


- pelta. 


Bone - 


- yelko. 


Good - 


- balera. 


Blood - 


- kamdara. 


Bad - 


- toolika. 


Skin - 


- pelta. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- mumee. 


Food - 


- wunga. 


Bowels 


- tungunya. 


Hungry 


- wilkuka. 


Excrement ■ 


- koolna. 


Thirsty 


- yerka. 


War-spear - 


- pirror. 


Eat - 


- tiell. 


Reed-apear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- wimpup. 


Wommera or 




Drink - 


- weecherie. 


tkrowing-stick 




Walk - 


- 


Shield- '- 


- wond or wound. 


See - 


pommee. 


Tomahawk - 


- taroonya. 


Sit - 


- nerole. 


Canoe - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- elarko. 


Sun - 


- yoko. 


To-day 


- kailpo-yoko. 


Moon - 


- bichuka. 


To-morrow - 


- karankee. 


Star - 


- boorlee. 


Where are 


the wingera wimbu- 


Light - 
Dark - 


- yoko. 

- marka. 


Blacks ? 
I don't know 


ta? 
- eela athawa pom 


Cold - 
Heat - 
Day - 


- yerkee. 

- bootchee. 

- yoko. 


Plenty 

Big - - 


ma. 

- waupoo, waugh 

waugh. 

- werta. 


Night - 


- marka. 


Little - 


- kutchulka. 


Fire - 


- koonika. 


Dead - 


- booka, bookala- 


Water - 


- ngoko. 




gee. 


Smoke - 
Ground 
Wind - 
Rain - 
God - 


- boothara. 

- mundi. 

- yerto. 

- mukkra. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 


- kailpo. 

- kowa, koalee. 

- teekera or tool 

kera. 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife 


- 



228 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 77. — Additional Wokds, by Mtjhkay Rogers, Esq. 



Teal - 


cooltooper. 


String - 




burtka. 


Rose cockatoo 


kukundee. 


Spring 




peril. 


Road - 


yerkna. 


Spring water 




gnalta gnoko. 


Heart - 


boolato. 


Summer 




bookara. 


Thin - 


ninditcha. 


Winter 




koalyee. 


Corpulent - 


nooree. 


South wind - 




koolyerto. 


Dust - 


boothara. 












Small ant - 




moonee. 


Cotton-bush 


bootooja. 












Exclamation 


of 


yakai ! 


Green grass 


noomba mootoo. 






I am hungry 


wilkuk appa. 


surprise 






Stink - 


booka-booka. 


Grass seed - 




paapa. 


You go 


parek imba. 


Marsupial pouch - 


wurlga. 


Get out of that - 


wurrumi or wur- 


Opprobrious 


epi- 


wurlgama. 




rumonda. 


thet applied 


to a 




I am soon going - 


kailpo parik appa. 


female 






Timber - . - 


yerra. 


Opprobrious 


epi- 


curtoma. 


Gum-tree - 


goombil. 


thet applied 


to a 




Box-tree 


koorkoor. 


male 






Pine-tree 


pimpa. 


Tail - 




koondara. 


Laugh - 


klnduda. 


White - 




copage. 


Cry - - . 


nukka-nukka. 


Black - 




cookrega. 


Tears - 


yanda. 








Quick - 


kulyerall. 


Five - 




yantamera. 


You be C[uick 


kulyerall imba. 


Ten - 




- merrinole (hand) 


Strong 


bickra. 


Twenty 




merrinole tinole 


You are very 


werta bickra 






(hand and foot) 


strong 


imba. 


Waterhole - 




murtee. 


Calabash 


kerkee. 


Hill waterholt 


i 


bolomurtee. 


Bag - - - 


mirrar. 


Place - 




geeri 


Net - 


murlka. 


Good place 


or 


balera geeri. 


Covering for the 


turtoopero. 


country 






head 




Rock wallaby 


■ 


wungeroo. 


Rug - 


combee. 


Kangaroo-rat 


- 


curtie. 


Do you under- 


enrich imba ? 


Paddimellon 


- 


yapoonia. 


stand ? 




You remain 




imba nerole. 


I do not under- 


wamba appa. 


I have a pain in 


koontoo mukage 


stand 




my stomach 




appa. 



WILCANNIA. 229 

In several localities in the Central Division of tlie Con- 
tinent we find hut translated wurli, and in the Additional 
Words just given we have murlga = marsupial pouch, which 
I have no doubt is derived from wurli, if indeed rourlga does 
not mean hut in this language. Wurlgama, the opprobrious 
term applied to a female, may be a compound of wurlga and 
ama = breasts. In this Vocabulary the nasal sound is ex- 
pressed by gn instead of the ordinary ng. 



230 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 78.— TINTINALIGI, DARLING RIVER. 





By the Authok. 




See war 


spmr. Kaalk is a common equivalent for wood. 


Kangaroo - 


dulda. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


yeringi. 


2 Blacks - 


- barkooloo wim 


Tame dog - 


kalli. 




booja. 


Wild dog - 




3 Blacks - 


- barkooliteheri 


Emu - 


kalthi. 




wimbooja. 


Black duck - 


ngalta. 


One - 


- ngitya. 


Wood duck - 


goonale. 


Two - 


- barkooloo. 


Pelican 




Three - 


- barkooliteheri. 


Laughing jackass 


■ kokagok. 


Four - 


- barkooloo bar- 


Native companion koUoorkoo. 




kooloo. 


White cockatoo 


- kenke. 


Father 


- kumbidja. 


Crow - 


- waakoo. 


Mother 


- ngamukka. 


Swan - 


- yungoonoo. 


Sister-Elder 


- widthooka. . 


Egg - - 


- birti. 


,, Younger 


- 


Track of a foot 


- kappala. 


Brother-Elder 


- kowkija. 


Pish - 


- 


,, Younger 


Lobster 


- 


A young man 


- talera. 


Crayfish 


- kumbooloo. 


An old man 


- baalwila. 


Mosquito - 


- goondi. 


An old woman 


- goomboka. 


Fly - - 


- wiingeroo. 


A baby 


- moetpa. 


Snake - 


- thuroo. 


A White man 


- 


The Blacks - 


- wimbooja. 


Children - 


- gonendoo. 


A Blackfellow 


- wimbooja. 


Head - 


- thartoo. 


A Black woman 


- ngongoo. 


Eye - 


- miki. 


Nose - 


- mindoonga. 


Ear - 


- yoori, 



TINTrNALIGI, DARLING RIVEE. 



231 



No. 78. — TiNTINALIGI, 

Mouth - - yalka. 
Teeth - - - unde. 
Hair of the head - thurtolge. 



Beard - 


- wokolka. 


Thunder - 


- bimdi. 


Grass - 


- mothur. 


Tongue 


- dthalainga. 


Stomach 


- koomtoo. 


Breasts 


- ngamma. 


Thigh- - 


- yalkoo. 


Foot - 


- dthinna. 


Bone - 


- bima. 


Blood - 


- kaangurra. 


Skin - 


- 


Fat - 


- mimi. 


Bowels 


- koomtoo. 


Excrement - 


- koorna. 


War-spear - 


- kaalkooroo. 


Reed-spear - 


- (none). 


Throwing-stick 


- (none). 


Shield 


- ngooloomburra. 


Tomahawk - 


- waakakoo. 


Canoe 


- bootheroop. 


Sun - 


- jTikur. 


Moon - 


- burchooga. 


Star - 


- boorle 


Light - 


- ngunyak. 


Dark - 


- dalka. 


Cold - - 


- yakke. 


Heat - 


- yanke. 


Day - 


- kalkere. 


Night - 


- doonka. 


Fire - 


- koonika. 


Water 


• ngookoo. 


Smoke 


- boordook. 


Ground 


- mimdi. 


Wind - 


- yertoo. 


Rain - 


- mokkera. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


_ 



Daeling Rivee- 
Boomerang - 
Hill - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp - 
Yes - 
No - 
I 

You - 
Bark - 
Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 
Food - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 
Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 

Blacks ? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big* - - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 
Wife - 



, — continued. 



- yarra. 

- kimoo. 

- yappara. 

- ngetina, 

- angawirri. 

- ngappa. 

- ngomon. 

- balthir. 

- balera. 

- dolooka. 

- wonga. 

- wilkookak. 

- yaarke. 

- daialaanook. 

- boonpur. 

- wigalangoo. 

- bareje. 

- bomera. 

- ganoolana. 

- elakoo. 

- giki. 

- mirdandoo. 
the winjara wim- 

booja ? 

- ngaroodoogoo. 

- kumbooja. 

. katchilgooka. 

- thambooroo. 

- balyarda. 

- yamma merrile. 



* ContrMt with father. 



232 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 79.— PROM WBINTERI6A, ON THE DARLING, TO THE 
BARRIER RANGE. 

By Alexander McLennan, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- tulta. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- yarrandi. 


2 Blacks - 


- barkoola wyim- 


Tame dog - 


- kulli. 




bida. 


Wild dog - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- barkoola nidda 


Emu - 


- kulti. 




wyimbida. 


Black duck - 


- koornalli. 


One - 


- nidda. 


Wood duck - 


- mumburra. 


Two - 


- barkoola. 


Pelican 


- puligi. 


Three - 


- barkoola nidda. 


Laughing jackass gokaka. 


Four - 


- barkoola- 


Native companion goorlokko. 




barkoola. 


White cockatoo 


- kainki. 


Father 


- kambidda. 


Crow - 


- wolko. 


Mother 


- amukka. 


Swan - 


- youngalli. 


Sister-Elder 


- wortakka. 


Egg - 


- burti. 


„ Younger 


- 


Track of a foot 


- dinna. 


Brother-Elder 


- kaukooja. 


Fish - 


- 


„ Young 


er 


Lobster 


- 


A young man 


- gomo. 


Crayfish 


- koongoolo. 


An old man- 


- worto. 


Mosquito - 


- goondi. 


An old woman 


- koombukka. 


Fly - - 


- wingroo. 


A baby 


- katchuka. 


Snake - 


- tooro. 


A White man 


- bori. 


The Blacks - 


- wyimbida. 


Children 


- goornondoo. 


A Blackfellow 


- wyimbida. 


Head - 


- dhirtoo. 


A Black woman 


- nongo. 


Eye - 


- mikki. 


Nose - 


- mindolo. 


Ear - 


- uri or yoori. 



WBINTERIGA TO THE BARRIER RANGE. 



233 



No. 79.^Ebom Weintbeiga to the Baeeieb Range — continued. 


Mouth- 


- yalka. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- hundthi. 


HiU - 




Hair of the head 


- dhirt-bulki. 


Wood - 


- yarra. 


Beard - 


- wauka-bulki. 


Stone - 


- kumo. 


Thunder - 


- piindi. 


Camp - 


- yappara. 


Grass - 


- moodthu. 


Yes - 


- ngea. 


Tongue 


- turlinya. 


No - 


- ataharri. 


Stomach 


- urina. 


I- 


- appa. 


Breasts 


- umma. 


You - 


- imba. 


Thigh - 


- yalko. 


Bark - 


- palta. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Good - 


- balera. 


Bone - 


. pinna, 


Bad - 


- mikka. 


Blood - - 


- kandara. 


Sweet - 


- koolcanya. 


Skin - 


- pulta. 


Food - 


- thyalo. 


Fat - - 


- mumi. 


Hungry 


- wilka, wilkaya. 


Bowels 


- koornalkaka. 


Thirsty 


- yerka. 


Excrement - 


- kooma. 


Eat - 


- thytena. 


War-spear - 


- kalkooroo. 


Sleep - 


- boomparoo. 


Reed-spear - 


- patthai. 


Drink - 


- weatohaloo. 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Walk - 


- baripoo. 


Shield - 


- ulumbarra. 


See 


- pami. 


Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - - 


- waukaka. 

- pooltooroo. 

- euko. 

- pychugga. 

- poorli. 

- kooyooro. 

- toonka. 

- yakki. 


Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 
Blacks ? 
I don't know 


- neenga. 

- yellakko. 

- kailpo. 

- karrauki. 

the windarra anika 
wyimbida? 

- yilla urinadtoo. 


Heat - 


- bookara. 


Plenty 


- wow-wow. 


Day - - 


- euko. 


Big - 


- koombootoha. 


Night - - 


- toonka. 


Little - 


- kitchilliqua. 


Fire - 


- koonika. 


Dead - 


- bookaUagey. 


Water- 


- hoko. 


By-and-by - 


- palya. 


Smoke- 


- boomdoo. 


Come on 


- yamaparri. 


Ground 


- mumdi. 


Milk - 


- 


Wind - - 


- yurdtoo. 


Black swan - 


- 


Rain - 


- mukkra. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 





234 



THE AUSTRALItUST RACE: 



No. 80.— MENINDIE, DARLING RIVER. 



By — Mair, Esq., P.M. 



Kangaroo - 


thurlda. 


Opossum - 


bilta. 


Tame dog - 


- kalya. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


kalti. 


Black duck - 


nalta. 


Wood duck- 


koolenalli. 


Pelican 


poolija. 


Laughing jackass- 


tulpu. 


Native companion 


koledrooko 


White cockatoo - 


kainki. 


Crow - 


wokko. 


Swan - 


yungolli. 


Egg - - . 


paiti. 


Track of a foot - 


narrukka. 


Fish - 


tilyekka. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


kongola. 


Mosquito - 


kooudi. 


Fly - 


wengooroo. 


Snake - - - 


tooroo. 


The Blacks - 


wiimbuja. 


A Blackfellow - 


wiimbuja. 


A Black woman - 


nongu. 


Nose - - - 


mendola. 



Hand - 


- murra. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- neetoha. 


Two - 


- piakullu. 


Three - 


- piakullu iteri 


Four - 


- piakuUu-pia- 




kullu. 


Father 


- kambidja. 


Mother 


- nyam-mugga. 


Sister-Elder 


- kantoha. 


„ Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- kakoodya. 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- taldra. 


An old man 


- weytu. 


An old woman 


- burruga. 


A baby - 


- purlu. 


A White man 


- mad. 


Children - 


- 


Head - 


- tartoo. 


Eye - 


- maikki. 


Ear - 


- yoorree. 



MENINDIE, DARLING RIVER. 



235 



No. 


80. — Meninbie, Darl 


Mouth 


- yalka. 


Teeth - 


- ngundi. 


Hair of the heat 


- poolkee. 


Beard - 


- walka-woolki. 


Thunder - 


- pindi. 


Graas - 


- mootoo. 


Tongue 


- turlunna. 


Stomach 


- komtoo. 


Breasts 


- kookooroo. 


Thigh - - 


- nooranya (right), 




yango (left). 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bone - 


- pinna. . 


Blood - - 


- kandera. 


Skin - - 


- pulta. 


Fat - 


- maymee. 


Bowels 


- weylpa. 


Excrement - 


- kooma. 


War-spear - 


- kalkooroo. 


Reed -spear - 


- kalka. 


Throwing-stiok 


- 


Shield - 


- payalli. 


Tomahawk 


- wokooga. 


Canoe - 


- pulturu. 


Sun - 


- yukkoo. 


Moon - • 


- paitchugga. 


Star - - 


- poorlay. 


Light - 


- menki. 


Dark - 


- doongka. 


Cold - - 


- yakke. 


Heat - 


- taeyelu. 


Day - 


- menki. 


Night- ■ - 


- doongka. 


Fire - 


- koonyga. 


Water 


- ngokko. 


Smoke 


- pumdu. 


Ground 


- murndee. 


Wind - . - 


- yartoo. 


Rain - 


- mukkera. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts . - 





Boomerang - 




Hill - 




Wood - 


- yarra. 


Stone - 


- kamu. 


Camp - 


- yappurra. 


Yes - 


- ngyay. 


No - 


- ngawo. 


I- 


- uppa. 


You - 


- ngymba. 


Bark - 


- palta. 


Good - 


- purlayra. 


Bad - 


- toolaka. 


Sweet - 


- kandjelka. 


Pood - 


- koombodja. 


Hungry 


- weelkooja. 


Thirsty 


- yarka. 


Eat - 


- nanuu. 


Sleep - 


- nettru. 


Drink - 


- waitago. 


Walk - 


- parrybo. 


See - 


- pammayo. 


Sit - 


- ngayingooyo. 


Yesterday - 


- idlago. 


To-day 


- kaipoo. 


To-morrow - 


- karainke. 


Where are 


the winja gupta 


Blacks ? 


wiimbuja? 


I don't know 


- winja tigga. 


Plenty- 


- koga. 


Big ■ - 


- murta. 


Little - 


- kattyelooga. 


Dead - 


- pukka. 


By-and-by - 


- pulyalya. 


Come on 


- kowwa. 


Milk - 


- 


Black swan- 




Eaglehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- 



236 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 81.— TOLARNO STATION, NEAR MENINDIE. 
By C. W. Shaw, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


turlta. 


Hand 


- murra. 


Opossum 


yarrungi. 


2 Blacks - 


- barkoola wim- 


Tame dog - 


kurli. 




been. 


WUd dog - 




3 Blacks - 


- barkoola nee- 


Emu 


kurlti. 




chera wimbeen. 






One - 


- neecha* 


Black duck 


kurloo. 










Two - 


- barkoola. 


Wood duck 


goonarli. 


Three - 


- barkoola nee- 


Pelican 


booUi. 




chera. 


Laughing jackass 


kookarkoo. 


Four - 


- barkoola-bar- 


Native companior 


L koolarkoo. 




koola. 


White cockatoo - 


kainki. 


Father 


- kumbeya. 


Crow - 


warkoo. 


Mother 


- hummugga. 


Swan - 


yunggoole. 


Sister-Elder 


- willoya. 


Egg - - - 


burti. 


,, Younger 


- 


Track of a foot - 


kuppintina. 


Brother-Elder 


- karkooka. 


Fish - 


koonbarli. 


„ Young 


er 


Lobster 




A young man 


- thuldera (see kan- 

garoo). 

- wittoo. 


Crayfish 


koongooloo. 


An old man 


Mosquito - 


muninneri. 


An old woman 


- koomburga. 


Fly - - - 


wengooroo. 


A baby 


- moorpa. 


Snake 


tooroo. 


A White man 


- boree. 


The Blacks - 


wimbeen. 


Children 


- moorpa. 


A Blackf ellow - 


>vimbeen. 


Head - 


- durtoo. 


A Black woman - 


uunga. 


Eye - 


- maki. 


Nose - 


• mindola. 


Ear - 


- munger. 



TOLARNO STATION, NEAR MENINDIE. 



237 





No. 81.— ToLARNO Staiiots— continued. 


Mouth 


- yelka. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- undi. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head - bulki. 


Wood - 


- koondega. 


Beard - 


- wooka bulki. 


Stone - 


- kumoo. 


Thunder - 


- bindi. 


Camp - 


- yapera. 


Grass - 


- mootoo. 


Yes - 


- nea. 


Tongue 


- turlinya. 


No - 


- nartoogara. 


Stomach - 


- koonta. 


I- - - 


- napa. 


Breasts 


- humma. 


You - 


- imba. 


Thigh 


- gurka. 


Bark - 


- burlta. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Good - 


- bellara. 


Bone - 


- brinna. 


Bad - 


- toolaka. 


Blood - 


- kandra. 


Sweet - 


- goolkoola. 


Skin - 


- bulta. 


Food - 


- wunga. 


Fat - 


- mumi. 


Hungry 


- wilkoa. 


Bowels 


- koonabulta. 


Thirsty 


- yarraka. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Eat - 


- tailata. 


War-spear - 


- marohinga. 


Sleep - 


- poompera. 


Reed-spear - 


- purthi. 


Drink - 


- witola. 


Throwing-stick 


- pulkarri. 


Walk ■• 


- omala. 


Shield 

Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 


- woolambora. 

- wokara. 

- pulthro. 

- yooko. 

- waichooka. 

- booli. 

- unnya. 

- mullara. 


See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 
Blacks? 


- pumma. 

- nangala. 

- elow. 

- kilepa. 

- korooka. 

the doo wimbeen? 


Cold - - 


- yekka. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- bookkara. ■ 


Plenty 


- oao. 


Day - 


- minki. 


Big - 


- koombeya. 


Night - 


- tunka. 


Little - 


- kutchiloo. 


Fire - 
Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind- - 
Rain - 


- koondega. 

- nookoo. 

- boondoo. 

- mundi. 

- yartoo. 

- mukkara. 


Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk 


- boogaloo. 

- guypoo. 

- yammari. 


God - - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


- 



238 THE AUSTEALIAJSr BACE ; 



No. 82.— THE JUNCTION OF THE DAELING AND 
MURRAY RIVERS. 

By John Bulmer, Esq. 

Of this language, wliicli is called Marowera, I liave two 
vocabularies. The first, which was kindly forwarded by Mr. 
John Bulmer, manager of the Lake Tyers Aboriginal Station, 
I have inserted ; the second was taken down by myself. In 
most cases the two agree. 

Mr. Bulmer informs me that it was the practice of the 
women of the Marowera Blacks, on the death of a husband, 
to put a small net on the head and cover it with mortar one 
or two inches thick. This mortar consisted sometimes of 
gypsum and at others of pipe-clay. After being worn 
several days it became solid, and was removed unbroken by 
means of the net, so giving the cast of a considerable por- 
tion of the head of the wearer. After removal it was baked 
in the fire and laid on the tomb of the deceased.* 

Since Mr. Bulmer's communication, Mr. J. H. Leplastrier 
has shown me two specimens of these casts. They are quite 
uninjured and just as the widows took them off, perhaps a 
century ago. Mr. Leplastrier picked them up at a deserted 
burial-ground at Yelta, in January, 1880. They have not 
been burnt, however, and one of them shows quite distinctly 
the marks of the meshes of the net. Mr. Bulmer says 
that these casts, which the Kulnine tribe call Kopi, weigh 

* Sir Thomas (then Major) Mitchell found similar oasts at Fort 
Bourke, nearly 400 miles higher up the Darling, drawings of which will be 
found in his Three Expeditions into Interior of Eastern Australia, in which 
the marks left by the nets are visible. — Vol. 1, p. 253. 





KOPI 

or mourning cap of^psuirv 



JUNCTION OF DARLING AND MURRAY RIVERS. 239 

sometimes as much as fourteen pounds. In this instance 
the weights are respectively 10 lbs. 7 oz. and 5 lbs. 13 oz. 
To plaster the head with clay in time of mourning is 
very common throughout Australia, and the Kopi is merely 
an exaggeration of the custom. 

The word Kopi will be found, signifying mourning, 
occurring at the junction of the Georgina Eiver and King's 
Creek. — See Vocabulary No. 105. 

As regards the word Nooralie (God), Mr. Bulmer says 
that the Blacks understand by it a Superior Being, who has 
existed for ages and ages, and still exists. He gives me the 
following additional words : — 



My wife 


nongwi. 


Thy wife 


nongoma. 


All women - 


kmnbumbarra. 



With respect to this word Kumbumbarra, the termination 
barra or burra seems in several parts of the Continent to 
denote large numbers, or large things. For instance, in 
portions of the Eastern Division the names of the tribes end 
in burra, and amongst the Bangerang, in the south, a large 
fire is called Wooloombara. 



240 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 82.— MAROWERA LANGUAGE. 
By John Btjlmer, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


boololea. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


yairaringy. 


2 Blacks - 


- waimbia ngolo. 


Tame dog - 


kaddelie. 


3 Blacks - 


- waimbia barcolo 


Wild dog - 


wilcanya. 




nuckie. 


Emu - - - 


kalte. 


, One - 


- nuckie. 


Black duck - 


kultowa. 


Two - 


- barcolo. 


Wood duck- 




Three - 


- barcolo nuckie. 


Pelican 


ngankro. 


Four - 


- barcolo barcolo. 


Laughing jackass 


thakoa. 


Father 


- kumbia. 


Native companion 


Mother 


- ngamara. 


White cockatoo 


kainkie. 


Sister-Elder 


- wertia or wirtoo. 


Crow - 


wako. 


,, Younger 


- 


Swan - 


youngolie. 


Brother-Elder 


- berlwea. 


Egg - - 


purty. 


„ Younger kokwi. 


Track of a foot 


yuthero. 


A young man 


- thalara. 


Fish - 


wanga. 


An old man 


- wirto. 


Lobster 




An old woman 


- kumbara, koom- 


Crayfish 


kongola. 




bugga. 


Mosquito - 


koondi. 


A baby 


- katchooa (male), 


Ely - 


wlngoro. 




kattarra (female) 


Snake - 


tooroo. 


A White man 


- thandoa. 


The Blacks - 


waimbia. 


Children 


- kendara. 


A Blackfellow 


waimbia. 


Head - 


- thirtoo. 


A Black woman 


nongo. 


Bye - 


- miiki. 


Nose - 


mendolo. 


Ear - 


- eurie, munga. 



JUNCTION OP DARLING AND MURRAY RIVERS. 241 



No. 82. — ^Maboweea LANav\aE—contimied. 



Mouth 


- yelka. 


Teeth - 


- nandie, ngundi. 


Hair of the head - therto burlkie. 


Beard - 


- wakka burlkie. 


Thunder - 


- piudie. 


Grass ■ 


- mutho. 


Tongue 


- tarlinya. 


Stomach 


- koorntoo. 


Breasts 


- ngama. 


Thigh - 


- karraku. 


Foot - 


- thina. 


Bone - 


- pena, birna. 


Blood ■ - 


- kaandara. 


Skin - - 


- palthu. 


Fat - 


- murni. 


Bowels 


- koonna. 


Excrement - 


- kumang. 


War-spear - 


- kalkro maitung. 


Reed-spear - 


' jerail. 


Wommera or 


pira. 


throwing-stick 




Shield 


- 


Tomahawk - 


- waaka. 


Canoe - 


- pulthoro, ban- 




koom. 


Sun - 


- yookkoo. 


Moon - 


- baitohoa. 


Star - 


- boorli. 


Light - 


- minkie. 


Dark - 


- maraka. 


Cold - - 


- yackea, yakki. 


Heat - 


- wapilka. 


Day - 


- minki. 


Night- - 


~ maraka. 


Fire - 


- nandalie, koon 




nia. 


Water 


- ngookoo. 


Smoke 


- boomdoo. 


Ground 


- kara, murndi. 


Wind- 


- yartoo. 


Raia - 


- mokkera. 


God - 


- nooralie. 


Ghosts 


- konejerie. 



Boomerang - 


- 


Hill - 


- 


Wood- 


- yarrara. 


Stone - 


- yarrda, kamoo. 


Camp - 


- yappara. 


Yes - 


- ngu, ngai. 


No - 


- mopu, koko, bal- 




yarto. 


I- 


- ngio. 


You - 


- nindo. 


Bark - 


- palthu. 


Good - - 


- kandelka. 


Bad - 


- thulaga. 


Sweet - 


- 


Food - 


- mano. 


Hungry 


- wilka wilkana. 


Thirsty 


- yarakana. 


Bat - 


- thialo. 


Sleep - 


- imia. 


Drink 


- urupun. 


Walk 


- pameua. 


See - 


- win. 


Sit - 


- mingana. 


Yesterday - 


- illower. 


To-day 


- 


To-morrow - 


- kara minkie. 


Where are 


the windarawaimbia? 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- indearto or ngar 




too. 


Plenty 


- koowa. 


Big - 


- koombaia. 


Little - 


- katewailno. 


Dead - 


- bokka. 


By-and-by - 


- kalpo. 


Come on - 


- kowa, yamara- 




barrioo. 


Milk - 


- ngama. 


Eaglehawk - 


- bilyarra» 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- nongo. 



VOL. II. 



242 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 83.— FROM THE BANKS OF THE MUREAY 
RIVER, WHERE IT ENTERS LAKE ALEX- 
ANDRINA, TO THE EMBOUCHURE OF THAT 
RIVER AND LACEPEDE BAY. 

By the late Revd. George Taplin. 

No Australian tribe, or association of tribes, has been so 
frequently and well described as the Narrinyeri, and 
principally by the same writer, the late Revd. George Taplin, 
who during the ten or fifteen years he managed the Govern- 
ment Aboriginal Station at Point Macleay, on which one of 
these tribes resided, published several accounts of them, 
some of which were illustrated with a few excellent photo- 
graphs of men and women of the tribe. One of the latest 
of these accounts appeared in a work entitled The Folklore, 
Manners, Customs, and Languages of the South Australian 
Aborigines, which was published in 1879, and consists of 
replies from a variety of persons resident amongst different 
tribes to a series of questions drawn up by Mr. Taplin at 
the suggestion of His Excellency Sir A. Musgrave, Governor 
of South Australia. Mr. Taplin, the editor of The Folklore, 
was one of several who furnished replies to the questions 
issued, and these I have been kindly permitted by the 
Government of South Australia to introduce into this work. 
In connection with them, it is only necessary to remark that 
having already called in question what Mr. Taplin says on 
the subject of government, it is unnecessary again to refer 
to the matter. The following is the account of the 
Narrinyeri given by Mr. Taplin in Folklore : — 

The "Naeeinybri" Tribe. 
[The questions were sent to five persons dwelling in 
localities frequented by this tribe — viz., Police-Trooper E. H. 
Deane, of Wellington, River Murray; Police-Corporal John 
Dann, of Milang; Crown Lands Ranger George Wadmore, 
of Meningie; Police-Trooper T. Moriarty, of Goolwa; and 
also to the editor of these pages. The answers to the 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPEDE BAY. 243 

questions are very mucla alike. This was to be expected, 
as they refer to the clans of the same tribe. The editor, 
therefore, will give an account of this tribe at greater length, 
and entering into more particulars than are contained in 
the short answers of Messrs. Deane, Dann, and Wadmore. 
PoHce-Trooper Moriarty's replies also refer to a clan of 
the Narrinyeri; but as they live at Goolwa, about sixty 
miles from the Wellington clan, it has been considered 
advisable to give his very able and intelligent series of 
answers separately. It will be remarked, however, that the 
similarity of the testimony of these five observers is a guar- 
antee of the correctness of the statements. This is very 
satisfactory. The Narrinyeri are one of the most important 
tribes of aborigines in South Australia. They possess 
greater vitality than any other tribe that we know of. 
There is also amongst them indications of a form of organ- 
ized society, law, and government of a higher character 
than is usually found amongst Australian aborigines.] 

*1. The Eevd. George Taplin, Missionary to the Abori- 
gines, Point Macleay. 

2. The " Narrinyeri." Probably this word is an ab- 
breviation of " Kornarrinyeri" (belonging to men). This is 
the derivation recognised by some. Nevertheless some 
natives prefer to regard the word Narrinyeri as derived 
from " narr," plain, intelligible (referring to language), 
and " inyeri," belonging to. This would make the word 
mean — belonging to plain or intelligible speakers, or those 
of one language. It is probable that the first derivation 
is correct, because it is applied frequently to those whose 
dialects differ considerably. 

3. A tract of country — which may be said to begin 
twenty miles above Wellington, on the Murray, and which 
may be enclosed by lines supposed to be drawn from that 
point to Cape Jervis on the west, and to Kingston, Lacepede 
Bay, on the east and south-east — is occupied by the clans 
of this tribe or nation. 

* The questions, to which what follows are Mr. Taplin's replies, will be 
found at page 268. 

Q2 



244 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



4. The tribe is divided into eighteen clans, and each 
has a tribal symbol, totem — or as they call it " ngaitye" — 
consisting of some animal or vegetable. The following are 
their names and totems: — * 



Name of Clan. 


Locality. 


Totem or Ngaitye. 


1. Eaminyeri 


Encounter Bay - 


Wattle gum. 


2. Tanganarin 


Goolwa .... 


Pelican. 


3. Kondarlinyeri - 


Murray Mouth (west side) - 


Whale. 


4. Lungundi 


Murray Mouth (east side) - 


Tern. 


5. Turarorn- 


Mundoo Island - - - 


Coot. 


6. Pankinyeri 


Lake Coorong 


Butterfish. 


7. Kanmerarprn - 


Lake Coorong 


Mullet. 


8. Kaikalabinyeri 


Lake Albert (south side) 


Bull ant. 


9. Mungulinyeri - 


Lake Albert (east side) 


Chocolate sheldrake; 


10. Rangulinyeri - 


Lake Albert Passage - 


Wild dog, dark color. 


11. Karatinyeri - 


Point Malcolm 


Wild dog, light color. 


12. Piltinyeri 


Lake Alexandrina (east end) 


Leeches, catfish. 


13. Korowalle 


Lake Alexandrina (north side) 


Whip snake. 


14. Punguratpular- 


Milang (Lake Alexandrina) - 


Musk duck. 


15. Welinyeri " - 


River Murray 


Black duck, black 
snake with red belly. 


16. Luthinyeri 


River Murray 


Black swan, teal, black 
snake with grey belly. 


17. Wunyakulde - 


River Murray 


Black duck. 


18. Ngrangatari 


Lacepede Bay 


Kangaroo-rat. 



5. Each clan has a totem. Indeed the totem is the 
nucleus of the clan, as it consists of those persons who, 
by birth, are entitled to bear the same totem — native, 
" ngaitye " (literally, friend). Each clan is called " laka- 
linyeri," and all its members are regarded as blood relations. 
Children inherit their father's totem. The ngaitye, or 



* The Coorong clans of the Narrinyeri were called in the early days of 
the colony the " Mihnenroora tribe." The writer recently inquired of some 
Coorong Blacks if they bore this name; they replied that many years ago 
the clan dwelling on the Coorong, sear McGrath's Flat, was called "Mil- 
menroorar," but that now they were called " Milmenyeriarn. " This is an 
instance of change of name. The natives seemed much astonished when 
the name " Milmenroora " was uttered; they regard it as a sort of resurrec- 
tion of an old name. 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACBPEDE BAY. 245 

totem, may be killed and eaten by those wbo possess it, but 
they are always careful to destroy the remains, such as 
bones, feathers, &c., lest an enemy should obtain them and 
use them for purposes of sorcery. 

6. There are no class-names. 

7. The Narrinyeri never marry one who belongs to 
the same ngaitye or totem — that is, of the same clan; 
neither do they allow near relations to marry, although of 
different clans. This is always regarded as of the first 
importance. Cousins never marry. 

8. Marriages are generally, but not always, arranged by 
the clans. The marriage ceremony consists in the father, 
or eldest brother, or nearest male relative of the woman, 
formally giving her to her fature husband in the presence 
of the assembled clans or relatives. She signifies her 
acceptance of the giving by making a fire for her husband. 
Songs and dances accompany the marriage. It is a point 
of decency for the couple not to sleep close to each other for 
the first two or three nights ; on the third or fourth night 
the man and his wife sleep together under the same rug 
This arrangement is for the sake of decency. At the mar- 
riage many persons are present, sleeping in the same camp; 
so the newly-married couple wait till they have moved off, 
and only a few relatives are left with them. They then 
often make a little hut for themselves. If a lewd woman 
goes with a man without being given away, she is said to be 
" kanauwurle" (their's), and he has the right by custom to 
lend her to any of his friends. It is considered disgraceful 
for a woman to take a husband who has given no other 
woman for her. But yet the right to give a woman away 
is often purchased from her nearest male relative by those 
who have no sisters. Of course this amounts to the same 
thing. In most instances a brother or first cousin gives a 
girl away in exchange for a wife for himself. The females 
are married when about fourteen years of age. It is 
notorious amongst the aborigines that girls married young 
make the best wives. Those married later seldom turn 



246 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 

out well. The men rarely marry before they are eighteen 
or twenty. 

9. Children belong to their father's clan. 

10. Polygamy is practised; but there are seldom more 
than two wives. The eldest wife is the chief. An elderly 
wife has little objection to her husband having a younger 
one, as she is subordinate to her. Separations and divorces 
sometimes take place by mutual consent. If a man ill-treats 
his wife, her clan always interferes ; and, if he persists, wUl 
take her away from him and give her to another man. 

12. Blood relations do not marry. 

13. Every clan has a chief, called "rupulli" (or land- 
holder). The clan is actually governed by a council of 
elders, called tendi, which controls all its affairs. When a 
member of the tendi dies, the surviving members choose a 
suitable man out of the clan to take his place. The number 
of men on this council is usually ten or twelve. 

14. Justice is administered by the tendi in accordance 
with the customs handed down by tradition in the tribe. 
In case of an offence being committed against native law or 
custom, a regular trial takes place. The rupuUi presides, and 
sits on a judgment seat called " tendi lewurmi." "Witnesses 
are examined, and full inquiry made. All parties obtain a 
hearing. Various punishments are inflicted upon the guilty 
in proportion to the heinousness of the crime. Sometimes a 
certain number of blows are given on the offender's head. 
Sometimes he is banished from the clan. And sometimes 
death is inflicted. Sometimes the tendi will secretly con- 
demn a breaker of the law, and appoint a person to suddenly 
fall upon him and put him to death. "When offenders belong 
to different clans, or the contention is between members of 
two or more clans, the united tendis decide the matter. 

15. The most frequent punishments are blows. Some- 
times, however, a murderer is speared to death. Sorcery is 
severely punished. 

16. There are three forms of sorcery, called "millin," 
" ngathungi," and " neilyeri." 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACBPEDE BAY. 247 

MilUn. — The aborigines have a big-headed club, called 
plongge, which is used entirely for mfllin. Its mere touch 
is injury. "When they get an opportunity they knock down 
an enemy, then tap his chest with this club, hit him with it 
on the shoulders and knees, and pull his ears till they crack ; 
he is then called " plongge watyeri." The victim is now 
supposed to be given into the power of a demon called 
Nalkaru, who will make him have chest disease, or cause 
him to be speared in battle, or be bitten by a snake. Very 
often the plongge is used upon a person sleeping. The 
weapon is warmed, and his or her chest gently tapped with 
it. One who has been thus served is supposed to be sure to 
have disease of the chest. If a man or woman feels sore in 
the chest it is always attributed to millin. After death the 
chest is opened, and any disease found there is attributed to 
this cause. 

Ngathungi. — This kind of sorcery is practised with bones, 
or remains of animals which have been eaten. When a man 
gets hold of a particular bone of some bird or beast which 
his enemy has eaten, he mixes it with grease and red ochre 
and human hair, and sticks the mass in a round lump on 
the end of a prepared skewer of kangaroo's leg-bone, and it 
is called a " ngathungi." When injury is to be inflicted 
on the enemy who ate the animal from which the remains 
came, the possessor of the ngathungi puts it down by the 
fire, and as the knob melts, so disease is supposed to be 
engendered in the person to be bewitched, and if it wholly 
melts off he dies. A man who knows that another person 
has a ngathungi capable of injuring him buys it if he can, 
and throws it into the river or lake; this breaks the charm. 

Neilyeri. — This is practised by means of a pointed bone. 
It is scraped to a very fine point. Sometimes an iron point 
is used. This is poisoned by being stuck into a dead body. 
Any one wounded by it is inoculated with the virus, and 
either loses a limb or dies. Very ofter this wound is inflicted 
secretly when a person is asleep. The bone point is kept 
moist for use by human hair soaked in liquor from a dead 
body. The natives are so terribly afraid of neilyeri that 



248 TUE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

they dread even for the weapon to be pointed at them, 
attributing to it a deadly energy. 

17. Children who died in infancy were sometimes burned, 
but are now always buried. Youths and adults in the 
prime of life when they died had their bodies dried. After 
death the body was carefully examined, and all the 
apertures sewed up. Then it was set on its back, with the 
arms crossed in front and the thighs spread out, and the 
legs and feet bent under. In this posture it was placed on 
a sort of triangular bier called "ngaratta." This was 
elevated on three men's heads, with the body on it. Then 
all the friends and relatives stood round and called out 
various names, in order that they might discover who had 
by sorcery caused the man or woman to die. The body, 
thus elevated, was taken to various spots in the neighbour- 
hood which had been frequented by the deceased. It was 
said that when the right name was called an impulse was 
felt impelling the bearers towards the person who called out 
the right name. This was regarded as a sufficient indica- 
tion of the guilty person. The bearers profess to be 
entirely controlled by the dead man's spirit. Sometimes, in 
order to discover the guilty sorcerer, the nearest male 
relative would sleep with his head on the corpse, in order to 
dream who was the criminal. This matter having been 
settled, the body was placed over a slow fire till the skin 
rose, and then it was all peeled off, and the corpse appeared 
like a White man, the piffmentum nigrum having been 
removed with the scarf skin. I do not think there was 
any rule for this ceremony or the preceding one to be per- 
formed first. It depended on the presence of friends. All 
near relatives were required to be present at the trying for 
sorcery. The scarf skin having been removed, the body was 
smeared with grease and red ochre, and the head tied up 
in pieces of skin or rags. It was now called " gringkari," a 
name applied to Europeans by the Blacks, because they 
think that they resemble a peeled corpse. The body was 
then elevated on a stage about four feet from the ground in 
a sitting posture, Avith the feet under the thighs. A slow 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACBPEDE BAY. 249 

fire was kept under it for weeks, and it was Ijasted with 
grease and red ockre. The liquor from it was kept for 
neUyeri purposes. Eegular times of wailing and screaming 
around it were observed. Men and women cut off their hair 
in sign of mourning. The hair was spun and made into 
head-hands. The hair of the dead was especially prized for 
this purpose, as it was supposed to confer the gift of clear- 
sightedness. Men blackened their faces, and women 
smeared filth on their foreheads, in sign of mourning. It 
was not uncommon for them to cut themselves to show grief. 
When the body was dried, it was wrapped in rugs and 
carried about from place to place to be mourned over. 
When the grief was assuaged, it was put on a stage in a 
tree, and, after a time, buried. The body of a very aged 
person would be wrapped up and put in a tree without much 
ceremony. 

18. Property descends from father to son, or nearest male 
relatives if there be no sons. 

19. The Narrinyeri always believed in a future life after 
death. They believed that the dead go to some place in the 
west where their god Nurunderi resides. In passing to this 
place they go under the sea, and as they go see down below 
them a great fire, and the bad are in danger of falling into 
it and being burned, but good people — according to their 
ideas of goodness — get safe to Nurunderi. They call heaven 
Waiyirri, or Wyirri, or Wyirrewarri. 

20. 21. The great god of the Narrinyeri is Nurunderi. 
They also believe in several demi-gods called Waiungare, 
Nepelle, and demons Pepi, Melapi, Nalkaru, Mulgewanke, 
and Karungpe. The traditions of the Narrinyeri all refer 
more or less to Nurunderi and his adventures and exploits. 

Nurunderi, their great and wonderful god or chief, came 
down the Darling with his followers. When he arrived at 
the lower Eiver Murray he sent back two of his men to tell 
those from whence he came of his arrival. They never 
rejoined Nurunderi. The chief and his party are said to 
have crossed the country from the Murray — apparently from 
the south bend — to the lakes, striking Lake Albert. They 



250 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

found the country around the lakes in possession of clans of 
Blacks under Waiungare and ITepelle. Various marvellous 
adventures are told of these personages. Nurunderi is said 
to have thrown flat stones into Lake Alexandrina, near 
Pelican Point, and they became the fish called " tinuwarri " 
(or bream). He made an expedition up the Coorong, where 
he had a great fight with and slew a chief who had stolen 
his children. Then he arrived at Encounter Bay, and while 
there his wives forsook him. He called upon the sea to 
overflow and drown them, and it obeyed. After many such 
adventures, Nurunderi went to Wyirrewarri, or heaven, where 
he resides. They also have an indistinct myth in which a 
son of Nurunderi called Martummeri is spoken of, but it is 
so misty that little sense can be made of it. 

Waiungare is said to have been produced by his mother's 
excrements without any father. He was a red man (narumbe). 
His brother was Nepelle. Nepelle's wives one day saw 
Waiungare at the lake and desired him for a husband. So 
they went to his hut at PuUuwewal, and finding him asleep 
made a noise like emus running outside. He awoke and 
came out, when they burst out laughing, and rushing to him 
clasped their arms round his neck and insisted upon becom- 
ing his wives. The unfortunate hero appears to have yielded. 
Nepelle, enraged, went to Waiungare's hut, and found that 
he and the wives were absent, hunting. So he put fire in 
the hut and told it to wait until they returned, and then, 
when they were asleep, to get up and burn them. The fire 
obeyed, and the sleepers were aroused by the vengeful flames. 
They fled to the swamps on the shores of the lake and 
plunged in and escaped. After this Waiungare threw a 
spear at the sky with a line tied to it. At first, when he 
hauled upon it, the weapon came out. Then he threw up a 
barbed spear. This held fast, so he pulled himself up to 
heaven and afterwards hoisted up the two women. Certain 
stars are pointed out as Waiungare and his wives. NepeUe 
afterwards was driven to the top of the hills by a great flood. 
So he got to heaven by the same means as Waiungare, and 
drew up his canoe after him. This vessel is still to be seen 



FEOM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPEDE BAY. 251 

floating in the sky in the " milky way." These persons are 
said to have lived at a time when enormous kangaroos and 
fish existed. The former were so large that the skin of one 
covered acres of ground. Waiungare and Nepelle, after 
their apotheosis, sought to make these animals smaller. 
The former tore a kangaroo in pieces, and, strewing them 
on the earth, each piece became a small kangaroo, such 
as we now have. Nepelle did the same with a fish, and 
produced small fish. 

The following is a native myth in the vernacular of the 
Narrinyeri : — " Norar ngertir ulangk, kar morokkir an 
mamar. Kar tuppir an mamar Tipping. Wanyar muldurar 
ngungyin namuramb an mamar. Wunyar pulkeri muldurar 
pettir an mami. Wunyar norar ngrakkuwallir. Wunyar 
norar muldurar mendir. Kar pingkir muldurar brugungai 
wunyar Eanemin. Wunyar norar balpewallin lun ellin 
tukkeri." Translation — "The pelicans fished in the lake 
and caught some tukkeri fish. They carried the fish to 
Point Sturt. Then the magpies made a fire to cook the 
fish with. The greedy magpies then stole the fish. The 
pelicans were angry with the magpies, and they fought. 
The magpies were rolled in the ashes, which made them 
black. Then the pelicans became white like the tukkeri 
fish, which they had eaten." 

22. It seems to be very probable that the Narrinyeri are 
a mixture of two races. Most likely the tribe which came 
with Nurunderi were of Eastern Polynesian race, derived 
from some people- who may have been drifted in canoes on 
the north-eastern coast of Australia from the South Sea 
Islands. They discovered that there was a tribe already in 
possession of portions of the country, which seems to have 
been Papuan. It is a fact that some of the Narrinyeri are 
straight-haired and of a lighter complexion, while others are 
curly-haired and very black. All the native traditions 
agree with the above theory.* 

• Except that our Black race is the outcome of a cross, the writer 
differs from Mr. Taplin in the above particulars, as has been seen in 
Chapters 6 and 7.— E. M. C. 



252 . THE AUSTEALIAJSr EACE : 

23. No doubt the Narrinyeri descended from a more 
civilized state of society. They possess laws, customs, 
implements, and wea.pons which they are quite unable to 
invent now, and elaborate ceremonies of which they do not 
know the meaning, although they adhere to them strictly. 
The remains of a kind of sacrifice is found amongst them. 
When they go on a great kangaroo hunt they knock over 
the first wallaby which comes near enough to the hunters. 
A fire is then kindled and the wallaby placed on it, and as 
the smoke ascends a kind of chant is sung by the men, 
while they stamp on the ground and lift up their weapons 
towards heaven. This is done to secure success in hunting, 
but the reason of the custom they know not. 

24. The Narrinyeri are not cannibals, and express a great 
horror of cannibalism. 

25. Their weapons are clubs and waddies ; heavy wooden 
spears, barbed and unbarbed. These are made of very hard 
wood, got from the river tribes, and, through being hardened 
in the fire, become as hard as bone, and can be made very 
sharp. The most dangerous and efiective weapons are the 
spears called kaike and yarnde. The shafts of these are 
made of reed for the kaike, and dry grasstree-fiower stem 
for the yarnde. Both have a point consisting of about a 
foot of hard wood. Sometimes the yarnde is barbed with 
splinters of quartz, stuck on with grasstree or pine gum. 
These spears are thrown with a throwing-stick or taralye. 
They can hit a mark at fifty and sixty yards. They are 
quite as effective as arrows from a bow. They also have 
boomerangs, but they are not much used in war — more for 
striking water-fowl on the wing. They have also two shields 
— the broad bark shield and a narrow wooden one. The 
former is called wakkalde, the latter murukanye. 

26. They make nets, twine, fishing-lines, mats, and 
baskets. The mats and baskets are made of two or three 
kinds of rushes and fiags. The twine and lines are made of 
rushes, or of the root of the menokkuri flag boiled and 
chewed and then twisted by hand. 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPBDE BAY. 253 



27. Their only implements in the way of tools were 
stone tomahawks and shells. They often nse the edge of 
a split reed for cutting flesh. 

28. Several ceremonies have been described in the 
foregoing answers. It is only necessary to say that the 
natives are particular to adhere to them. They have a 
certain kind of courtesy amongst them. The formal good- 
bye of one departing is " Nginte lew" (" Do thou sit still"), 
and the reply of one remaining is, " Nginte ngoppun" (" Do 
thou walk"). It is regarded as very rude to converse or 
speak privately to a person in the presence of others. The 
women are always kept separate immediately after parturi- 
tion and during the time of menstruation. Boys are 
forbidden to eat certain kinds of game, and young men other 
kinds, and again women others. 

The following is the list of the kinds of game forbidden 
to boys, and also to young men during the ceremonies of 
introduction to manhood: — 





Young Men. 




Boys. 


Native Name. 


English. 






1. Nakkare 


■ Black duck 






2. Ngerake 


- Teal - - - - 


- 




3. Einkindele - 


I Turtle of two kinds - 


- 1. 


Wheri 


4. Wheri 






5. Ponde - 


- Murray cod 


- 




6. Pankelde 


- Black and white goose 


- 




7. Tyeri - 


- Golden perch 


- 2. 


Tyeri 


8. Piinkeri 


- Widgeon - 


- 3. 


Punkeri 


9. Kalperi 


- Shoveller duck - 


- 4. 


Kalperi 


10. Parge - 


- Wallaby - 


- 5. 


Parge 


11. Tilmuri 


- Female musk duck - 


- 6. 


Tilmuri 


12. Pomeri - 


- Catfish 


- 7. 


Pomeri 


13. KupuUi 


- Blue mountain parrot 


- 8. 


Kupulli. 


U. Rekalde 


- Water rat - 


- 




15. Puldyokkuri- 


- Water hen 






16. Talkinyeri - 


- Native turkey - 


- 9. 


Talkiayeri 


17. Prolge - 


- Native companion 


- 10. 


Prolge 


18. Wanye - 


- Mountain duck - 


- 11. 


Wanye 


19. Tarke - 


- Lake perch 


- 12. 


Tarke 


20. Komeok 


- Pink-eyed duck - 


- 13. 


Komeok 



So that twenty kinds are forbidden to 
thirteen kinds to boys. It is supposed 



the young men and 
that if they eat of 



264 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

these tliey will grow ugly and break out in sores, and also 
become prematurely grey. A curious custom of the abori- 
gines is called " ngiangiampe." It is carried on. thus: 
When a child is born, its navel-string is preserved and tied 
up in a bunch of feathers called " kalduki." The father of 
the child gives this to the father of some other child. 
From henceforth neither of those children nor their parents 
must speak to or hold any kind of intercourse with each 
other. The mutual relationship brought about by this is 
called "ngiangiampe"; and although the two must not 
speak they must not see each other want. If one " ngian- 
giampe" sees another in need of anything, he or she must 
send a supply of it if possible; but yet there must never be 
any direct personal intercourse between the two. I never 
could find out the reason for the custom; the natives could 
not tell me, so we are left to conjecture. The children who 
are thus estranged from each other may belong to the 
same clan or to another clan; this is a matter of indifference. 

44, 45. For answers to these questions see paper on the 
Diseases of the Aborigines appended hereunto. 

46. While a boy is growing up his hair generally used to 
be allowed to go untouched by comb, or at least it was 
allowed to grow undressed and uncut for two or three years 
before the time of puberty, which occurs at about fourteen 
years of age. The consequence was that it became a perfect 
mat of entangled hair and filth. When the time came for 
the youth to be introduced to manhood, the old men of the 
clan would appoint a time with some old men of another 
clan to meet together to make " kainganar," or young men. 
This was kept secret. A youth from each of the two clans 
would be selected, and on the night fixed upon they were 
suddenly seized by the men of the clans and borne to a place 
apart from the women, who set up a great cry and pretended 
to try to rescue them, but were supposed to be beaten off with 
fire-sticks by the men. The two youths were thrown on the 
ground, and all their moustaches plucked out and the hair on 
their bodies ; the hair of their heads was roughly combed out 
with a point of a spear, tearing it off by handsful ; they 



PROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACBPBDE BAY. 256 

were tlien rubbed over plentifully witb a mixture of fish oil 
and red ocbre. They were compelled to fast three days; 
drinking only water, and that to be sucked up from the lake 
or river through a reed. They were not allowed to sleep at 
all for about three days, watch being kept over them for 
the purpose. They are now said to be kaingani or narumbe 
— a word very near to our own word sacred, only without 
any moral purity attaching to its significance. When the 
two kainganis were allowed to sleep their pillow must 
consist of a couple of sticks stuck in the ground crosswise. 
For many months the two youths were compelled to go 
naked. They were forbidden to eat certain kinds of game 
while they were narumbe, and also were not allowed to touch 
any food belonging to women. All the food which they 
touched or caught became narumbe like themselves, and was 
forbidden to females. This state of narumbe lasted until 
their beards and moustaches and body hair had been pulled 
out three times ; each time the beard was allowed to grow 
about two inches long. They were not allowed to take a 
wife till this period elapsed, generally two years ; but during 
this time very little fault was found with them for licentious 
conduct. During the time between the first plucking and 
the second the youths were called " narumbe " instead of 
their real names; during the time between the second 
plucking and the third they were called " takkure mak," or 
"plucked cheek." The second and third plucking was 
generally performed without any ceremony like the first. 
The two young men who undergo this rite together are ever 
after held to hold a peculiar relationship to each other called 
" wirake." 

47. The Narrinyeri natives do not knock out the front 
teeth. 

48. The Narrinyeri do not practise circumcision. 

Statement of the Number of the " Naerinyeei." 

1. I have often thought that it is very desirable that we 
should know exactly how many of the aborigines there are, 
so as to be able to form some idea of their wants. I have 



256 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



several times heard expressions of incredulity when I have 
said how many I thought there were; and, on the other 
hand, I have heard people say they thought there were more 
than I had any reason to believe existed. Such a counting 
of the aborigines, if it had taken place twenty years ago, 
would have afforded some interesting information as to their 
rate of decrease, and would have thrown light on the causes 
of the decay of the aboriginal races. By way of making a 
beginning in this direction, I prepared a list of the names 
of aU the natives of the Narrinyeri tribe, or nearly aU. The 
danger in taking such a census is of omission, and perhaps I 
may have omitted a few. May I be allowed to suggest that 
if at every aboriginal dep6t a register were kept of every 
man, woman, and child known to the issuer of stores, and a 
periodical return of their numbers made, it would be very 
valuable ; it would be especially so in the Far North, and on 
the overland route, and in the Northern Territory. 

2. In making out the list, I got the assistance of four 
intelligent native men; I allowed them to apportion the 
different names of persons to their respective clans; in one 
or two cases I found people belonged to a different clan from 
what I had supposed. I have a personal knowledge of 
three-fourths of the natives whose names are given; the rest 
I am assured are living, and in some instances I am told I 
have seen them, but have forgotten them. 

3. The proportions of the different clans are as follow: — 



Name of Clan. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Goolwa and Port Elliot 


42 


37 


10 


5 


94 


Lake Albert . . . . 


12 


10 


3 


5 


30 


Milang and Point Sturt 


14 


19 


13 


3 


49 


Point Macleay . . . . 


42 


48 


23 


22 


135 


The Coorong .... 


49 


37 


12 


16 


114 


Lower Murray, near Wellington- 


37 


32 


8 


12 


89 


Total - 


196 


183 


69 


63 


511 



It will be seen that the Point Macleay clan is the 
largest; this is in consequence of the natives here being the 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPEDE BAY. 257 

healthiest. The smallest j)roportion of children are found in 
those clans which inhabit the settled districts. The Goolwa 
and Port Elliot clan has only fifteen children, and yet they 
have as many men as the Point Macleay clan, which con- 
tains forty-five children. The circumstances attending the 
life of the aborigines in settled districts are adverse to their 
having children. I am sure that we have, by getting 
children from the natives in the settled districts to this 
institution, saved the lives of many; the proportion at 
Goolwa and Wellington would be even lower than this, were 
not this the case, and I know that the natives who reside 
here have and rear more children than any others of their 
tribe. The Coorong clan is a numerous one, and needs our 
best efforts for its welfare. I do trust that we may be 
enabled, by having a tract of land allotted to us, to reach 
these people, and do them as much good as we have done 
the Point Macleay clan; they have amongst them some 
intelligent men. The Point Macleay clan and the Milang 
clan (a very small one) are the only ones where the number 
of women is greater than that of men. I can say with 
assurance, that the dissipation and debauchery into which 
many of the natives fall is more fatal to women than it is to 
men. 

4. The preparation of this statement forcibly reminds us 
of the decrease in the numbers of the aborigines. I myself, 
in 1849, saw 500 fighting-men of these Narrinyeri; I was 
also told by a former Government officer that he saw 800 
fighting-men in 1842 ; at the present time they might 
muster 150. This would make the proportion of warriors at 
present a little more than one-third of the whole number; 
supposing, as is probable, that then the proportion was one- 
fourth, there were in 1849, 2,000 Narrinyeri, and in 1842, 
3,200. I am sure every one will feel sorry at this. We have 
deprived the natives of their country, sadly diminished 
their means of subsistence, and introduced a state of things 
more fatal to them than the barbarism in which they before 
lived. We feel anxious to prevent such mournful results. 

VOL. II. R 



258 THE AUSTRALIAN BAOE : 

Our history on this station has been one of seventeen years' 
resistance to their downward progress towards extinction, 
and it has not been altogether unsuccessful. We trust we 
may prevent that almost total disappearance which has 
befallen the Adelaide and Moorundee tribes. 

5. As the subject of disease among the natives has a 
close connection with the causes of the decline of the 
aboriginal races, I have drawn up a statement of the 
result of my observations and experience on this subject. 

The Diseases of the Abokigines of the Lakes and 
Lower Mueeat (South Austealia). 

I have resided among the aborigines inhabiting the 
Lakes and Lower Murray for the last twenty years, and 
during that period have observed that they are subject to 
the following diseases, viz. : — Apoplexy, acute nephritis, 
cataract, consumption (tubercular), dysentery, diarrhoea, 
epilepsy, fistula in ano, hydrocephalus, hepatitis (acute and 
chronic), hydatids in the liver, hydrothorax, influenza, indi- 
gestion, impetigo, neuralgia, otalgia, otorrhoea, ophthalmia 
(acute and chronic), phrenitis (one instance only), pneu- 
monia, porrigo, ranula (one case only, but very bad), rheu- 
matism (acute and chronic), sunstroke, syphilis, sore throat 
in its various forms, toothache, and tabes mesenterica. 

1. My observations have led me to the following views 
of the principal disease from which the natives sufi'er, which 
is evidently tuberculosis in its different forms. I think that 
a large number of deaths arise from this cause — of fifty 
deaths of adults which occurred here between 1859 and 1869 
twenty-five were caused by tubercular consumption. In 
infancy the tuberculous diathesis shows itself frequently in 
the form of hydrocephalus, generally occurring at the time 
of dentition ; it also very often manifests itself in the form 
of tabes mesenterica, about the third or fourth year, or even 
later; I have even known of a very bad case occurring in a 
man of twenty-five. This constitutional tendency often 



PEOM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPEDE BAY, 259 

appears in a form of induration and ulceration of the glands 
of the neck; where it comes out thus, it is generally cured, 
and the person becomes healthy afterwards ; but its most 
usual and fatal form is that of tubercular consumption. 
Any accident to the chest seems to lead to the deposition of 
tubercle. I knew a case of a previously healthy young 
woman who received a blow on the chest from her jealous 
drunken brute of a husband; she vomited blood immediately 
after, then her case gradually assumed the form of tubercular 
consumption. I had a case of a White woman on my hands 
at the same time as this one. I was struck with the exact 
similarity of the symptoms in each case — the two women 
died within an hour of each other though living miles 
apart. 

2. The mortality among infants of the aborigines is very 
great — of 101 deaths, occurring between 1859 and 1869, 
thirty-six were of infants under two years of age, fifteen of 
children under the age of puberty, and fifty of adiilts. In 
nothing has the result of our labors been so apparent as in 
the saving of infant life. The good effects of cleanliness and 
proper care are so apparent that I have heard the women on 
our station lecture young woman on the necessity of keep- 
ing their children washed. Infants suffer very much from 
the exposure of savage life. I have known infants die of the 
scorching which their heads got through being exposed on 
their mothers' backs during a long march on a hot day; and 
any severe disease which may suddenly seize a child, when 
its mother is in a situation where help cannot be obtained, 
of course runs on and becomes fatal, although at first quite 
amenable to treatment. 

3. I have frequent cases of both neuralgia and toothache. 
A peculiar cause of toothache is the chewing of fibre for the 
purpose of making twine ; this wears the teeth down to a 
level and makes them very tender to bite upon. 

4. I have frequently seen cases of epilepsy. I have 
generally noticed that the persons subject to it have sunk 
into a low state of health, and soon died of consumption. 

E2 



260 THE AUSTEALIAN RACE: 

I had recently a case of a woman whose pregnancy was 
accompanied by attacks of hsematemesis and epileptic fits. 
I have seen several cases of lunacy among them ; it is not 
uncommon for the intellect of old men to give way, and 
for them to be insane. In one instance an old chief was 
frightened by some people telling him that the Whites were 
going to take him and his tribe to Kangaroo Island ; he 
immediately betook himself to the reeds and hid for days; 
he was then found by his friends, and afterwards had an 
apoplectic attack; in a few weeks homicidal mania set in, 
and he chopped a women about with a tomahawk frightfully 
— this led to his incarceration in the Adelaide Lunatic 
Asylum. In two or three years he was discharged cured: 
he is, however, yet strange in his manner. The relatives of 
lunatics have no superstitious ideas about them, and treat 
them very kindly — they are rather afraid of them. 

5. The aborigines do not suffer from malarious fevers. 

6. Before the advent of the Whites a strange disease 
came down the Murray and carried off many of the natives 
— it was doubtless small-pox, for some of the old men are 
pock-marked. The natives point to certain mounds where 
the dead were interred who fell victims to it. The natives 
readily receive vaccination. The aborigines here do not 
readily take measles; a few had them when they very pre- 
valent, but they were nearly all half-castes. We never had 
the measles on this station at all, although settlers had 
them within two miles of us, and they raged violently at 
Milang and Meningie — and yet nearly all the aborigiaes at 
the Poonindie Mission Station had them. I cannot under- 
stand the reason why our natives were exempted. Although 
a large number of natives were gathered in camps at 
sheep-shearing, and some of them, mostly half-castes, had 
measles, yet they did not spread generally; this is surprising, 
since absolutely no care was taken to prevent infection. 
Neither are the natives subject to scarlatina, although the 
disease has prevailed very much in this colony. I never 
knew natives have it, and yet I have reason to believe that 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPEDE BAY. 261 

they had the cast-off clothes of White sufferers from the 
disease given to them. 

7. The ahorigines have a skin disease, which is a 
sort of impetigo — it might be called impetigo contagiosa; 
it manifests itself in a crop of pustules about the joints, 
the ankles, knees, hips, or elbows ; it is worst when 
it occurs on the hips ; it is accompanied with itching, 
swelling, and pain, and afterwards excoriation. I have 
seen places on a person's hips, occasioned by it, as raw 
as beef and as large as my hand ; it is very contagious 
among the pure Blacks, and less so among the half-castes. 
I have known half-castes sleep with Blacks who had it and 
yet not catch it. I have known a very White half-caste 
woman who was married to a Black husband, and yet she 
never had it, but her children did. Sulphur is a specific for 
it. Some years ago I was led to ask the Aborigines' De- 
partment for a supply of soap, which I used liberally — the 
supply has been continued, and the result has been a marked . 
decrease in the number of cases of impetigo ; this fact is 
very significant as to the cause of the disease. The natives 
call this disease Wirrullumi. 

The natives often get ringworms on their bodies, but not 
on the scalp; they catch them through tending calves which 
have them. No kind of leprosy is known among the 
aborigines. 

8. I have seen cases, even bad cases, of syphilis amongst 
the natives. I am sure the disease was imported among 
them ; they knew nothing of it before the advent of the 
Whites — this is the testimony of the natives. I have known 
fatal cases, also cases where the tibia was affected, and bony 
excrescences on the skin, with atrocious neuralgic pain ; I 
have also seen buboes in the groin. Venereal disease is not 
very prevalent; I am persuaded that sometimes cases of 
impetigo have been taken for it. 

9. I have never seen a hunchback among the aborigines, 
and only one case of lateral curvature of the spine in a 
half-caste. 



262 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

10. The vital power of the natives varies very much in 
different individuals, but taking the average, I do not think 
it could be rated high ; they easily give way to disease, and 
hopelessly yield themselves up to a fatal result. I think 
their diseases are more of a sthenic than asthenic type. They 
endure both heat and cold well — they will sleep comfortably 
under a much thinner covering than an average European. 

11. The question has often occurred to me whether they 
suffer as much pain from injuries as Europeans do. It is 
difficult to decide ; let an injury be caused by a European, 
or by work for a colonist, and a great fuss will be made of it, 
while a much more severe injury occurring through a native 
custom will be made light of and endured with fortitude. 
This leads me to think that they do not really suffer so 
much as we do ; however, the whole question as to whether 
one man suffers as much as another from a similar injury is 
one which I should like to see ventilated by a competent 
authority. 

Wounds made by metal or stone implements or weapons 
heal about the same as similar wounds would do in Euro- 
peans, but wounds made by wooden weapons heal very 
quickly — the transfixing of a leg by a wooden spear is 
regarded as a trifle, and soon heals. Blows on the head are 
not so dangerous to natives, because of the thickness of the 
fatty tissue between the scalp and the skuU — this forms a 
kind of pad, which in some measure protects the head. 

12. The aborigines have no medicines peculiar to them- 
selves: they regard all diseases and most injuries to the 
person as the result of sorcery. In order to cure diseases 
they use charms, which consist in the utterance of certain 
words in a kind of chant or recitative. They endeavour. to 
cure some complaints, such as rheumatism, by a rude kind 
of vapor-bath ; the patient is placed on a platform made 
with sticks, underneath are placed red-hot stones, or a few 
live coals, a rug is wrapped round the sufferer; then some 
water-weed called pinggi is taken wet from the lake shore 
and put on the hot stones or fire and the steam allowed to 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPEDE BAY. 263 

ascend aronnd the naked body, and a perspiration is pro- 
duced from which relief is oftentimes obtained. 

13. I have known women get spots on their eyes from 
receiving blows on the back of the head; these spots 
enlarge and occasion very imperfect vision in after-life. I 
have known several cases of blindness, but not only from 
this cause. 

14. The writer has often been asked respecting the 
fecundity of the natives, and the condition and habits of 
women in pregnancy and parturition. It has been stated 
that amongst some tribes in the other colonies if a woman 
has a half-caste child she never has another of her own race. 
This is not the case amongst the Narrinyeri, and the writer 
doubts if it is the case anywhere. He has known many 
women have large families after having a half-caste child. 
Instances have occurred where the , first child was a half- 
caste, and yet a large family of Black children followed. 
Also, there have been cases where a half-caste child has 
been born after several Black children, and then Black 
children have succeeded it. Then women are known to 
have had two half-caste, and afterwards several Black. 
Indeed in every way the statement that the birth of a half- 
caste injures the fruitfulness of the mother afterwards 
is proved to be untrue as far as the Narrinyeri are 
concerned. 

The writer is convinced that when native women take to 
the excessive use of alcoholic drinks it injures and often 
entirely prevents their fecundity. In no instance has this 
rule been found to be incorrect. Let a Black woman take to 
drinking, and she generally has no more children, or, if she 
does, they are poor weakly creatures, and soon die. There 
is to be taken into account though that where aboriginal 
women become drunkards they become prostitutes too. 

A remarkable result follows the free use of tobacco by 
the native women. The writer has observed it for years in 
a large number of instances. When a woman smokes a 
great deal during her pregnancy, the child which she bears 



264 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

is always excessively fat. Such a child will resemble one 
of those little fat Chinese pigs, so abnormally fat will it be. 
Often a native woman is complimented on the plumpness of 
her baby when it arises solely from this cause. But to a 
person accustomed to see native children this fatness is 
known to be peculiar in its character. The child is round 
and bloated and unhealthy, although so fat. And in every 
instance such infants have died. I never knew one that 
survived the troubles of dentition and weaning. The effects 
of tobacco have also often been noticed in the case of women 
suckling. I have been called to a child which was ill, and 
found it suffering from all the effects of poisoning by tobacco; 
and no wonder, for its mother smoked heavily, and it was 
nursed in a close hut with half-a-dozen people all blowing a 
suffocating cloud of tobacco smoke. I am convinced that a 
great deal of the ill-health of the natives — tendency to lung 
disease, &c. — arises from excessive use of tobacco, They 
use it so immoderately. I was confirmed in my opinion of 
the use of tobacco causing a peculiar fatness in infants by 
observing an instance of the same kind in a White woman. 
During her pregnancy she suffered severely from toothache, 
and only found relief by smoking tobacco. This she did 
until the infant was born. It was enormously fat, although 
both the parents were thin and spare in habit. I noticed 
too that the fatness was of exactly the same peculiar kind 
as that in the Black infants. However, the fatal result did 
not follow in this case, for the mother left off smoking, and 
the child survived, and got rid of its excessive fatness after 
a time. 

The pure Blacks are not so healthy as the half-castes. 
Always the children of two half-castes will be healthier and 
stronger than either the children of Blacks or the children 
of a Black and a half-caste. When a half-caste man and 
woman marry, they generally have a large and vigorous 
family. I could point to half-a-dozen such. 

Aboriginal women generally suffer less on the whole 
during parturition than White women do. I attribute this 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPEDE BAY. 265 

to their bodies being allowed to develop in childhood without 
the restraints and injuries which result from the use of 
stays, corsets, and other civiUzed appliances. The experi- 
ence of the writer has not been small, and he never saw an 
instance where deformity or malformation of the pelvis was 
indicated in any native woman yet. May not this result be 
attributed to the fact that their mothers never wore stays 
during the time when they were chQd-bearing ? The pelvis 
of a growing foetus must be peculiarly liable to malformation 
from abdominal pressure in the mother. At any rate, such 
is the fact, as stated above, with regard to native women, 
and obstetricians will appreciate the vast decrease in danger 
and suffering which is caused by it. 

Aboriginal females though do suffer considerably in 
child-birth, some more and some less. Instances of death 
in child-bed are rare. The only three which I know were 
remarkable. These were two sisters, each named Petem- 
baitpiri; they got married, and each died in child-bed. One 
died with her second child, and the other died with her 
third child. The second one left a daughter whom we 
brought up from infancy, and she attained to a mariageable 
<ige. She was married, and notwithstanding every means 
which was used, died in child-bed with her iirst child. The 
cause was obstinate metritis, which set up immediately after 
the birth. 

Many of the native women are skilful midwives, and 
exhibit much tact and presence of mind. Aboriginal women 
always bear their children while they kneel, and sit back on 
their heels, their feet being laid on the ground, soles upper- 
most — a common posture always with them when sitting. 
One of the women attending sits behind the woman in 
labor, and puts both her arms round her waist, thus form- 
ing a support for her back. The other widwife will attend 
to her as necessity requires. Parturition always takes place 
in this posture. The mother of a newly-born child generally 
recovers rapidly. I have known a woman walk two miles 
the day after she was confined. But this always does 



266 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

harm ; and I have heard their husbands reproach them with 
their folly. 

On emergencies, native women have sometimes been 
called in to act as midwives to the wives of White men 
living in the bush, and have succeeded very well. I remem- 
ber one amusing instance. The wife of a settler on Lake 
Albert was unable to get the help of one of her own country- 
woman, so she called in an intelligent half-caste named 
Emily, in her sore need of help. In due time the infant 
was born, and when she had made the mother comfortable 
in a very kind way, the half-caste Emily proceeded to wash 
the newly-born baby. After she had been quietly proceed- 
ing for a time, the mother was attracted by hearing the click 
of a pair of scissors, and on looking at the nurse saw a spot 
of blood on her hand. " What are you doing to my baby ?" 
she inquired. "Oh, missus," answered the nurse, "your 
baby has got too many fingers, and I only been cut off one; 
I will cut off the other directly, and make him all right." 
Of course the mother protested that she would not have this, 
and the second operation was not performed. It turned out 
that the infant had five fingers on each hand, and the native 
woman had clipped off with the scissors the superfluous, 
finger outside the little finger on the right hand to make all 
right as she said. I only relate this as indicating what would 
be probably done by aboriginals themselves in such a case. 
The infant in this instance suffered very little, and grew up 
a fine boy. Children very much deformed were invariably 
killed immediately after birth. But they must have been 
rare, for, although they are not killed now, they rarely 
appear. 

Although the Narrinyeri are so often exposed to the 
bite of venomous snakes, they have no remedy for this 
disaster. Their superstition leads them to believe it the 
result of sorcery. All the snakes are more or less deadly. 
Their poison brings on tetanus, and coma, and death. I 
have seen a strong man die in agonies from tetanus on the 
third day after being bitten by a very small brown snake. 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEPEDB BAY. 267 

The natives particulary dread the native slow-worm, 
called by them " wiitii turar" (wittii, " stinging " — turar, 
"teeth"). Whether it is really venomous I never could 
ascertain. I have cured five natives who were bitten by 
snakes. The remedies used were very large doses of liquor 
ammonia fortissimus, administered in one-ounce doses of 
neat brandy. 

The effect of the bite of the snake is to lower the pulse. 
It is felt to be gradually going down. I therefore gave ten 
drops of the ammonia in one fluid ounce of brandy every 
quarter of an hour till the pulse rose. When this takes 
place the danger is passed. It is astonishing what a number 
of doses of the above will be taken before the slightest 
effect is perceived. At the same time I freely scarified the 
wound made by the snake's teeth with the point of a lance^ 
and rubbed into the place pure liquid ammonia fort. 

The natives themselves have a sort of treatment of 
diseases, but it consists more in incantations than anything 
else. There are certain men amongst them sometimes called 
" Kuldukkis," sometimes " Wiwirrarmaldar," and sometimes 
" Puttherar " — but all mean doctors, and they profess to 
cure the sick. They blow and chant and mutter over the 
sick person, all the while squeezing the part affected by the 
disease, and after many efforts will produce a bit of wood, 
or bone, or stone, which they declare has been extracted 
from the place, and is the cause of the ailment. 

The natives are accustomed to scarify a part affected by 
pain with a bit of shell or glass, so that by making it bleed 
a cure may be accomplished. Another method which they 
pursue in cases of rheumatism is this : — They make a lot of 
stones red-hot in the fire. Then they erect a stage about 
three feet from the ground with sticks. On this they place 
the patient. Then they put the hot stones underneath, and 
cover them with wet water-weed called " pinggi." The 
patient and all is then enveloped in rugs or blankets, and 
the steam ascending produces a vapor-bath, which often 
brings on a salutary perspiration. 



268 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

Questions on Asokiginal Folklore, etc. 
(Answers to which appear in the previous pages.) 

1. Name of the person who answers the questions, and 
locality where he resides. 

2. What is the name of the tribe of aborigines to which 
his answers will relate? By "tribe," is meant all those 
aborigines who speak one language. The subdivisions of the 
tribe should be called clans. 

3. What tract of country is inhabited by the tribe? 

4. Is the tribe divided into clans ? If so, how many are 
there, and what are their names ? 

5. Has each clan a totem ? (That is some beast, bird, or 
other living or inanimate thing which is the symbol of the 
tribe.) 

6. Are there class-names, or a kind of castes in the tribe ? . 

7. Do the different clans only intermarry with each 
other, and do marriages never take place between members 
of the same clan? Or are the marriages regulated by the 
class-names? Do natives of different class-names only inter- 
marry ? If so, give names, and state what class-names the 
children of such intermarriages bear? 

8. What are the marriage customs and ceremonies? Who 
gives away the female to her husband? Are marriages 
arranged by the clans ? 

9. Are the children of the father's tribe or the mother's? 

10. Is polygamy practised? 

11. What is the system of kinship in the tribe? Give 
names for following relationships : — 



My father. 

My father's brother. 

My mother's sister's husband. 

My mother. 

My mother's sister. 

My father's second wife. 

My stepmother. 

My father's sister. 



My mother's brother's wife. 

My mother's brother. 

My father's sister's husband. 

My son or daughter. 

My brother's child ("I" being 

male). 
My brother's child ("I" being 

female). 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACBPEDE BAY. 269 



My sister's chUd ("I" being 


My father's mother. 


male). 


Her brothers and sisters. 


My sister's child ("I" being 


My mother's mother. 


female). 


Her brothers and sisters. 


My brother. 


My mother's father. 


My sister. 


His brothers and sisters. 


My elder brother. 


My father's sister's child. 


My elder sister. 


My mother's brother's child. 


My younger brother. 


A father and child. 


My younger sister. 


A mother and child. 


My father's brother's child. 


A widow. 


My mother's sister's child. 


A widower. 


My father's father. 


A fatherless child. , 


My father's father's brothers 


A motherless child. 


and sisters. 


A person bereaved of a brother. 


[Note. — Give the name of the relatic 


nship in each case, no matter whether 


it be the same word as on 


3 before mentioned or not.] 



12. Are blood relations allowed to intermarry? 

13. What is the form of government? 

14. How is justice administered? Is there any form of 
trial for suspected offenders ? If so, who are the judges ? 

15. What punishments are put in force against offenders ? 

16. What kinds of sorcery are practised? Describe them. 

17. What funeral customs are there? 

18. How does property descend? 

19. Have the aborigines any ideas of a future state? If 
so, what are they? 

20. Have they any belief in gods, demons, or supernatural 
beings? If so, what are they? 

21. Are there any legends or traditions amongst them? 
If so, please relate some of them? If possible, give one in 
the native language with a literal translation. 

22. Whence do traditions lead you to suppose they came? 
Where were the original seats of the race ? 

23. Are there any proofs of their having been more 
civilized in past ages than they are now, and, if so, what are 
they? 

24. Are they cannibals? What is their custom in can- 
nibalism? 



270 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

25. What are their weapons ? 

26. Do they make nets, twine, fishing lines, mats, or 
baskets ? 

27. What tools or implements do they possess — or did 
they possess, before Europeans came here ? 

28. Can you describe any ceremonies or peculiar customs 
practised by this people? 

29. What do they call their language ? 

30. Has their language any articles? If so, what are 
they? Are forms of the pronoun used as articles? 

31. What is the form of the declension of nouns? In 
the case of the word for "man," how do they say "of a man," 
"to a man," "by a man" (as an agent), "by a man" 
(situated near a man), "from a man," or "a man" objectively? 

32. Is there a dual form of the noun, i.e., is there not only 
a word for man and men, but a word for two men? 

33. What is the form of declension of pronouns? Give 
the full declension of the personal pronouns. 

34. Is there an abbreviated form of the pronoun, for the 
sake of euphony, used in composition? 

35. Is there any gender to pronouns? 

36. Has the verb any indicative mood ? or has the verb 
only a participial construction ? Is the form in which the 
verb is used in the indicative the form in which the same 
word is used adjectively? Give a specimen. 

37. What tenses has the verb ? Is there not only a past 
tense, but a remote past tense ? Is there a reciprocal tense — 
as, for instance, "I cut myself," "We two cut each other"? 
Is there a repetitive tense — as, for instance, not only "I 
strike" but "I strike again"? 

38. How is the passive form of the verb constructed? 

39. Is there any verb "to be" or "to have" in the 
language ? 

40. Is the letter s used in the language, ory, v, z? 

41. What are the numerals? How high can natives 
count in their own language ? 



FROM MURRAY RIVER TO LACEBEDB BAY. 



271 



42. Give a few specimen sentences of tlie language with 
a literal translation. 

43. "What are the native words for the following English 
words? — 



Sun. 

Moon. 

Star. 

Cloud. 

Heavens. 

Rain. 

Heat. 

Cold. 

Hill. 

Land. 

Stone. 

Water. 

Sea. 

Tree. 



Canoe. 

Fish. 

Dog. 

Kangaroo. 

Fire. 

House. 

Spear. 

Club. 

Wommera. 

Boomerang. 

Day. 

Night. 

Great. 

Small. 



Good. 

Bad. 

Man. 

Woman. 

Boy. 

Girl. 

Father. 

Mother. 

Husband. 

Wife. 

Head. 

Mouth. 

Hand. 

Eye. 



Tongue. 
Teeth. 


I. 

Thou. 


Ear. 


He, She, It 


Foot. 


We. 


Nose. 


Ye. 


Hair. 
Blood. 


They". 
This. 


Live. 


Who. 


Die. 


One. 


Hear. 


Two. 


See. 


Three. 


Sit. 


Four. 


Make. 


Dual. 


Give. 


Plural. 



44. What diseases are most prevalent amongst the 
aborigines of the tribe where you reside ? 

45. Have they any methods of treating or curing disease 
or injury among themselves, and what are they? 

46. What rites and ceremonies are used in the initiation 
of youths to the state of manhood ? 

47. Do the natives knock out any of the front teeth? 

48. Is circumcision practised amongst them ? 

Note 1. — Native words should be spelt according to the following 



rules ; — 



The consonants to be sounded as in English, only the g is always to 

be hard. 
The vowels are to be sounded thus : — 



E as in they. 

I as « in fatigue. 

U aa in rude, or as oo in mood. 



A as a in father ; ah 

Ai has the sound of long i. 

as in old. 

Au is sounded like ow in cow. 
Note 2. — Precise answers to question No. 11 are important. A correct 
reply will determine the system of kinship prevailing. The word for each 
relationship should be carefully ascertained. It is also desirable to discover 
whether there is not a slight variation of the word according as it is borne 
or attributed to the speaker ; for instance, a variation for my father, your 
father, his father, &c. 



272 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 83.— PYTU REACH. 
By George Taplikt. 



Kangaroo - 


wangami,tulatyi. 


Hand - 


- mari. 


Opossum 


- piltari, wongguri, 


2 Blacks - . 


- komengk. 


Tame dog ■ 
WUd dog - 


melluri. 
keli. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 


- neppaldarkornar 

- yammalaityi. 


Emu - 


pinyali. 


Two - 


- ninkaiengk. 


Black duck - 


nakkari. 


Three - 


■ neppaldar. 


Wood duck - 




Four - 


- kukkuk. 


Pelican 


nori. 


Father 


- nanghai. 


Laughing 'jackass 




Mother 


- nainkowa. 


Native companion 
White cockatoo 
Black „ 


prolggi. 
kranti. 
- wullaki,pillambe 


Sister-Elder 
„ Younger 


- maranowi. 

- tarti. 


Crow - 


marangaui. 


Brother-Elder 


- gelanowi. 


Swan - 

Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


kungari, tuma- 
kowalli. 
pellati. 
yarluki. 


,, Younger tarti. 
A young man - narumbi. 
An old man - - yandiorn. 


Fish - 


mami. 


An old woman 


- yandi-imin. 


Lobster 
Crayfish 


meauki. 


A baby 


- kelgalli, milyali, 


Mosquito 


muruli. 




tyinyero. 


Fly - 


tyilyi. 


A White man 


- griugkari. 


Snake - 

The Blacks - 

A Blackfellow - 


kraiyi. 

narrinyeri. 

korni. 


Children - 
Head - 


- porlar. 

- kurU. 


A Black woman - 


mimini. 


Eye - 


- pUi. 


Nose - 


kopi. 


Ear - 


- plombi. 





PYTU REACH. 


2T6 




No. 83.— Pyttj 'Reach— continued. 




Mouth 


- tori. 


Boomerang - 


- panketyi. 


Teeth- 


- turar. 


Hill - - 


- ngurli. 


Hair of the head 


- kuri. 


Wood - 


- lamatyeri. 


Beard - 


- menaki. 


Stone - 


- marti. 


Thunder - 


- muuti. 


Camp - 


- mauti, ngauandi. 


Grass - 


- kaiyi. 


Yes - 


- katyil, ng-ng. 


Tongue 


- tallanggi. 


No - - 


- nowaiy, ng-ng. 


Stomach 


- mankuri. 


I- 


- ngan. 


Breasts 


- ngumpurengk. 


You - 


- ngun-ngenti. 


Leg - 


- taruki. 


Bark - 


- yorli. 


Foot - 


■ tumi. 


Good - 


- nunkeri. 


Bone - 


- partpati. 


Bad - 


- wirrangi. 


Blood - 


- kruwi. 


Sweet - 


- kinpin. 


Skin - 


- wankandi. 


Food - 


- takuramb. 


Fat - 


- bilpuli. 


Hungry 


- yeyauwi. 


Bowels 


- mewi, waltyerar. 


Thirsty 


- klallin. 


Excrement - 


- kunar. 


Eat - 


- takkin. 


War-apear - 


- wundi. 


Sleep - 


- tantin. 


Eeed-spear - 


- kaiki. 


Drink - 


- murttun. 


Throwing-stick 


- taralgi. 


Walk - 


- ngoppun. 


Shield - 


- wakkaldi. 


See - 


- nakkin. 


Tomahawk - 


- drekurmi. 


Sit - 


- lewin. 


Canoe - 


- meralti. 


Yesterday - 


- watangrau. 


Sun - 


- nunggi. 


To-day 


- hikkai nunggi. 


Moon - 


- markeri. 


To-morrow - 


- ngrekkald. 


Star - 


- tuldi. 


Where are the yangi narrinyeri ' 


Light - 


- nunkulowi. 


Blacks? 




Dark - 


- yonguldyi. 


I don't know 


- nowaiy ap ngle 


Cold - 


- murunkun. 




min. 


Heat - 


- waldi. 


Plenty 


- ngruwar. 


Day - 

Night - 
Fire 
Water - 
Smoke - 
Ground 


- nunggi. 

- yonguldyi. 

- keni. 

- nguk, bareki. 

- kari. 

- tuni. 


Big - 

Little - 
Dead - 
By and-by - 
Come on 


- grauwi. 

- muralappi. 

- pornir. 

- palli. 

- ngai our. 


Wind - 
Eain - 


- maiyi. 

- pami. 


Milk - 
Eaglehawk 


- ngumperi. 

- wulde. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- talkinyeri. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - - 


- nape. 


VOL. II. 




S 





274 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 84.— FROM WELLINGTON, ON THE MURRAY 
RIVER, TO NORTH-WEST BEND. 

By M. Moorehouse, Esq. 

The following vocabulary is extracted from a work, pub- 
lished in 1846, by M. Moorehouse, Esq., formerly Protector 
of Aborigines on the Murray. That gentleman was under 
the impression that it was spoken from Wellington to the 
Rufus, whereas it prevailed no further than the North-west 
Bend. In many instances I have noticed that Blacks ex- 
aggerate the extent of their territory, and also the area over 
which their languages extend, especially after tribes become 
fused under the pressure of our occupation. Now-a-days, 
were an old man, on the Darling say, asked the extent of 
frontage his tribe occupied when he was young, he would 
probably in making his statement add to the possessions of 
his own tribe those of one or two neighbouring ones, whose 
few survivors had in the break-down of aboriginal polity 
cast in their lot with his people. From this cause I have 
frequently found descriptions of the boundaries of tribal 
lands overlap each other. 

The prevalence of r as an initial, and the recurrence of 
double r, are remarkable in this language. 





No. 84.- 


-Additional Woeds. 




A spirit 


■ idaidl. 




To count - 


- kappekappan. 


Sorcerer 


- idaidlanko. 




To speak 


- kappun, kaptun 


South - 


- karrungadla 




Sunset 


- karlkallo. 


East - 


- ngaldko. 




Rage - 


- kedlanko. 


West - 


- kaato. 




The shoulders 


- kinni. 


Expression of 


kaii 1 




Finger 


- kuilpo. 


wonder 






Blood - 


- kantur. 


Light (not heavy) kaitkatyo. 




Bloodlike - 


- kantukantur 


A grumbler 


- kappekappangko 




angko. 



FEOM WELLINGTON TO NORTH-WEST BEND. 



275 



No. 84.— Additional Words — continued. 



Eyelid 


kuitme. 


Eyelash 


kuityoink. 


The thigh - 


makuru. 


Trousers 


makurarru. 


Liver - 


ngaldkur. 


Little finger 


ngelko. 


Thumb 


ngoako. 


Forefinger - 


ngonongunnun. 


Flesh - 


parrangaldko. 


Knee - 


parrurup. 


Skin of an animal tanko. | 


Elbow - 


tatto. 


Rib - 


tennir. 


Cheek - 


tunkatto. 


Brain - 


yurlurro. 


To love 


kirredlamun. 


To make love 


■ kirripun. 


A magpie - 


- k6ularru. 


To evacuate the korntun, kun- | 


bowels 


dun. 


A reed 


- kordlo. 


To charm - 


- kungkun. 


Sorcerer 


- kungkungkangko 


Urine - 


- kuppur. 


To out 


- lappun. 


A tear 


- Uowo. 


Don't cry - 


- lloallo. 


A wife 


- loangko. 


To see one's sha 


- luttannun. 


dowin the water 


Likeness, shadow lutto. 


A liar - 


■ maaungum- 




angko. 


Wallaby - 


- madlongo. 


Animal food 


- mam. 


The milky way 


- mamramko. 


To believe, think meinin. | 


Paternal grand 


- metei. 


father 




Grandchild - 


- metto. 


To kiss 


- mooruun. 


Many - 


- uailko. 



Uncle - - - nukko. 
A female kangaroo ngaako. 
The liver - - ngaldkur. 
Maternal grand- hgatta. 
father 

Vegetable food - ngemmo. 
The breath - ngenginni. 

A louse - - paanko. 
A corpse - - padnamko, 

puintyelmunko. 
Nephew - - pammo. 
Stepfather - - pangur. 
Husband - - pewi. 
To kill - - puilyerrun. 
To die- - - puintyan. 
A widow - - rangngu. 
A hut - - - rap. 
A married couple rap-tad-lakko. 
Wrath - - rawuyip. 
Pleasure, joy - ratti. 
Bone worn rommum. 

through septum 
of nose 
Cousin - - rongko or ronn" 

gur. 
Red - - - rumrum. 
Door - ■ - taakurru. 
Where; - - tadla? 
A grave - - tappullo, tap 

purlo. 
A ball used in tiitko. 
play 

Sneezing - - tintingen. 
To laugh - - tirrikeblin. 
To slander - - tungngun. 
Young woman or warkarrau. 
girl 
An adult female - wityange. 
A black cockatoo womokkadlu. 
To swim - - yagun. 
A maggot, also yeltirri. 



The sea 



yerlungo. 



276 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 84.— WELLINGTON. 



Kangaroo - 




Hand - 


- 


- mannuruko. 


Opossum - 


peldki. 


2 Blacks 


- 


_ 


Tame dog - 


kedlu, kellu. 


3 Blacks 


_ 


, 


Wild dog - 


murrang kedlu. 


One - 


- 


- metatta. 


Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 


ranganyu. 
yeldko. 


Two - 
Three - 

Four - 


- 


- tangkul. 

- tangkul meto, 

metko. 


Laughingiaokass- 


kukatka. 


Father 


- 


- nukkuwur, 


Native companion 

White cockatoo - 

Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - ■ - 

Track of a foot 


kawakko. 
kunnamamu. 

toldomko. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 

„ Young 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 


petuwurra. 

- ngawur. 

- maiko. 

- marruko. 


Fish - - - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - 


kuyongo. 
yukalto. 
■ dlertluinmo. 


er 
- ngadlongo. 


Snake 




A White 


man 


- 


The Blacks - 




Child - 


- 


- nguilpo, reyu. 


A Blackfellow 




Head - 


- 


- pertpukko. 


A Black woman 


ngammaityu. 


Eye - 


- 


- korllo. 


Nose - 


roonko. 


Ear - 


- 


- marlo. 



FROM WELLINGTON TO NORTH-WEST BEND. 



277 





No. 84. — Wellington — continued. 




Mouth 


- munuo, taako. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- ngentko. 


Hill - 


- tepko. 


Hair of the head- 


Wood - 




Beard 


- ngulko. 


Stone - 


- parlo, parlko. 


Thunder - 


- rrarlo. 


Camp - 




Grass - 


- wungk. 


Yes - 


- ngaiai, ngaiye. 


Tongue 


- ngantudle. 


No - 




Stomach 


- papu. 


I 


- ngapo, ngarma. 


Breasts 


- mumpurro, pai- 


You - 


- ngurra, ngurru. 




puite. 


Bark - 


- pUli. 


Thigh 


- makuru. 


Good - 


- mudloityo. 


Foot - 


- tudgni. 


Bad - 


- paiyu. 


Bone - 


- kamko. 


Sweet - 




Blood - 


- kantur. 










Food - 




Skin - 


- pilli. 






Fat - 


- mudla. 


Hungry 




Bowels 




Thirsty 




Excrement - 


- kunna, kunngo. 


Eat - 


- nguntun, taan. 


War- spear - 


- kakurru. 


Sleep - 


- murrurri, yum 


Reed-spear - 


- kaiyur. 




mun. 


Throwiag-stick 


- ngeweaugko. 


Drink - 




Shield 


- tarramo. 


Walk - 




Tomahawk - 


- marrupung. 


See - 


- naan. 


Canoe - 


- manno. 


Sit ■ 


- Uewin. 


Sun - 


- nangke. 


Yesterday - 


- karldkun. 


Moon - 


- kakur, kagurre. 


To-day 




Star - - 


- pedli. 


To-morrow 


- pallarak. 


Light - 


- 


Where are the 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- taako. 


I don't know 




Heat - 




Plenty 




Day - 


- 


Big - - 


- yemko. 


Night - 
Fire - 


- nimmi. 


Little - 
Dead - 


- poilyongko. 


Water 
Smoke 


- ngukko. 

- multko. 


By-and-by - 


- yuatta. 


Ground 


, 


Come on 


- kauwo. 


Wind - - 


- murroko. 


MUk - 


- yuUurru. 


Rain - 


- bukatarru. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- peralla. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- loangko. 



278 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 85.— NORTH-WEST BEND OF THE RIVER MURRAY. 

By F. W. Fdlpord, Esq. 

It is noticeable that several words in this vocabulary begin and others end 
with r, ar, unusual characteristics in our languages. 



Kangaroo - 


poorool, toltar. 


Hand - 


- koolpoo. 


Opossum 


booltoo. 


2 Blacks - 


- rankool maree. 


Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 


- rankool mata 


Wild dog - ■ 


chelli. 




maree. 


Emu - 


rangun. 


One - 


- mata. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 

Laughingjaokass- 
Native companioii 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - 


narkur. 

kooar. 

nankoorar. 

kokaka. 

toorkul. 

chowuk. 

Waal. 


Two - 
Three - 
Four - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- rankool. 

- rankool-mata. 

- rankool-rankool 

- pweechar. 

- nukar. 

- meeka. 


Swan - 
Egg - - 


nankyer. 
. milewrup. 


„ Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- murrkar. 


Track of a foot 


• toonar. 


„ Young 


er bungar. 


Fish - 




A young man 


- leeree. 


Lobster 




An old ma;n 


- koombak. 


Crayfish 


ukot. 


An old woman 


- meechung. 


Mosquito - 
Fly - 

Snake - 
The Blacks - 


mautar. 
nakemilli. 
too-oo. 
maree. 


A baby 

A White man 

Children - 


- kimbill. 

- towar. 
-" mootar. 


A Blackfellow 


- maree. 


Head - 


- pempee. 


A Black woman 


• pookloo. 


Eye - 


- meeyee. 


Nose - 


■ mroontoo. 


Ear - 


- marwarl. 



NORTH-WEST BEND OF RIVER MURRAY. 



279 



No. 85. — NoKTH-WEST Bend of 


THE River Murray — continued. 


Mouth 


tookoo. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


tarakiit. 


HUl - 




Hair of the head 


winnee. 


Wood - 


narook. 


Beard - 


- wakkoo. 


Stone - 


- koiming. 


Thunder - 


- poorok. 


Camp - 


rowoo. 


Grass - 


- wunkar. 


Yes - 


niyar. 


Tongue 


- nundoolar. 


No - 


- ya-ya. 


Stomach 


- moontoo. 






Breasts 


- moombooroo. 


I- 


- narpoo. 


Thigh - 


- muntar. 


You - 


nooroo. 


Foot - 


- bungoorar. 


Bark - 


- nardlung. 


Bone - 


- kumpoo. 


Good - 


- moolike. 


Blood - 


- kondur. 


Bad - 


mookar. 


Skin - 


- tooltoo. 


Sweet - 


- moolike. 


Fat - 


- bartoor. 


Food - 


miyer. 


Bowels 


- wunbaroobar. 


Hungry 


- booung. 


Excrement - 




Thirsty 


- tarwin. 


War-spear • 




Eat - 


- tarklaka. 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


- umkunar. 


Wommera or 




Drink - 


- nooluka. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- punar. 


Shield - 


- 










See 


- nowar. 


Tomahawk - 


- maraboong. 


Sit 


- lowunar. 


Canoe - 


- munnur. 






Sun - 


- klear. , 


Yesterday - 


- kulkulk. 


Moon - 


- kukarar. 


To-day 


- peeyowar. 


Star - 


- billee. 


To-morrow - 


- peeatukar. 


Light - 


- wyuekur. 


Where are the 


there markuk ? 


Dark - 


- rookool. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- lookur. 


I don't know 


- Winyar(? where) 


Heat - 


- nirrkee. 


Plenty 


- warpoo warpoo. 


Day - 


- nitechar. 


Big - 


- beekuk. 


Night - 


- rookul. 


Little - 


- riwoone. 


Fire - 


- nalkoo. 


Dead - 


- boongiU. 


Water 


- nookoo. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Smoke 


- mooltoo. 


Come on 


- koowee. 


Ground 


- tootoo. 


Milk - 




Wind- 


- yarool. 






Rain - 


- markarar. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife 





280 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 86— NED'S CORNER STATION, MURRAY RIVER. 
By A. H. Peglbr, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


broolach. 


Opossum - 


bultcha. 


Tame dog - 


wilking. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


rungine. 


Black duck 


nucha. 


Wood duck 


chawra. 


Pelican 


muckwan. 


Laughing jackass kookooka. 


Native companion tharo. 


White cockatoo 


jackwa. 


Crow - 


woncher. 


Swan - 


nuncha. 


Egg - - 


thuUan. 


Track of afoot 




Eish - 




Lobster 


thupul. 


Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


- muntha. 


Fly - 




Snake 




The Blacks- 


- nutoha. 


A Blackfellow 


- merrely. 


A Black woman 


- bolko. 


Nose - 


- roonchana, 



Hand - 


chalpo. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


metha. 


Two - 


ra,Tiko. 


Three 


ranko metha 


Pour - 




Father 


ruchaa. 


Mother 


nutchaa. 


Sister-Elder 




„ Younger 


thulcha. 


Brother-Elder 




,, Younger bunoha. 


A young man 


lighcher. 


An old man 


koobatch 


An old woman 


yechong. 


A baby 


murtcha. 


A White man 


■ thougha. 


Children - 




Head - 


bumpie. 


Eye - 


■ mechil. 


Bar - 


munchuna. 



NED'S CORNER STATION, MURRAY RIVER. 



281 



No. 86. — Ned's Cornbb Station, Mttrway River — continued 


Mouth 


- thuraka. 


Boomerang- 


- 


Teeth 


- lutcha. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head winine. 


Wood- 


- lecher. 


Beard- 


- wak-oha. 


Stone - 


- kumcha. 


Thunder 


- poorache. 


Camp - 


- 


Grass - 


- yoxmgcha. 


Yes - 


- hiehia. 


Tongue 


- nungchul. 


No - 


- mematt. 


Stomach 


- poungbong. 


I- - 


- 


Breasts 


• buntricha. 


You - 




Thigh 


- nunoha. 


Bark - 


- nichline. 


Foot ■ 


- thunga. 


Good - 


- mulach. 


Bone - 




Bad - 




Blood - 


- koundcha. 










Sweet- 


- nuchlach. 


Skin - 


■ thulcha. 






Fat - 


- patura. 


Pood - 


- thighin. 


Bowels 


- kudna. 


Hungry - 


- 


Excrement 


- kudna. 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear 




Eat - 


- 


Reed-spear 


- kechia. 


Sleep - 


- 


Wommera 


or 


Drink- 


- 


thro wing- 


stick 


Walk - 


- puncha. 


Shield 


- thram. 


See - 


- nungha. 


Tomahawk 


- 


Sit - 




Canoe 


- munga. 


Yesterday - 


. 


Sun - 


- lechie. 


To-day 




Moon- 


- kachiera. 




Star - 


- billier. 


To-morrow- 


- 


Light - 


- nechega. 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- nimincha. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- dukka. 


I don't know 


- winacha. 


Heat - 


- nuncka. 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 




Big - - 


- 


Night 


- nulka. 


Little - 


- 


Fire - 


- thepia. 


Dead - 




Water 


- multcho. 


By-and-by - 




Smoke 


- 


Come on - 




Ground 


- 


Milk - 




Wind 


- 






Rain - 


. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 





282 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 87.— FEOM MALLEE CLIFFS STATION TO 
WENTWORTH. 

By — McFablane, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and other matter connected with 
the Kemendok tongue were kindly but hurriedly dictated to 
me by Mr. McFarlane, the owner of the MaUee Cliff Station, 
who speaks the language fluently : — 

By — McPablanb, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


buloker. 


Hand - 


- wa,in. 


Opossum - 


bult. 


2 Blacks - 


- raangool ngult. 


Tame dog - 


kalli. 


3 Blacks - 


- raangool meta 


Wild dog - 






ngult. 


Emu - 


rungin. 


One - 


- meta. 


Black duck 


toorlum. 


Two - 


■ raangool. 


Wood duck 


wondre. 


Three - 


- raangool met. 


Pelican 


belangri. 


Four - 


- raangool raan- 


Laughing jackass 


kokak. 




gool. 


Native companion tort. 


Father 


bUth. 


White cockatoo ■ 


runth. 


Mother 


ngaak. 


Crow - 


waak. 


Sister-Elder 


- mai-ik. 


Swan - 


koolthawa. 


„ Younger 




Egg - 


bert. 


Brother-Elder 


- kook. 


Track of a foot 


thin. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 




A young man 


- lomith. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- pikwaar. 


Crayfish 


moak. 


An old woman 


■ pik-korump. 


Mosquito - 


munth. 


A baby 


- thalump (male), 


Fly - - - 






baroeit (female) 


Snake 


thok. 


A White man 


- thow-wur. 


The Blaoks- 


ngultetel. 


Children - 


reep-reep. 


A Blackfellow 


ngult. 


Head - 


tururt. 


A Black woman - 


korump. 


Eye - 


- mi. 


Nose - 


kaap. 


Ear - 


- mur. 



MALLEE CLrFPS STATION TO WENTWORTH. 



283 



No. 87. — Mallbe Cliffs — continued. 



Mouth 


thak. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


drirk. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


drirk kitch. 


Wood- 


- boop. 


Beard- 


ngoolk. 


Stone - 


- mok. 


Thunder - 


bethung. 


Camp - 


- raap. 


Grass - 


thellum. 


Yes - 


- ai-ai. 


Tongue 


mat. 


No - 


- pintha. 


Stomach - 


monda. 


I 


- ngaie, ngaia. 


Breasts 




You - 


- wooroo. 






Bark - 


- kaart-kaart. 


Thigh 


naunt. 










Good - 


- warrink. 


Foot - 


thin. 






Bone - 


birump. 


Bad - 


baathup. 


Blood - 


koork. 


Sweet - 


- burmum. 


Skin - 


- metchook. 


Food - 


- maam (animal), 


Fat - 


- mint. 




thaap (vege- 


Bowels 






table). 


Excrement - 




Hungry 


- ngow-ngow- 
mum. 


War-spear - 


- thill. 


Thirsty 


- konoolun. 


Reed-spear - 


- nerit. 


Eat - 


- thaicha. 


Wommera or 


ngowathuk. 


Sleep - 


- muttri. 


throwing-stiok 




Drink - 


- ngooka. 


Shield 


- benmaL 


Walk- 


- yinna. 


Tomahawk - 


- tharing. 


See - 


- maima. 


Canoe 


- longup. 


Sit - 


- lewa. 


Sun - 


- nunk. 


Yesterday - 


- kaalkun. 


Moon - 


- baitch. 


To-day 


- bianunga. 


Star - 


- burl. 


To-morrow - 


- pint-wangorong. 


Light - 


■ nungan. 


Where are 


the winya ngultetel 


Dark - 


- wangoran. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- tirowl. 


I don't know 


- pinta ngaia 


Heat - 


- numura. 


• 


yoorun. 


Day - 


- nungan. 


Plenty 


- nur. 


Night- 


- wangora,n. 


Big - 


- yoorong. 


Fire - 


- nik. 


Little - 


- baie. 


Water 


- ngook. 


Dead - 


- yootmal. 


Smoke 


- thoor. 


By-and-by - 


- mondja. 


Ground 


- naitch. 


Come on - 


- yinne ap. 


Wind 


- wirith. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- makkri. 


Eaglehawk- 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wif,e - 





284 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN THE KEMBNDOK LANGUAGE. 
To Steikb. 

PRESENT. 



I strike 


- ngaie wokka. 


We strike - 


- ngfnna wokka. 


Thou strikest 


- ngoora wokka. 


You strike - 


- ngooroom wokka. 


He strikes - 


- inna wokka. 


They strike 


- ngowo wokka. 




PERFECT TENSE. 




I struck 


- ngaie wokkul. 


We struck - 


- nginum wokkul. 


Thou struokest 


ngoora wokkul. 


You struck - 


- ngooroom wok- 
kul. 


He struck - 


inna wokkul. 


They struck 


- ngam wokkul. 




EUTTJEE TENSE. 




I will strike 


- mondja ngaie 


We will strike 


- nginna mondja 




wokka. 




wokka. 


Thou wilt strike 


- mondja ngoora 


You will strike 


- ngooroom mondja 




wokka. 




wokka. 


He will strike 


- inna mondja 


They will strike 


- ngowo mondja 




wokka. 




wokka. 




IMPERATIVE MOOD. 




Strike 


- wokka. 


Let us strike 


- ngurra nginna 


Let him strike 


- ngurra inna 




wokka. 




wokka. 


Let them strike 


- ngurra ngowo 
wokka. 




To Go. 






PRESENT TENSE. 




go - 


- nup yennin. 


We go 


- nginna yennin. 


Thou goest - 


- ngoora yennin. 


You go 


- ngooroom yenna. 


He goes 


- inna yennin. 


They go - 


- ngowo yennin. 




PRETERITE TENSE. 




I went 


- nup yennool. 


He went, &c. 


- nginna yennool, 


Thou wentest 


- ngoora yennool. 




&c. 




FUTURE TENSE. 




I will go, &c. 


- nup mondja 






yenna. 








ngoora mondja 








yenna. 








inna mondja 








yenna, &o. 









IMPEBATIVB MOOD. 


Go thou 


- yenna. 


Let us go - 


Let him go - 


- ngarainnayeima. 


Let them go 



BETWEEN THE LACHLAN, MURRAY, & DARLING. 285 



- ngiima lurt 
yemia. 

- ngara ngowo 
yemia. 

He will go by-and-by .... inua mondja yemiola. 
There are no Blacks at Youngera - - pinta ngok coda Youngeran. 
There is no water at Youngera - - - pinta ngulk coda Youngeran. 
I have no opossum pinta ngaia bult. 

not I opossum. 

I don't see him pinta ngaia maimin inna. 

not I see him. 
That girl has a pretty face - - - inna morin warink ngining. 

she girl good face. 



No. 88.— FROM THE JUNCTION OF THE LACHLAN 
AND MURRAY TO THE JUNCTION OF THE 
DARLING AND MURRAY. 

By J. A. Maodonald, Esq. 

Of the language of tlie tribe which inhabits the country 
specified above 1 have three specimens, one drawn up by 
Mr. J. A. Macdonald, another by Mr. John Miller, of 
Kulnine, and the third by myself. Though they differ some- 
what, I have only inserted the first, together with some 
phrases and tenses of verbs obtained from Mr. Macdonald, 
who speaks the language well. The numerals 1, 2, and 3 
a woman gave me very distinctly as mok^ thoral, thoral no, 
mok. Families often differ a little in pronunciation. 

Though its language shows this tribe to be an off-shoot 
of the Narrinyeri, and hence of Central Australian descent, 
yet it calls itself and its language Yit-tha, which is its 
negative adverb. 

This, as the reader is aware, is a custom which may be 
said to be confined to Eastern Australia. Its occurrence in 



286 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



this tribe (the only exception I know) is explained by the 
fact that it is the last of the Central series, and has for 
its neighbour up the Murray a tribe of Eastern descent, 
which calls itself by its negative, and has no doubt named 
the Yit-tha in the same way. As I have said before, 
tribes often influence the languages and customs of their 
neighbours. 

From this point as far as Expedition Range, in Queens- 
land, this practice of calling a tribe by its negative prevails 
generally. 

The Yit-tha have territory on both sides of the Murray. 



Additional Phrases, etc. 

There is no water at Youngera; lit. : - Yittha ngok gooia, Youngeran, 

No water there, Youngera 
There are no Blacks at Youngera 
I have no money; lit.: Not me money 
I don't see him; lit. : No I see that 

Black 
That girl is pretty ; lit. : That girl 

good 



Yittha nunna gooia Youngeran. 

Yittha ngunak money. 

Yit-tha ngaie naiin yanda nunna. 

Yanda moorooin kaangil. 



Ngaie wokka yanda nuima koorndi nunga. 
I (will) kUl that Black to-morrow sun. 



I go. 

Thou goest. 
He 



Ngaap nukka - 
Ngoora nukka ■ 
Yanda nukkun - 



Ngaap nukkarnt - I went. 
Ngoora nukkarnt - Thou wentest, 
Yanda nukkarnt - He went. 



To Go. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Ngainne nukkun - We go. 
Ngoona nukka - You go. 

Yanda bugga nukka They (or that 
lot) go. 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Ngainne nukkarnt - We want. 
Ngoona nukkarnt ■ You went. 
Yanda bugga nukkarnt They went. 



FUTUEE TENSE. 

Ngaap lokka nukka ■ - - - I will go. 

Ngoora lokka nukka - - - . Thou wilt go. 

Yanda lokka nukka - ■ - - He will go, &c. 
And so on. 



BETWEEN THE LACHLAN, MURRAY, & DARLING. 287 

Striking- 



WooKooRN — To Strike. 
wokkilant. | Struck - 



- wok-koornt. 



Ngaie wokka 
Ngoora wokka 
Yiima wokka 



PRESENT TENSE, 

- I strike. 

- Thou strikest. 

- He strikes. 



Nganni wokka - - We strike. 
Ngooua wokka - - You strike. 
Yanda lokka wokka - They strike. 



PERFECT TENSE. 



Ngaie wokkoornt 
Ngoora wokkoornt 



I struck. 
Thou struckest, 



Ngaie ngoora wokka koorndi nungung. 
I you strike to-morrow sun. 



God made man. God said not good man alone 

— koityoomt nunna. — moothoort yittha kaangil nunna mowa 

to dwell. Then (at the time) God made woman. First woman 



lewin. 



Ngoomantha rooan 



Eve. 

Eve. 



Eve was wife of Adam. 
Eve — malool — Adam. 



— kooiyoornt pirup. Mipurn pirup 

Adam is father of the Blackfellow : 

Adam — beith wemum da Nunna : 

father of the Whites. Eve the mother of the (belonging to) 

beith wemum da Waipella. Eve — ngaak wernum da 

Blacks; mother of the Whites; mother of all. 
Nmma; ngaak wernum da Waipella; ngaak kurgurnum. 



288 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 88.— YIT-THA. 



By J. A. Maobonald, Esq, 



Kangaroo - 


- boolyoker. 


Hand- 


- waing. 


Opossum - 


wok-kuai. 


2 Blacks - 


thral nunna, 


Tame dog ■ 
Wild dog -• 


ngeining or 
ngcinth. 


3 Blacks - 


thoral nunna. 
- thral mo nunna 


Emu - 


bungaia or trun- 


One - 


- mo. 




gain. 


Two - 


- thral. 


Black duck 


kurabuug. 


Three 


- thral mo. 


Wood duck 


woorna. 


Four - 


- thral thral. 


Pelican - - nenangoo. 
Laughing jackass thoopunk. 
Native companion quirk. 
White cockatoo - kunth. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- beith. 

- ngaaka. 

- maiook. 


Crow 


toolang. 


„ Younger 


. 


Swan 

Egg - 

Track of a foot - 


koolthoo. 

belt. 

yerimp. 


Brother-Elder - kom, komma. 
,, Younger 


Fish - 




A young man 


- olquong nunna. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- beuk. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- thappool. 
bungiank, bun- 
gerang 


An old woman 
A baby 


- koram-koram. 

- pelai. 


Fly - 


- thill. 


A White man 


- kommaitch. 


Snake- 
The Blacks 
A Blackfellow 


- nalmo, nulma. 
ker nunna. 
nunna. 


Children - 
Head- 


- pelai-pelai, 

- derrart. 


A Black woman 


■ pirurp. 


Eye - 


■ laong or laank 


Nose- 


■ kaap. 


Ear - 


- maorl. 



BETWEEN THE LACHLAN, MURRAY, & DARLING. 



289 



No. 88. — Yit-tha — contmued. 



Mouth 


moorn. 


Boomerang 




Teeth 


treurk. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head derart. | 


Wood- 


woodtha, nga 


Beard 


kaart. 




rong. 






Stone - 


maak. 


Thunder - 


mundara. 






Grass 


thelim. 


Camp - 


traarp. 


Tongue 
Stomach - 


mert. 
- mirt. 


Yes - 
No - 


eiye or ye-ye. 
yit-tha. 


Breasts 


- paap. 


I- 


ngaap. 


Thigh 


- nunt. 


You - 


- ngooro. 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Bark - 


- ngoort. 


Bone - 


- kaam, biim. 


Good - 


■ kaangil. 


Blood - 


- korook. 


Bad - 


- look. 


Skin - 


- look. 


Sweet 


- kaangil. 


Fat - 


- kirt. 


Food - 


- thaap. 


Bowels 


- baagmirt. 


Hungry 


- ngow-ngow-mun. 


Excrement - 


- koorn. 


Thirsty 


- konooluu. 


War-spear - 


- maileba. 


. Eat - 


- thaia 


Reed-spear 
Wommera or 
throwiug-stick 
Shield 


- ngoroot. 
ngaak. 

- murkaang, boo- 


Sleep - 
Drink- 
Walk - 


- yimma. 

- ngokoloo. 

- nikka. 




rar. 


See - 


- look, nithe. 


Tomahawk - 


- thariing. 


Sit - 


- lewa. 


Canoe■ 


- yoongui, ko- 


Yesterday - 


- kaalkun. 




kwunk. 


To-day 


- yinnark nunk 


Sun - 


- nunk. 




(this sun). 


Moon - 


- baidjh. 


To-morrow- 


- koorndi nunk. 


Star - 


- dingi. 


Where are the 


winya nunna ? 


Light - 


- biak, birarka. 


Blacks ? 




Dark - 


- roin. 


I don't know 


- winya (?) . or 


Cold - 


- 




yitta ngai yewin 
not I know. 


Heat - 
Day - 


- wilyar. 

- nunk. 


Plenty 
Big - 


- kurgur. 

- yoorong. 


Night 


- roin. 


Little- 


- marlong. 


Fire - 


- ngaroong. 


Dead - 


- yootmurn. 


Water 


- ngok. 


By-and-by - 


- moinjalla, wai 


Smoke 


- toomp. 




ar-ing. 


Ground 


- ngait. 


Come on - 


- nukUa. 


Wind- 


- wiirrit. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- maggur. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


1 Wife - 




VOL. II. 




T 





BOOK THE EIGHTH. 



T 2 



BOOK THE EIGHTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

This book contains what I have to record in connection with 
the tribes in the eastern portion of the Central Division. 
Whether the tribes described at Nos. 138, 139, and 140 
ought to be included in this instead of in the Eastern 
Division it is impossible to determine on the small amount 
of information I have been able to obtain concerning them, 
for I have no accounts of their manners, and besides in both 
language and manners neighbouring tribes often take some- 
thing from each other. The matter, however, is not of much 
importance. 

As one can examine no considerable section of the Aus- 
tralian race, homogeneous though it be, without meeting 
something of interest peculiar to it, we are not surprised to 
discover a few novel features in the manners of the tribes 
described in this book. The first to be noticed is the 
existence on the banks of the Gregory of a neutral ground, 
150 miles long by 50 miles wide, which has been reserved, 
by the common consent of several tribes, for the purpose of 
holding their meetings. This seems a happy arrangement, 



294 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

for the Blacks, who delight in large gatherings, are usually- 
obliged to curtail them on account of the quantity of food 
it costs a tribe on whose territory a meeting takes place. 
And here it may be noticed that when a tribe entertains 
another it does not, save in exceptional cases, supply food; 
but allows its guests to help themselves to what is obtain- 
able on its lands. 

Another still more remarkable feature in the manners of 
some of these tribes is the prevalence of monogamy, a cir- 
cumstance not heretofore mentioned in any of the works 
which treat of our Blacks. The existence of this practice 
was first touched on in my description of a small tribe on 
the west coast called Yercla Meening. In the present book 
we find it prevailing in the two tribes, one described at No. 
106, and the other at No. 107. Hence the fact is men- 
tioned by three independent witnesses. That one of my two 
contributors to No. 107 has reported the present existence 
of polygamy in the Birria, one of the tribes in question, 
does not surprise me, as it is stated that a large proportion 
of the males were shot down before they were allowed to 
" come in " to the station, when the men, finding themselves 
less in number than the females, would certainly betake 
themselves to polygamy. That monogamy did exist in this 
tribe prior to the disturbance caused by the advent of our 
settlers I have no doubt. 

As regards the portions of the territories of most of 
the first ten tribes dealt with in this book, it has been 
found impossible to map them with any accuracy, the 
accounts received being irreconcilable in this particular. It 
seems probable that some tracts of country were hunted 
over by more than one tribe. 

I have heard mentioned as a well-known fact, that either 
one or two old cocoanut trees, I forget which, have been 
found growing on the mainland of Australia, and, if I 
remember rightly, in the country of the tribes which are 
treated of in this book. Since then our settlers have made 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 295 

some plantations of these trees. What story is connected 
with the one or two trees which grew previous to our occu- 
pation ? Had the nuts from which they sprung arrived in 
some canoe with castaways, and, if so, what became of its 
human freight ; or had they simply drifted to our coast, 
been washed ashore, and grown ? At any rate a passing 
interest attaches to these trees, as they are the only proof 
we have of anything having reached this continent from the 
outside world, possibly during the lapse of many centuries. 



296 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 89.— EASTWAED OF THE NICHOLSON RIVER 
AND BETWEEN THAT RIVER AND THE COAST. 

YANGARELLA TRIBE. 
By Edward Cukb, Esq. 



The reader will notice that hair and 
numbers 93 and 94, 



grass in this vocabulary, as well as in 
have some affinity. 



Kangaroo - 


jaco-jaco. 


Hand - 


malda. 


Opossum - 


- maleanda. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 


"nawooa. 

wangir. 

■ chabadoo. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 


chadra. 
chiarnga. 


Wood duck - 


- 


Three - 


tamgilda. 


Pelican 


parooa. 


Pour - 




Laughing jackass 


Pather 


candado. 


Native companion giradilgoora. 
White cockatoo - ngamala. 
Crow - - - wongoola. 
Swan - 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„ Younger - 


namado. 
kemagi. 


Egg - - 


crowa. 


Brother-Elder 


taboogoo. 


Track of a foot 


tyarra. 


,, Youngei 


kimagi. 


Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish - 
Mosquito - 
Ply . 

Snake - 


yakooli. 

kalaranga. 

yirgooda. 

palangali. 


A young man 

An old man 

An old woman ■ 

A baby 

A White man 


ooroonda. 

padolo. 

moolgoori. 

cognara. 

kando-kando 


The Blacks - 
A Blaokfellow 


wompoora. 
choigno. 


Children - 
Head - 


moolia. 


A Black woman - 


magooa, 


Eye - 


miboolda. 


Noge - 


kirca, 


Ear 


maralda. 



EASTWARD OF THE NICHOLSON RIVER. 



297 



No. 89 


— Eartwakd of Nicholson Rivee < 


Mouth - , 


wollara. 


Boomerang - 


Teeth - 


tarmauda. 


Hill - 


Hair of the head 


boolda. 


Wood - 


Beard - 


tookanda. 


Stone - 


Thunder - 




Camp - 


Grass - 


- boolda. 


Yes - 


Tongue 


tchamganunga. 


No - 


Stomach 


pardaga. 


I 


Breasts 


moonira. 


You - 


Thigh - 


■ kooldoora. 


Bark - 


Foot - 


- chama. 


Good - 


Bone - 


chulda. 


Bad - 


Blood - 


kando. 


Sweet - 


Skin - 


■ tarara 


Food - 


Fat - 


ooira. 


Hungry 


Bowels 


tulda. 




Excrement - 


toilda. 


Thirsty 


War-spear - 


miloori. 


Eat 


Reed-spear - 


kooboorama. 


Sleep - 


Wommera or 


pirri. 


Drink - 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


Shield- 


- chardia. 


See - 


Tomahawk - 


■ karawa. 


Sit 


Canoe - 
Sun - 


- warkooa. 


Yesterday - 


Moon - 


- kooroba. 


To-day 


Star - , - 


koogigi. 


To-morrow - 


Light - 




Where are the 


Dark - 




Blacks? 


Cold - 


goorinda. 


I don't know 


Heat - 


- nirtanita. 




Day - 


- yanda. 


Plenty 


Night - 


- karwigi. 


Big - 


Fire - 


ngiada. 


Little - 


Water- 


- mookooa. 


Dead - 


Smoke 


- noorara. 


By-and-by - 


Ground 


- doolga. 


Come on 


Wind - 


- womgalda. 


Milk - 


Rain - 


_ 


Eaglehawk - 


God - 


- pargigi. 


Wild turkey 


Ghosts 


■ worldala. 


Wife - 



298 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 90.— BUEKETOWN. 

By Thomas Coward, Esq., Inspector of Native Police. 

The gentleman to whose kindness I am indebted for this 
vocabulary of the language spoken at and near Burketown 
informs me that he obtained it from Police-trooper Vicq, a 
native of the locality. Burketown is distant about 450 miles 
from the Adelaide Eiver, being at the head of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, lat. 17° 30' south, long. 139° 40' east or there- 
abouts. 

The equivalents of the words eye, teeth, beard, tongue, 
fire, and walk point to the connection of this with the other 
Australian languages in general. 





No. 90.— BURKETOWN. 




By Thomas Coward, Esq., Inspector op Native Police. 


Kangaroo - 


- boongaua. 


Hand - 


- nungurra. 


Opossum - 


wahbera. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 


goodo. 


One - 


- tualnu. 


Emu ■■ 
Black duck 


boolongena. 
beangora. 


Two - 


■ digana. 


Wood duck 


yabbra - mondon- 


Three - 


- tangilla. 




gera. 


Four - 


• ticantallio duaUio 


Pelican 


yokkorara. 


Father 


- kihadgy. 


Laughing jackass 


talgora. 


Mother 


- gondonga. 


Native companion dilla-dulkoora. 


Sister-Blder 


- ongoora-bunga. 


White cockatoo ■ 


dialpoarra. 


„ Younger 


, 


Crow - 
Swan - 


wongoola. 
goonangoda. 


Brother-Elder 


- nuugai. 


Egg - 


yabbeba. 


Younger 


Track of a foot 


gungy. 


A young man 


- koolangaUy. 


Fish - 


warra. 


An old man 


- birdyniarra. 


Lobster 


_ 






Crayfish 


- mintoola. 


An old woman 


- wirdigarry. 


Mosquito - 


- kallanarra. 


A baby 


- bildingoora. 


Fly . 


• wooniarra. 


A White man 


- birda. 


Snake - 


- balangara. 


Children - 


- woorara. 


The Blacks - 


- yungunna. 


Head - 


- wirda. 


A Blackf ellow 


- nurka. 






A Black woman 


- ma,go. 


Eye - 


- midialla. 


Nose - 


- kuira. 


Ear - 


- murra. 





BURKETOWN. 


ayy 




No. 90. — BuRKETOWN — Continued. 




Mouth- 


■ burka. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- lia. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- booloomba. 


Wood - 


wiUadalhundy. 


Beard - 


- yarrania. 


Stone - 


kabirda. 


Thunder 


- birdmirra. 


Camp - 


nidda. 


Grass - 


- guma. 


Yes - 


- ne-a. 


Tongue 


- talnia. 






Stomach 


- boolgee. 


No 


- wirninga. 


Breasts 


- nookoola. 


I 


kooronya. 


Thigh - 


- bilba. 


You - 


- unna. 


Foot - 


- ganga. 


Bark - 


- kooroomba. 


Bone - 


- dimara. 


Good - 


- boorooga. 


Blood - 


- duckana. 


Bad - 


- toorka. 


Skin - 


- backeroo. 


Sweet - 


- karal-karella. 


Fat ■ 


- buranga. 


Food - 


- larcoola. 


Bowels 


- durra. 


Hungry 


- noUo. 


Excrement - 


- malina. 


Thirsty 


- normundo. 


War-spear - 


- warinwarrina. 


Bat - 


- diehdie. 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 


- woring. 
peery. 


Sleep - 


- yongoyou. 


throwing-stick 




Drink 


- owondinny. 


Shield - 


- tardoona. 


Walk - 


- yankia. 


Tomahawk - 


- tardiabona. 


See - 


- nowaba. 


Canoe - 


- kamera. 


Sit - 


- ninya. 


Sun . 


- tiringana. 


Yesterday - 


- kouondua. ■ 


Moon - 


- ballanichi. 


To-day 


- yananinga. 


Star - 


- barinia. 


To-morrow - 


- kaontoongara. 


Light - 


- kaondonarai. 










Where are the 


dame nar 


Dark - 


- kavondi. 










Blacks ? 


kommo? 


Cold - 


- woorine. 






Heat - 
Day - 


- yalooloo. 

- balmau - malla- 


I don't know 


- wandong nangy 
goorda. 




malla. 


Plenty 


- yonkoona. 


Night - 


- milHmarda, 


Big - - 


- koonamera. 


Fire - 


- willa. 


Little - 


- bilgingoora. 


Water - 


- wudha. 


Dead - 


- bookiana. 


Smoke 


- toomburna. 


By-and-by - 


- gedanda niadja. 


Ground 


- koorda. 


Come on 


- nidja. 


Wind - 


- wirramirra. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- boollolungana. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


WUd turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


- 



300 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 91.— THE MOUTH OF THE LEIGHAEDT EIVER. 

By W. E. Armit, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and information relative to the 
tribe which occupies the country on the eastern side of the 
embouchure of the Leichardt River I owe to the kindness of 
Mr. W. E. Armit, Sub-inspector of Native Police, as also 
some particulars concerning several other tribes. 

Mr. Armit says that children in this tribe inherit the 
names of their fathers, a statement which, I think, requires 
confirmation, as such a practice would often conflict with 
what seems to be the general custom of not naming the dead. 
He also says that many tribes have crests or totems, and 
gives the following instances, viz. : — 

Ngarra is the name of a tribe on the Leichardt Eiver 
whose crest is a shell on each cheek. 

The Eugoola Tribe, on the Nicholson River, paint a suc- 
cession of hooks on each arm. 

The Myabi tribe, on the Saxby, paint a snake on their 
shields. 

The Mayagoondoon, between the Leichardt and Gilbert 
Rivers, wear, as their crest, a band with pendulous kangaroo 
teeth round the forehead. 

The Mayatagoorri wear a belt painted with red ochre, in 
imitation of the meshes of a net. 



MOUTH OP THE LEICHARDT RIVER. 301 

The Naungaun, a tribe between the Norman and Gilbert 
Rivers, wear beneath the biceps of each arm an armlet made 
of opossum hair, with pendants of the same material. 

The Mygoolan, a tribe on the sea-coast, at the mouth of 
the Ennasleigh, wear two rings of opossum hair, with pen- 
dants on each leg, one above the knee and the other on the 
calf. 

Eeturning to the particular tribe treated of, Mr. Armit 
remarks that to denote any number above four, the hands 
are opened and shut until the desired number has been in- 
dicated, the person exclaiming at the same time Ounbala- 
gala ! Gunbalagala ! — i.e., good many. 

When the eldest son is old enough to be considered a 
man, the father leaves the camp, nor does he return for 
about three months, when the whole tribe meet him at the 
place from which he took his departure, and a grand cor- 
roboree ensues. They say that the eldest son is " no good." 
This custom is evidently but partially understood. This 
tpibe believe in a Good Spirit,' and that after death they will 
become White men; but as they have only lately known of 
the existence of White men, this belief must be of very 
modern date. 

The ceremony of making young men is carried on in 
camps marked in a peculiar way, and at these Mr. Armit has 
seen painted on a conspicuous tree, with red ochre or blood, 
the figure of a hand. The same sign he has also seen 
chopped on the bark of a tree. To mark a clean surface with 
a dirty, greasy, or painted hand is a common practice of our 
Blacks, and I have se6n them do it on several places long 
distances apart. It seems to me a practice of no significance, 
unless it be the first step in imitative art. 

During the period of menstruation the woman removes 
a little way from the camp, and remains in seclusion. 
Should a man cross her track at such a time it would be 
considered an evil omen, and the woman probably be brained 
to appease the anger of the Evil Spirit. In like manner 



302 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

men have a dread of women stepping over them when lying 
down, for it is believed that sickness or death follows. 

Mr. Armit concludes his very interesting letter in this 
way: — " You may, however, glean a few scraps here and there 
which I trust will repay you for reading my long epistle, 
which, however, I must still elongate to touch on another 
alleged custom, or rather society, which some gentlemen 
believe exists amongst the aborigines of Queensland. I 
allude to their freemasonry, or words and signs known to 
each other. In this I am a total disbeliever. That they 
have signs and signals by which they may recognize one 
another at a distance, or signal danger, such as 'Police about,' 
I thoroughly know, as I have often witnessed them; but 
these are very different things from a systematic arrange- 
ment of signs, symbols, and words, by which a man from one 
tribe could find immunity from outrage in passing through 
another tribe's territory. The former are simply necessary 
things which every animal makes use of to warn its mates. 
The latter I do not believe to exist, nor do I think the 
intellectual powers of the aboriginal sufficiently developed to 
invent such a system. That the Blacks up here can and do 
understand certain words from southern dialects is very 
true, but the transition from one dialect to another is so 
gradual that many words are retained common to all, 
though very possibly of totally different signification in any 
two or three dialects. Thus we see a Black show signs of 
pleasure on hearing a trooper from the Maranoa using a 
word which he understands in his own sense and becomes 
quite delighted at the sound, which he will repeat two or 
three times. This has been termed a system of freemasonry, 
and, in conjunction with the crests they use, has been pointed 
out as a sign of intellectual power which they never pos- 
sessed. The two should be kept separate, for I see no affinity 
between them whatever." 

In Mr. Armit's vocabulary the equivalents for ear, teeth, 
beard, foot, throwing-stick, tomahawk, and fire resemble 
those in the Normantown or Micoolan language, some 



MOUTH OF THE LEICHARDT RIVER. 303 

seventy miles to tlie eastward. He also gives the following 
names of tribes on the Leichardt River: — 

Djargirra, or People belonging to the fresh-water. 
Djinumarra, or People belonging to the salt-water. 
Gooran, or People belonging to the scrub. 

The following words are additional: — 

Demon - - - Dibir. 

Good Spirit - - - Mandja. 

Southern Cross - - - Ganyi-ganyi. 

Venus - - . Boogar. 



304 



THE AUSTRALIAli RACE: 



No. 91.— MOUTH OP THE LEICHAEDT RIVER. 



By W. E. Aemit, 



Kangaroo - 


majumba. 


Opossum 


kardilla. 


Tame dog - 


yalba. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 




Black duck - 


bindtirra. 


Wood duck - 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 


jarungool. 


Native companioi) 


parumba. 


White cockatoo - 




Crow - - - 


wya. 


Swan - - - 




Egg - 


tandoo. 


Track of a foot - 


wooya. 


Fish - 


wokkai. 


Lobster 


ruja. 


Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


wungui. 


Fly - 




Snake 


dulburru. 


The Blacks - 




A Blackfellow - 


yirrman. 


A Black woman - 


baula. 


Nose - 


gunyi. 



Hand - 


- maUa. 


2Blacks - 


- kurbayia yirr 




man. 


3 Blacks - 


- matta yirrman. 


One - 


- wongarri. 


Two - 


- kurbayia. 


Three - 


- matta. 


Four - 


- murgoo. 


Father 


- kumalla. 


Mother 


- mujoo. 


Sister-Elder 


- 


,, Younger 




Brother-Elder 


- 


„ Young 


3r 


A young man 


- kalbi. 


An old man 


- muddoo-muddoo 


An old woman 


- moa. 


A baby 


- pajamuUa. 


A White man 


- moombi. 


Children 


- murgoo. 


Head - 


- tchigi. 


Eye - 


- tibarri. 


Ear - 


- binna. 



MOUTH OF THE LEICHARDT RIVER 



305 



No. 91. 


— MO0TH OF THE LeICHAEDT RiVEE 


—continued. 


Mouth 


- lerra. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- yerngandi. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- wallooln. 


Wood - 


- mada. 


Beard - 


- yanba. 


Stone - 


. 


Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 




Grass 


- kadir. 










Yea - 


- kullilli. 


Tongue 


- mooni. 






Stomach - 


- koodna. 


No - 


- yaddi. 


Breasts 


- mundji-mundji. 


I 


- yundou. 


Thigh - 


- langiu. 


You - 


- uayou. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bark - 


- yagarri. 


Bone - 


- mada. 


Good - 


- manja. 


Blood - 


- majaugo. 


Bad - 


■ kakai. 


Skin - 


- yogale. 


Sweet - 


- tamban. 


Fat - 


- gamirr. 


Food - 


- yaddii. 


Bowels 


- turburr. 






Excrement - 


- dulla. 


Hungry 


- yadda. 


War-spear - 


- kungoon. 


Thirsty 


- yaddingayoo 


Reed-spear - 


- tabarra. 


Eat - 


- yadda. 


Wommera or 


eurman. 


Sleep - 


- woogamba. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- wooga. 


Shield 


- wallauja. 


Walk - 


- kurrai. 


Tomahawk - 


- marrea. 


See - 


• namalbadda. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- inai. 


Sun - 


- burril. 


Yesterday - 


- birringa. 


Moon - 


- barngan. 


To-day 


- nilla. 


Star - 


- yalli. 






Light - 


- wudja. 


To-morrow - 


~ 


Dark - 


- mulla. 


Where are 


the yirrmandan 






Blacks? 


dana? 


Cold - 


■ yirringa. 






Heat - 


- tammoon. 


I don't know 


- yaddi galao. 


Day - 


- mandja. 


Plenty 


- 


Night - - 


- 


Big - - 


- 


Fire - 


- yangoo. 


Little - 


- niun-niun. 


Water 


- yabboo. 


Dead - 


- moriana. 


Smoke 


- tooba. 


By-and-by - 


- wurru. 


Ground 


- magi. 


Come on 


- kabbiyao. 


Wind- 


- 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kalga. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 


- wongaringe. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 




VOL. II. 




U 





306 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 92.— MOUTH OF THE EIVEE NOEMAN. 

By W. E. Abmit, Lstspectok of Native Mounted Police. 

The country of the Karrandee tribe is on the Grulf of 
Carpentaria, commencing at the mouth of the Eiver Bynoe, 
and continuing along the coast, after passing the embouchure 
of the Norman, to a salt-water creek within fifteen miles of 
the mouth of the Gilbert : inland it extends to Magowra 
Station, and on to Walker's Creek, and contains about two 
thousand square miles. This country, or a part of it, was 
first occupied by the "Whites in about 1866. In 1875, when 
my informant first knew the tribe, it numbered some 250 
persons, but is now reduced by the rifle and syphilis to 160 
souls, made up of 50 men, 70 women, and 40 children. 
Women rarely being shot, it seems from these figures that 
90 men of this tribe fell before the rifle. 

This tribe go naked, like all others in Northern Australia, 
and a fair proportion of them, for the most part females, seem 
to be sixty years of age. They erect during certain seasons 
dome-shaped huts made of grass and sticks, which, mosqni- 
tos being numerous, they completely fill with smoke before 
retiring for the night, and entering quickly fill up the aper- 
ture with grass. By degrees the smoke escapes. Their 
ornaments present no peculiarities, and like all other tribes 
we know of, they smear their persons with fat and red ochre 
when dancing the corroboree. The wommera and a two- 
handed club, which they color red, white, or yellow, are in 
use, as also the boomerang. They have besides the common 
koolaman, or wooden water-trough. Their principal articles 
of food are rats, snakes, wallaby, and sharks, also dngong, 
turtle, and other sorts of fish, and besides several sorts of 



MOUTH OF THE RIVER NORMAN. 



307 



roots and the fruit of the mangrove; all of which are cooked 
on the coals or in ovens. In the southern portions of Aus- 
tralia it is common to cook at certain favorite spots, 
hence our ovens or ash-heaps ; but such is not the case in 
the North. Eestrictions as regards certain sorts of food 
obtain, and food being very abundant, cannibalism does not 
exist in this tribe. Marriage in the Karrandee tribe is 
endogamous, and regulated by classes, some of which are 
called Mooroob, Heyanbo, Lenai, Koanga, and Yelet. A few 
of the men have as many as four, and one six, wives. 
Females become wives when mere children, and mothers at, 
it is said, twelve years of age. Married couples often seem 
much attached. Lung disease appears to have been common 
before our occupation, and syphilis is now exterminating the 
tribe. The customs of scarring the skin and piercing the 
septum of the nose prevail, and some have teeth knocked 
out. The general height of the men is a little under 5 feet 
8 inches, but some reach 6 feet 3 inches. The rights of 
manhood are conferred by means of secret ceremonies. 
Message-sticks accompany vivA voce messages of importance 
between portions of the tribe camped a distance apart. The 
following Additional Words are given by Mr. Armit : — 



Crab - - 


- gomi. 


Tree - 


- bilbar. 


Ray - 


- rowal. 


Water-trough 


- yerkal. 


Uncle 


- miartuk. 


Steamer 


- yerkal. 


Aunt - 


- nuUata. 


Tobacco-pipe 


-. beyal. 


Cousin 


- pata. 


Red ochre - 


- perra. 


Hawk - 


- reangal. 







308 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 92.— MOUTH OP THE NORMAN. 



By W. E. Akmit, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


gooalek. 


Hand - 


maar. 


Opossum 


ungorr. 


2 Blacks - 


aam buggar 


Tame dog - 


irruag. 


3 Blacks - 


aam orinoh. 


Wild dog - 




One - 


lum. 


Emu - 


■ tarmar. 


Two - 


buggar. 


Black duok - 


- neur. 


Three - 


orinch. 


Wood duck - 


- char. 


Pour - 




Pelican - - nyumiaggar. 
Laughing jackass kerreg. 


Father 


nyet. 


Native companion kor-kor. 


Mother 


mooruk. _ 


White cockatoo 




Sister-Elder 


nuUatr. 


Crow - 


- polleet. 


„ Younger 




Swan - 




Brother-Elder 


paata. 


Egg - - 


- taum. 


,, Younger 




Track of a foot 


- ain. 










A young man 


karnert. 


Pish - 


- kurmbaiar. 






Lobster 


- laamballay. 


An old man 


kiniart. 


Crayfish 


- ndaag. 


An old woman 


mungiaert. 


Mosquito - 


- lal. 


A baby 


chuckor. 


Ply - 


- nyal. 


A White man 


- morub. 


Snake - 


- teU. 


Children 


- ngongorr. 


The Blacks - 


- ngaan. 






A Blackf ellow 


- aam. 


Head - 


- lagal. 


A Black woman 


- nok-nok. 


Eye - 


- ale. 


Nose - 


- owoo. 


Ear - 


- nulliak. 



MOUTH OP THE RIVER NORMAN. 



309 



No. 92.— Mouth of the Nokman— coniJmaecZ. 


Mouth 


- aag. 


Boomerang - 


- ngel. 


Teeth - 


- ngaal. 


Hill - 


_ 


Hair of the head- taak. 


Wood - 


- bayal. 


Beard - 


• Ibar. 










Stone - 


- urrayam. 


Thunder - 
Grass - 


- urray. 

- guan. 


Camp - 


- toaak. 


Tongue 


- ndara. 


Yes - 


- yiel. 


Stomach 


- worr. 


No 


- ar. 


Breasts 


- yoong. 


I - 


- mirriangle. 


Thigh - 


- lar. 


You - 


- nomoon. 


Foot - 


- aaen. 


Bark - 


- ungorr. 


Bone - 


■ mog. 


Good - 


- babrar. 


Blood - 


- yaang. 


Bad - 


- umwal. 


Skin - 


- baab.' 


Sweet - 


- erryangool. 


Fat - 


- yambara. 


Food - 


- goondoolgoon- 


Bowels 


- laamba. 




"doo. 


Excrement - 


- oong. 


Hungry 


- terrinjoin. 


War-spear - 


- aalga. 


Thirsty 


- rowal. 


Reed-apear - 


- oerma. 


Eat - 


- errealk. 


Wommera or 








throwing-stiok 


ngiel. 


Sleep - 


- ngoeur. 


Shield 


- kullyar. 


Drink - 


- baal. 


Tomahawk - 


- tchuggar. 


Walk - 


- rowarmungle. 


Canoe 


- nye. 


See - 


- yielgang. 


Sun - 


- rarm. 


Sit - 


- yebaag. 


Moon - 


- ulkyan. 


Yesterday - 


- errowar. 


Star - 


- laohe. 


To-day 


- ngurrowar. 


Light - 


- lullumgor. 


To-morrow - 


- nurrowar- 


Dark 


- arreal. 




poppoi. 


Cold - - 


- lawn. 


Where are 


the amettaa telloo ? 


Heat - 


- arelberelb. 


Blacks ? 




Day - 


- kiingel-kungel. 


I don't know 


- errag naye. 


Night - - 


- ny. 


Plenty 


- wakootal. 


Fire - 


- umbyal. 


Big - 


- aihn. 


Water 


- baal. 


Little - 


- chukkoor. 


Smoke 


- goan. 


Dead - ' - 


- garter. 


Ground 


- tooak. 


By-and-by ■• 


- yagunga. 


Wind - 


- tara. 


Come on 


- rurri jarganga. 


Rain - 


- urpure. 


Milk - 


- 


God - - 


- mbyal wakoot- 


Eaglehawk 


- 




alga. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- poiin. 


Wife - 


- 



310 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 93.— MIDDLE NORMAN. 

By W. E. Armit, Esq., Inspectob op Police, and Lyndon PoiaNDESiEE, 
Esq., Sub-inspectob of Police. 

Of the language of the WoUongurmee tribe I have received 
two vocabularies, one from Mr. William E. Armit, Inspector 
of Police, the other from Mr. Lyndon Poigndestre, Sub- 
inspector of Police, of which the former is inserted. Mr. 
Armit informs me that this tribe inhabit the country from 
the embouchure of the Norman to the ranges below Cam- 
bridge Creek. As, however, he has already assigned the 
mouth of the Norman to the Karrandee tribe, I am at a loss 
where to locate the WoUongurmee on the map, and have 
placed it on the Middle Norman as most probably the 
correct position. The men of this tribe, said Mr. Armit 
when he wrote to me in 1882, are bold and hostile, fine 
athletic fellows, of a coppery color, with curly hair, who 
make frequent raids on their neighbours, and murder a 
White man now and then when opportunity offers. When 
pushed for food they practise cannibalism. Their neighbours 
on the south side, says Mr. Armit, are the Mikkoolan, and 
on the south-west the tribes of the Leichardt, statements 
which are irreconcilable with others which have reached me. 
It is most unusual to find a language which differs so 
much from its neighbours and those of Australia generally 
as this. Except in the equivalents oi fish, teeth, and you, I 



MIDDLE NORMAN. 311 

find no words which occur in other vocabularies. The 
agreement in night and dark is almost the only other 
Australian characteristic which I observe. The manners 
and implements of the tribe, as far as I am informed of 
them, are those common on the continent. 

In addition to the vocabulary, Mr. Armit gives me the 
following phrases : — 

Where did you sleep last night ? - Inda takell munna ? 

Where are you going to sleep to- Indo takell munnar gar ? 

night? 

Don't sing out . . . . Indo arra kepmer mundar. 

Where is Tommy ? - - - - Takke Tommio ? 

I am hungry Mairrairrur naidje. 

Don't be frightened - - - Mart marroor apmell jendoor. 

Take me to your camp - - - Innoo arroorroor lemeneri daiger. 

Come down Indo arrurrunular. 

Where water? . . . . Arkkawer tikkeUow ? 

With regard to the equivalents of you, indo, inda, innoo, 
and other terms, I have been particularly careful to see that 
they are given as I received them. 



312 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 93.— MIDDLE NORMAN. 



By W. E. Armit, Esq. 



Kangaroo 


orthur. 


Hand - 


- orunnoor. 


Opossum - 


woombur. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


uoughtnoommer. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- orter. 


Emu - 


heerkoolar. 






Black duck - 


ooltukkuUer 


Two - 


- gauUoor. 


Wood duck 


kur-kur-kur. 


Three - 


- orrinjay. 


Pelican 


arthurur, 


Four - 


- 


Laughing jackass 


rulgeear. 


Father 


- uwer. 


Native compauioD 


koorur-koorur. 


Mother 


- albeyarroor. 


White' cockatoo 


painduller. 






Crow - 


arther. 


Sister-Elder 


- annellar. 


Swan - 


(does not occur). 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - 


- kowper. 


Brother-Elder 


- allLngother. 


Track of a foot 




,, Younger koyer. 


Fish - 


- balpee. 


A young man 


- dairurkoona. 


Lobster 


- yandurrer. 


An old man 


- arquenna. 


Crayfish 


- elparra. 


An old woman 


- toinjure. 


Mosquito 


- etnawlyer. 


A baby 


- koichittoo. 


Fly - 


- anur. 






Snake - 


- orugur. 


A White man 


- oinger. 


The Blacks - 


- arpmoor. 


Children 


- gonegoorur. 


A Blackfellow 


- 


Head - 


- attaiger. 


*A Black woman mongine. 


Eye - 


- eller. 


Nose - 


- oorkellar,warrur. 


Ear - 


- woraellar. 




* 1. Pc 


igndestre, 





MIDDLE NORMAN. 



313 



93. — Middle Norman — corairmed. 



Mouth 


- oowerur. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- yeerur. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- elgooennoor. 


Wood - 


- koorur. 


Beard - 


- alpaira. 


Stone - 


- roongoolur. 


Thunder - 


- chalquar. 


Camp - 


- allerooroor. 


Grass - 


- quennur. 


Yes - 


- eeyo, yee, ee. 


Tongue 


- dalrroor. 


No - 


- arro. 


Stomach 


- noomber. 


I 


- eeyoor. 


Breasts 


- yungur. 


You - 


- inda, innoo. 


Thigh - 


- arwoorroor. 


Bark - 


- ortter. 


Foot - 


- eatnoor. 


Good - 


- moonyerror. 


Bone - 


- orkur. 


Bad - 


- karnyer. 


Blood - 


- eerroor. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- 


Food - 


- 


Fat - 


- yambairrer. 


Hungry 


- mairrairrur. 


Bowels 


- nambairrer (?). 


Thirsty 


- bengur, murrule 


Excrement - 


. 




mundoor. 


War-spear - 


- alkur. 


Eat - 


- arweeroor, tyur 


Reed-spear - 


- allgorur. 




goondoor. 


Wommera or 


engellar. 


Sleep - 


- quenditmayer. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- arkwayennoor. 


Shield 


- koonburrar. 


Walk - 


- arattwaner- 


Tomahawk - 


- gwarringyur. 




bunda. 


Canoe - 


- orrukkur 


See - ■ - 


- lenderelder. 


Sun - 


- yennoor. 


Sit - 


- nocknoonnoon- 


Moon - 


- arkkenna. 




dur. 


Star - 


- arllyyer. 


Yesterday - 


- tarhn. 


Light - 


- amdellur. 


To-day 


- laymer. 


Dark - 


- ballpuller. 


To-morrow - 


- yennar. 


Cold - 


- kerramerrer 


Where are 


the tak-ke-arpmoor 


Heat - 


- alwoonergoongee 


Blacks ? 
I don't know 


- ambitcka. 


Day - 


- yendunenmun- 








der. 


Plenty 


- walkoor. 


Night - 


- ballpuUergetter. 


Big - - 


- armoorur. 


Fire - 


- tenner. 


Little - 


- jura. 


Water 


- ark-kawar. 


Dead - 


- arrembunnur. 


Smoke 


- orknoor. 


By-and-by - 


- laymoorgoorar. 


Ground 


- arroorroor. 


Come on 


- kow-way. 


Wind- 


_ 


MUk - 


- 


Rain - 


- roanunuller. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


- 



314 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 94.— ON THE WEST BANK OF THE LEICHAEDT 
EIVEE, NEAE THE SEA. 

MDTGIN TRIBE. 
By Edwabd Cube, Esq. 

In this vocabulary we have tullula = star, and milla=fire 
and wood, and in the Ngorraialum language, almost at 
the other extremity of the continent, we have toort and 
wiin in the same senses. Note also the rendering of stone 
and hill ; bad and dead. 



No 


. 94.— WEST OP 


LEICHARDT RIVER. 




By Edwabd Cuek, Esq. 




Kaugaroo - 


jaco-jaco. 


Hand - 


- na-nga-ra. 


Opossum 


wapoora. 


2 Blacks - 


_ 


Tame dog - 
WUd dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 


koodoo. 

megilpurra. 

poolunganna. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - . - 


- choamg-ngo 

- tigina. 

- tamgiltna. 


Pelican 


piteldoo. 


Pour - 


■ 


Laughing jackass 




Father 


- kiagi. 


Native companion 


pooralga. 


Mother 


- koondoonoo. 


White cockatoo - 

Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - - - 

Track of a foot - 


karimbala. 
wongoola. 

ooabiba. 
tyana. 


Sister-Elder - yillolunga. 

„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder - nancile. 

,, Younger birgenkoora. 


Fish - 


worra. 


A young man 


- ooroonda. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- pardingara. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- ooardigiri. 


Mosquito - 
My - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow - 


kalaranga. 
koorina. 
paganbaba. 
wompoora. 


A baby 
A White man 
Children 
Head - 


- pelginooora. 

- takandana, 

- wedda. 


A Black woman - 


magoo. 


Eye - 


- migilla. 


Nose - 


kiwira 


Ear - 


- mara. 



WEST BANK OF THE LEICHARDT RIVER. 



315 



No. 


94.— West or Leicb 


-ABDT BiiYEB,— continued. 


Mouth 


- parka. 


Boomerang - 


- wangiUa. 


Teeth 


- lia. 


Hill - 


- kabada. 


Hair of the head 


- boormba. 


Wood - 


- willa. 


Beard - 


- yarin-nga. 


Stone - 


- kabada. 


Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 


- nadda. 


Grass - 


- boolba. 


Yes - 


. 


Tongue 


- cham-nga. 


No 




Stomach 


- pardaga. 


I 




Breasts 


- makola. 




Thigh - - 


- bilba. 


You - 


- 


Foot - 


- changa. 


Bark - 


- pakooroo. 


Bone - 


- dimira. 


Good - 


- poorooga. 


Blood - 


- tagana. 


Bad - 


- pooga, 


Skin - 


- pagooroo. 


Sweet - 


- paranga {i.e., 


Fat - 


- paranga. 




honey). 


Bowels 


- turra. 


Food - 


- 


Excrement - 


- turra. 


Hungry 


- nuUu. 


War-spear - 


- mulgendara. 


Thirsty 


- noormoondo. 


Beed-spear - 


- ngoormi. 


Eat - 


- tara. 


Wommera or 


pirri. 


Sleep - 


- yungooyoo. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- chi-chi. 


Shield 


- oharpi. 


Walk - 


- yappoo. 


Tomahawk - 


- churiwindilla. 










See - 


. 


Canoe - 


. 






Sun - 


- chirinanna. 


Sit - 


- koonooyoo. 


Moon - 


- biringa. 


Yesterday - 


- yalundie. 


Star - 


- tuUula. 


To-day 


■ yanalinga. 


Light - 


. 


To-morrow • 


- kowoondoo. 


Dark - 


. 


Where are 


the tano ara mingoo ? 


Cold - - 


- goorina. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- ooaloola. 


I don't know 


- 


Day - 


- yanalinga. 


Plenty 


- wonapoora. 


Night - 


- kowoondi. 


Big - - 


- poolana. 


Fire - 


- willa. 


Little 


- pilgingoora. 


Water 


• wadda. 


Dead 


- pooga. 


Smoke 


- quia-quia. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- koorda. 


Come on 


- 


Wind - 


- wormora. 


Milk - 


- nogoola. 


Rain - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- churbooyo. 


Wild turkey 


- piringoora. 


Ghosts 


- parda. 


Wife - 


- 



316 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 95.— LEICHARDT EIVEE, TWENTY MILES 
BELOW KAMILAROI STATION. 

This vocabulary of a language spoken on the Leichardt 
River, twenty miles below the Kamilaroi Station, was sent 
to me by my son, Mr. Edward Curr. Kamilaroi is not the 
aboriginal name of the station, but merely a fancy name 
given by its owners. 

The sound of the letter v is found in this language; 



No. 95.— LEICHARDT RIVER. 

Hand - 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder ■ 

„ Younger- 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 
Head - 
Eye - 
Ear - 



Kangaroo - 


my-u-bee. 


Opossum 


ka-goin. 


Tame dog - 


mo-rool. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


gon-do-lo. 


Black duck - 


toor-gu. 


Wood duck- 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 




Native companion 




White cockatoo - 


koo-lo-ra. 


Crow - 


toon-ou-vrai. 


Swan - 




Egg - - - 




Track of a foot - 


chin-na 


Fish - 


balbi. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 


choorn-gu. 


Mosquito - 


wan-gouin. 


Fly - 


ni-mo-loo. 


Snake - 


ma-no-wag-gi. 


The Blacks - 


in-goom. 


A Blaokf ellow - 




A Black woman - 


poin-u. 


Nose - 


koo-ni. 



- muUa. 



war-m-gu. 
koo-youn. 
ny-yill-ey. 

na-boor. 

ya-bar-ri. 

mo-a. 

mo-do-mo-do. 

ty-gall. 

mi-goo-loo. 

gi-gi- 
ti-ba-ri. 

phir-nur. 



LEICHARDT RIVEE. 



317 





No. 95. — LlIOHARD 


r 'RxTETi^-continued. 


Mouth 


- na-gu. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- yar-gan-di. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head - war-am-boo. 


Wood - 


- nor-goor. 


Beard - 


- yan-bar. 


Stone - 


- mo-rin-gi. 

- mag-gi. 


Thunder - 
Grass - 


- yam-ber-ri. 

- yal-goon. 


Camp - 

Yes - 


Tongue 


- moo-ni. 


- ga-vi-a. 


Stomach 


- na-boo-ra. 


No 


- yad-di. 


Breasts 


- tam-boo. 


I- 


- 


Thigh - 


- tar-ra. 


You - 


- 


Foot - 


- chin-na. 


Bark - 


- bimba. 


Bone - 


- mud-da. 


Good - 


- myn-ga. 


Blood - - 


- my-yung. 


Bad - 


- moor-da. 


Skin - - 


- ya-karr-li. 


Sweet - 




Fat - 


- tan-goo. 


Food - 




Bowels 


- tam-doo. 


Hungry 


. 


Excrement - 


- moon-ni. 


Thirsty 


. 


War-spear - 


- chin-do-verri. 


Bat - 




Reed-Bpear - 


- koongoon. 


Sleep - 


- oo-kom-bi 


Wommera or 


youl-man. 


Drink - 


- na-bil-la. 


throwing-stick 








Shield - 


- yam-boo-roo. 


Walk - 


- a-gi-la-gi. 


Tomahawk - 


- ma-re-a. 


See - 


- 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- po-rill. 


Yesterday - 


- iriem. 


Moon - 


■ ge-ge-ra. 


To-day 


- ya-ta-li. 


Star - 


- chin-by. 


To-morrow - 


- uoo-la-ran 


Light - 


- pir-in-girr. 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- war-ran-ga. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


• yen-ga. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- por-rid. 


Plenty 


. 


Day - 

Night - - 


; 


Big - 


- 


Fire - 


- yan-ou. 


Little - 


- gar-noo. 


Water 


- ya-boo. 


Dead - 


- mo-re. 


Smoke 


- koo-mi-ri. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- ma-ge-a. 


Come on 


- kabio. 


Wind- 


- koo-bin. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- na-bi la. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


. 



318 . THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 96.— KAMILAEOI STATION. 

LEICHARDT RIVER.— (Lat. 19° South, Long. 140°Eaat.) 

Bt Mk. Montagtj Cube. 

This vocabulary was forwarded to me by my brother, Mr. 
Montagu Curr. In his accompanying letter he informs me 
that the male Blacks in the Carpentaria country are well 
grown and stout, and that instances of good looks amongst 
them are not wanting; but that the women are ill-favored 
as compared with the men and their sisters of the South, but 
not undersized. The hair in this tribe is worn long, collected 
in a knob on top of the head. Spears, tomahawks, boomer- 
angs, wommeras, &c., are like those commonly found 
throughout the continent. The status of young man is 
conferred by secret ceremonies. On the occasion of a death 
the women daub themselves with clay and howl, as in other 
parts. Cannibalism prevails in a mitigated form. 

Several contrivances are in use for protection against 
mosquitos at night, which to a naked population like that 
of Northern Australia are a perfect scourge. Amongst them 
are coverlets made of grass, which are used occasionally, rude 
bedsteads with a fire underneath, and beehive-shaped huts, 
the doorways of which are closed to some extent by the 
smoke of the fire. 



KAMILAROI STATION. 319 

This vocabulary has much in common with the foregoing 
one, and some words general throughout the continent such 
as bulla, which appears amongst the numerals. 



320 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 96.— KAMILAROI. 



By Montagu Ctter, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


ngulanoo. 




Hand - 


- mala-roo. 


Opossum - 


ka-goo-in. 




2 Blacks - 


_ 


Tame dog - 


yambe. 




3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 










Emu - 


d-pingo-burri. 


One - 


- goreen. 


Black duck 


bin-dur-ra 




Two - 


- bulla. 


Wood duck 


wool-ad-dthoo. 


Three - 


- buUa-go-go-mn 


Pelican 






Four - 


- in-ca-moo. 


Laughing jackass 


d'char-run 


-gul. 


Father 


- mudjo. 


Native companion d'tharwo-booga. 
White cockatoo - koolera. 


Mother 


- yag-e-roo. 


Crow 


d'thong-oo 


■boore. 


Sister-Elder 


- kool-a-moo. 


Swan - - - 






„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - - 


d'thandoo. 




Brother-Elder 


- 


Track of a foot - 


d'janna. 




,, Younger nga-boor. 


Fish - 
Lobster 


bulbi. 




A young man 
An old man 


- yab-bi-ree. 

- mo-a. 


Crayfish 


jin-ju. 




An old woman 


- wom-me-ra. 


Mosquito - 


ong-go-in. 








Fly - - - 


melg-na. 




A baby 


- good-a-dthoo. 


Snake - 






A White man 


- mud-dtha. 


The Blacks - 






Children 


- 


A Blackfellow - 


bungil. 




Head 


- nganggul. 


A Black woman - 


bunya. 




Eye - 


- mills. 


Nose - 


goouyeen. 




Ear - 


- kun-dtha. 



KAMILAROI STATION. 



321 





No. 96. — Kamilaro 


I Station— con«i«Merf. 


Mouth 


- yar-jeen. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- yar-ra. 


Hill - 


_ 


Hair of the head - war-room-bo. 


Wood 


- bug-goo-roo 


Beard 


- yan-bur. 


Stone - 


- mim-dee. 


Thunder 


- yun-bur-ri. 










Camp - 


- wunjil-bo. 


Grass - 


- kud-tha. 






Tongue 


- mool-lun. 


Yes - 


- ngeea. 


Stomach 


- wy-yeer. 


No - 


- n'gumbi. 


Breasts 


- d'thunboo. 


I 


- ngiego. 


Thigh - - 


- mogo. 


You - 


- yundo. 


Foot - - 


- jenna. 


Bark - 


- bimba. 


Bone - 


- mo-goo-in. 


Good - - 


- 


Blood - - 


- go-ar-roo. 


Bad ■ 


. 


Skin - 


- beya. 


Sweet - 


_ 


Fat - 


- d'thun-go. 


Food - 


. 


Bowels 


- one-bun-go. 


Hungry 


- bulg-gnee. 


Excrement - 


- one-d'tho. 






War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 


- kon-goon. 


Thirsty 
Eat - 


- yur-be. 


Wommera or 


yule-man. 


Sleep - 


- wanjilbo. 


thro wing-stick 




Drink - 


- barndthe 


Shield 


- 




boodtha. . 


Tomahawk - 


- marlba. 


Walk - 


- wabe. 


Canoe - 


- 


See - 


- 


Sun - 


■ kum-ba. 


Sit - 


- 


Moon - 


- gug-a-ra. 


Yesterday - 


- boo-ru-gul. 


Star - 


- mindee. 


To-day 


- g'nowl. 


Light - 


- ber-u. 


To-morrow - 


- bering-a. 


Dark - - 


- wo-rang-a. 


Where are 


the 


Cold - 


- ye-ring-a. 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- mow-ing. 


I don't know 




Day . 


_ 






Night 


, 


Plenty 


- in-ca-moo. 


Fire - 
Water 


- yang-oo. 

- yab-boo. 


Big - 
Little - 


- wunyee. 

- djal-loo. 






Dead - 


- moo-gun. 


Smoke 


- koom-e-ree. 










By-and-by - 


- uUa. 


Ground 


- mug-air. 


Come on 


- kub-bee. 


Wind- 


- goo-bin. 


Milk - ■■ 


- 


Rain - 


- yab-boo.' 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 


VOL. II. 




!£ 





322 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 97.— BETWEEN THE GREGORY AND 
LEIOHARDT RIVERS. 

By M. S. Lamond, Sub-inspeotob of Native Mounted Police. 

A FEW particulars concerning the Mykoolan tribe, together 
with the attached vocabulary, were kindly forwarded to me 
by Mr. M. S. Lamond. The country occupied by this tribe 
is between the Gregory and Leichardt Rivers. It was first 
settled by the Whites in 1864, and the tribe, which then 
numbered about 400, is now reduced to 200 — the causes 
assigned for the decrease being the rifle and syphilis. The 
term Mykoolan means wild turkey, which my informant says 
is the crest of the tribe, but gives no further information on 
the point. The knives and tomahawks in use are made of 
flints, chipped, ground, and fitted with handles in the usual 
way. This tribe also use two-handed clubs, wommeras, 
spears of the common kinds, shields, and the war boomerang, 
but not the toy one. Novelties amongst their possessions 
are wooden bowls and water-bottles made of dogskin. Can- 
nibalism prevails to a considerable extent, and has been 
witnessed more than once by my informant. Infanticide is 
an ancient custom which still prevails, and the child killed 
is frequently eaten. The age at which it is killed is not 
stated. Message-sticks are in use. Circumcision and the 
terrible rite are not practised. The Mykoolan ornament 
themselves with scars. They knock out the left front upper 
tooth, and paint rude figures on rocks and trees. 



THE GREGORY AND LEIGHARDT RIVERS. 323 

In the vocabulary, in which Mr. Lamond seems to have 
been more interested than in manners and customs, the 
reader will notice the affinities between stone and hill, and 
also between Jire and wood. That there is only one term 
to express elder and younger sister and another for elder 
and younger brother I very much question. 



324 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



No. 97.— BETWEEN THE GREGORY AND LEICHARDT 
RIVERS. 

By M. S. Lamond, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


nargoon. 


Hand - 


- mambilla. 


Opossum 


kardella. 


2 Blacks - 


- blakarra eerman. 


Tame dog - 


yalbal. 


3 Blacks - 


- goordbye eerman 


Wild dog - 
Emu 

Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 


yalbal. 

doongoobarri. 

beendoora. 

wolgaribarri. 


One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Pour - 


deinba, moar. 

- blakarra. 

- goordbye. 

- blakarra-blak- 


Laughing jackass 
Native companion 


(none), 
toorga. 


Pather 


arra. 
- yadoo. 


White cockatoo • 


yaoorawarri. 


Mother 


- miraga. 


Crow - 


wookan. . 


Sister-Elder 


- ■ all sisters, 
koolakalla. 


Swan - 


(none). 


„ Younger 


Egg - - - 


tandoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- 1 all brothers, 


Track of a foot - 


jeena. 


,, Younger I kadgakoora. 


Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Ply - 
Snake - 


gemalla. 

begool. 
meka. 
milna. 
woonan. 


A young man 
An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 


- oobaringee. 

- boolgin-boola. 

- wamoora. 

- billa-billa. 

- mekoolan. 


The Blacks - 


eerman. 


Children 


- tambooroo. 


A Blackfellow - 


eerman. 


Head - 


- kandarr. 


A Black woman 


dindebarri. 


Eye - 


- mille. 


Nose - 


eengar. 


Ear - 


- benarr. 



THE GREGORY AND LEICHARBT RIVERS. 



326 



No. 97. 


— Geegoey and Lei 


Mouth 


tangoola. 


Teeth - 


yargan. 


Hair of the head 


waroomboo. 


Beard - 


yanbarr. 


Thunder 


- yoordooyoo. 


Grass - 


katirr. 


Tongue 


moonee. 


Stomach 


- teeba. 


Breasts 


- tamboo. 


Thigh - 


- dooal. 


Foot - 


- deina. 


Bone - 


- demul. 


Blood - 


- ngarroo. 


Skm - 


- bea. 


Pat - 


- tangoo. 


Bowels 


- goonna. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


War-spear - 


- deenibarri. 


Eeed-spear - 


- koongoon. 


Wommera or 


yeihnan. 


throwing-stick 




Shield - 


- metir. 


Tomahawk - 


- marree. 


Canoe - 


- (none). 


Sun - 


- booril. 


Moon ■ 


- kakurra. 


Star - - 


- teirga. 


Light - 


- banbal. 


Dark - 


- waranga. 


Cold - 


- yeiranga. 


Heat - 


- ooirbur. 


Day - 


- neila. 


Night 


- waranga. 


Kre - 


- yangoo eekalaa. 


Water 


- nabilla. 


Smoke 


- koomiree. 


Ground 


- mgea (?). 


Wind - 


- koobin. 


Rain - 


- kalginoonabilla. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- noonga. 



HAEDT RlVEES- 


-continued. 


Boomerang - 


- moora. 


Hill - 


- wyeila. 


Wood - 


- eekalla. 


Stone - 


- wyeila. 


Camp - 


- maggea. 


Yea - 


- kooloogalla. 


No - 


- nambi. 


I 


- nyeegoo. 


You - 


- yooandoo. 


Bark - 


- mooroongoo. 


Good - 


- makarra. 


Bad - 


- moorda. 


Sweet - 


- barragoo. 


Food - 


- yatilbilla. 


Hungry 


- boolning. 


Thirsty 


- mootingoo. 


Eat - 


- tangoola. 


Sleep - 


- ookambirr. 


Drink 


- nookalbilda. 


Walk - 


- yadger. 


See - 


- woUomillebilda. 


Sit - 


- eeningoo. 


Yesterday - 


- bringar. 


To-day 


- neilar. 


To-morrow - 


- noolar. 


Where are the 


eerman goodoo 1 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- woUoomanbadda 


Plenty- 


- moorgoo. 


Big ■ 


- bookarr. 


Little - 


- chaUoo. 


Dead - 


- mokan. 


By-and-by - 


- nalla. 


Come on 


- karrai. 


Milk - 


- tamboo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- koondilla. 


Wild turkey 


- mykoolan. 


Wife - 


- geela. 



326 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 98.— SEYMOUK, TEMPLETON, AND CLONCUREY 

EIVEES. 

By F. Ubqtthabt, Esq., and Joseph O'Reilley, Esq. 

From both of the above-named gentlemen I have received 
vocabularies of the Kulkadoon tribe, which in the main 
agree very well. Still the difference between the two 
translations of the term Blackfellow, one of which is yerro 
and the other moodena, leads to the inference that there was 
some tribal distinction between the men from whom my 
informants took down the vocabularies. Mr. Urquhart gives 
me the following particulars concerning the customs of the 
tribe. 

The Kulkadoon people inhabit the country o:^ the Sey- 
mour Eiver, a tributary of the O'Shanassy.* The extent of 
their territory is roughly estimated at 6,000 square miles, 
and their numbers it is thought amount to about 2,000. 
They have both boomerangs and wommeras, and also the 
weapons, implements, bags, nets, &c., common in most tribes. 
The following names of persons are given: — Males: Burngar 
and ISTundjiwarri. Females: Wantralla and Koralim. Orna- 
mental scars are in use, and circumcision and the practice 
of the terrible rite prevail. The tribes said to bound the 

* Information received from other sources has caused the writer to 
assign to this tribe a much larger territory than Mr, Urquhart has done. 



SEYMOUR, TEMPLETON, & CLONCURKY RIVERS. 327 

Kulkadoon are the Miappi, Goa, Mykoolon, Oborindi, 
Waukaboonia, and Oonamurra. My first correspondent says 
in reply to one of my printed questions that this tribe has 
masonic signs. As only one other of my correspondents 
makes this assertion in connection with our Blacks, it seems 
certain that Mr. Urquhart has been mistaken, as such an 
institution would not be confined to a few tribes, nor have 
escaped the notice of the many masons who have written 
to me on the subject. 

In the desert which lies to the west of the country of the 
Kulkadoon, and is supposed to extend nearly as far as the 
Overland Telegraph Line, the Blacks dig wells. They are 
funnel-shaped, large at the top and small at the bottom, and 
their sides unsupported by wood or other material. The 
water is reached by rude steps extending all round the well, 
each about 3 feet perpendicular. The depth of these excava- 
tions varies from 3 to 30 feet. Captain Sturt in his 
Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia, vol. 1, 
page 386, gives the following account of a work of this 
sort: — 

"On reaching the spot, we discovered a well of very 
unusual dimensions, and as there was water in it we halted 
for the night. On a closer examination of the locality, this 
well appeared to be of great value to the inhabitants. It 
was 22 feet deep, and 8 feet broad at the top. There was a 
landing-place, but no steps down to it, and a recess had 
been made to hold the water, which was somewhat brackish, 
the rim of the basin being encrusted with salt. Paths led 
from this spot to almost every point of the compass, and in 
walking along one to the left I came on a village consisting 
of nineteen huts, but there were not any signs of recent 
occupation." Hence, when much needed, the tapping of 
local springs is occasionally practised by the Blacks. In 
some cases our rivers and creeks run dry shortly after the 
cessation of rain, but for years after the Blacks obtain water 
enough for their wants by scraping holes or digging wells in 
their sandy beds, 



328 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 98.— SEYMOUR, TEMPLETON, AND GLONCURRY RIVERS. 



By F. UEQtTHAET, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- narragoon. 


Hand - 


- mugodthi. 


Opossum 


- marimba. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


- toogoo. 

- toogoo. 

- woodiga, wood- 

ingat. 


3 Blacks ■ 
One - 
Two - 


- iera, iar. 

- moo-doona. 


Black duck 


- 


Three - 


- 


Wood duck 


- 


Pour - 


_ 


Pelican - - toolgeriberri. 
Laughing jackass marcoUa. 
Native companion mieera. 
White cockatoo - kooloda. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- koola. 

- murtoo. 

- wabatha. 


Crow - 


- wogalong, wa- 


„ Younger 


- 


Swan - 
Egg - - 


gala. 
- goothoo. 


Brother-Elder - thaboo. 
,, Younger nowell. 


Track of a foot 


- taburudoo. 


A young man 


- 


Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- waukray. 

- miggi, meeka. 


An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 


- yalelora. 

- morubi. 

- kedgeekloo. 


Fly . 


- milka. 


A White man 


- yooroo. 


Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


- thooarre. 

- mido. 

- yerro. 


Children 
Head - 


- koori. 

- kunda. 


A Black woman 


- murrabi. 


Bye - 


- milthe. 


Nose - 


- yegingi. 


Ear - 


' yintha, benna 



SEYMOUR, TEMPLETON, & CLONCUERY RIVERS. 



329 



No. 98. — Seymoue, Templeton, 

Mouth - - unda. 

Teeth - - - iidintha. 
Hair of the head- ooraboo. 

Beard - - - yenpur. 

Thunder - - murga-murga. 

Grass - - beetha, kudda. 

Tongue - - muUi. 

Stomach - - bothoo. 

Breasts - - munda. 

Thigh - ■ - althor. 

Foot - - - wogidra. 

Bone - - - koonga. 

Blood - - - oolgi. 

Skin - • - woggoo. 

Pat - - - koonthalli. 

Bowels - - oondoondoo. 

Excrement - - woonoo. 

War- spear - - yooko 
Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 

throwing-stiok 

Shield - - - mida. 

Tomahawk - - marrea. 
Canoe - 

Sun - - - wunnaga. 

Moon - - - korilliyan 
Star - 
Light - 

Dark - - - warra. 

Cold - - - woonangarri. 

Heat - - - waukan. 
Day - - 

Night - - warra. 

Fire - - jando, hoojen. 

Water - - goon. 

Smoke - - palloo. 

Ground - - moo. 
Wmd - 

Rain - - goon. 
God - 

Ghosts - - yunyee. 



AND Clonciteby RrvEBS — continued. 



Boomerang - 


- yulgawerri, yal 




kabray. 


Hill - 




Wood - 


koonger. 


Stone - 


diur. 


Camp - 


- moa. 


Yes - 




No - 




I 




You - 




Bark - 




Good - 




Bad - 




Sweet - 




Food - 




Hungry 


- pi- 


Thirsty 


- 


Eat - 


- 


Sleep - 


- 


Drink - 




Walk - 




See - 




Sit - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- 


To-day 




To-morrow - 


- 


Where are the 


yingar oothoo ? 


Blacks? 




I don't know 




Plenty- 




Big - 




Little - 




Dead - 


- wolldin. 


By-and-by - 




Come on 




Milk - 




Eaglehawk - 




Wild turkey 


- boranda. 


Wife - 





330 THE AUSTRALIAN EACE 



No. 99.— THE CLONCURRY RIVER. 

By Edwabd Palmer, Esq., and an Anonymous Contributok. 

I HAVE obtained two vocabularies of the language of the 
Miappe tribe, from the sources named above, both of which 
are inserted. Each of my informants, whose vocabularies 
agree well in the main, gives also an account of the tribe. 
My anonymous contributor, who is evidently well acquainted 
with his subject, but whose writing is difficult to decipher, 
informs me as follows: — 

" The Miappe inhabit a portion of the Cloncurry River 
country. Their territory is about 80 miles square, and 
Conan Downs station forms part of it. The adjoining tribes 
are the Mikkoolan and Koonkurri." My informant says 
that the Miappe are thonght to have numbered a thousand 
souls when first the Whites settled in their country. When, 
however, he first knew them in 1868, only a few years after, 
they only amounted to 250 persons. Their number at 
present (1879) is about 80. This falling off he attributes to 
the murderous onslaughts of the mounted Native Police and 
to venereal diseases and measles, which were introduced by 
the Whites, also to prostitution and infanticide, which have 
enormously increased. Prior to our coming, sunstroke and 



THE CLONCURRY RIVER. 331 

snake-bites were amongst the most common causes of deaths 
in the tribe. 

In their native state the Miappe wore no clothes, and, 
except occasionally some cast-off articles obtained from the 
Whites, wear none still. Few of them seem to reach seventy 
years of age, my informant's impression being that the men 
are old at fifty and the women at thirty. When the 
mosquitos are bad, the men construct with forked sticks 
driven into the ground rude bedsteads, on which they sleep, 
a fire being made underneath to keep off with its smoke the 
troublesome insects. No bedsteads, however, fall to the 
share of the women, whose business it is to keep the fires 
burning whilst their lords sleep. 

Both men and women wear necklaces of shells ; and my 
informant affirms that the wild Blacks in his neighbourhood 
will not harm a White man who holds up to them one of 
these ornaments. When preparing for a corroboree, they paint 
their cheeks and foreheads with red ochre, and also the sides 
of their legs in a way which reminds one of the stripes down 
the outside of a soldier's trousers. As usual, they manufac- 
ture fishing-nets of very good quality and koolaman (wooden 
troughs) to hold water in at the camp. Their tomahawks 
are of stone, ground sharp, and shaped like an American 
axe. The handle is formed of a withe, well daubed with 
gum, passed round the stone head, as is common more or less 
throughout the continent. For cutting and carving they use 
their tomahawks, and flints when they can get them, but 
most commonly a mussel-shell ground to a point. For 
weapons they have carved spears, which they throw with the 
wommera or throwing-stick, also the boomerang which 
returns when thrown, and clubs of course. 

Their chief articles of food are fish, iguana, snakes, 
turkeys, ducks, emu, and wild dogs, which they roast on the 
coals, putting heated stones into the insides of the larger 
animals. Until the advent of the Whites they used also to 
eat their dead in all cases, no matter what the cause of death, 
disease or accident. To cook a corpse, a trench was dug in 



332 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

the ground, a fire made in it, and some stones thrown into 
the flames to heat. When the fire had burnt down, the 
heated stones were placed in the cavity from which the 
viscera had been removed ; half of the embers were then put 
on one side, and the corpse laid on those which were left. 
Then, those which had been withdrawn were placed on top, 
and the whole being covered with earth, the cooking went 
on. Young men and women were not allowed to partake of 
this sort of food. When all was over, the bones were burnt 
and the spot was deserted. This scene, members of the 
tribe who make no secret of the matter have often described 
to my informant. When he first knew the Miappe, there 
were some amongst them lightly pitted with small-pox, and 
he thinks a few are still alive. 

The Miappe men often obtain wives from other tribes, 
especially from the Mitroo-goordi. As usual, the largest 
share of the females falls to old or oldish men, many of 
whom have two and some four wives. Female children are 
promised in marriage soon after they are born. On an 
average, the women are said to have three or four children 
each. Infanticide is very prevalent. Occasionally men 
carry off girls by force and keep them as wives. 

The men scar themselves on the arms, and the women 
round the top of the shoulders in the form of a necklace ; 
also across the breasts. Circumcision is not practised. A 
tooth is knocked out at about sixteen years of age. It is 
done by placing one end of a pointed stick against the tooth 
and giving the other end a blow with a stone ; an old man 
being always the operator. The septum of the nose is 
pierced for the reception of a bone, feather, or stick. 
Traditions exist of floods more extensive than those which 
now occur in their country. Pitcheree is not known. A 
messenger from one tribe to another is often the bearer of a 
stick of the size of a pen-handle, on which are notches cut 
by the sender. These are thought by the simple Blackfellow 
to be a sort of formal guarantee of the statements or 
promises made by the messenger. Kangaroo, I learn, are 



THE CLONCUERY RIVER. 



333 



scarce in the country of the Miappe, but they spear many 
emu. Their corroborees are few. They are a tall people; 
many of the men reaching six feet, and the women five 
feet eight inches, and upwards. Some of" them have straight 
hair and some curly. When a man dies, his widows mourn 
with plasters of clay on their heads. Their wars generally 
spring from disputes about the women or from neighbours 
trespassing on their country. Women when they meet after 
a long absence embrace each other round the neck; men 
hug round the waist. They have no government of any sort, 
but the principal warriors have a good deal of influence with 
the tribe. They have no cures for sickness, but wounds are 
either plastered with earth or covered with gum-leaves 
dipped in water. 





ADDITIONAL WORDS. 






Anontmous. 




Son 


- cooyearee. 


Feather 


coodee. 


Daughter - 


- munguine. 


Cloud - 


woorrool. 


Arm - 


- boogul. 


Leaf of a tree 


cootgaboo. 


Elbow 


- oulo. 


Branch 


bamma. 


Thumb 


- mulbungeree. 


Pipe-elay - 


thurkera. 


Heart - 


- mundegar. 


String 


walgoor. 


Liver - 


- mudjear. 


Creek - 


tharro. 


Great toe - 


- marrabungo. 


Scrub - 


jingella. 


Toes - 


- jerri-jerri. 


Plain - 


wolna. 


Face - 


- codjear. 


Sand - 


munguUa. 


Neck - 


- munna. 


Tail of an animal 


tabbegora. 


Knee - 


- boongool. 


Lightning - 


mungum. 


Heel ■ 


- jandoongara. 


Meat - 


cudde. 


Navel - 


- choongo. 


Angry 


eula. 


Cheek - 


- naua or nana (?). 


Leave it alone 


idger-idger. 


Anus - 


- teppe. 


Get up 


woUai. 


Finger-nails 


- marUdgee. 


Deaf, stupid 


- thirba-cumbo 


Urine - 


- keepur. 


To kill 


- bunge. 


Mad - - 


- womma. 


To fight 


- boonjabbe. 



334 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



Additional Words — i 



To give 


- burly-burly. 


Go away 


cooraboin. 


To spit 


- weeka. 


Flea, louse - 


yabbin. 


To fall 


- culgo'e. 


Frog - - 


- nogoia. 


To make 


- jan-mugear. 


Red - 


putheragwine. 


To run 


- looran. 


White 


bonearrow. 


To dung 


- wanna. 


Black - 


maigin. 


To speak - 


- mi-hi-ya. 


Green - 


cooregon. 


To vomit - 


- coolme. 


Blind - 


mitmojoo. 


To out 


- parrelun. 


Shade, shadow 


mimgo. 


To laugh - 


- idjambe. 


A liar, nonsense 


codjebunno. 


To jump 


- poorooodalle. 


To stink - 


buggoin. 


To sing 


- pea-al-e. 


Evil spirit - 


thoi-onga-goola 


To strike - 


- cowe. 


Black snake 


cooremun. 


To cry or weep 


- parre. 


Tiger snake 


curtalboon. 


To scratch 


- yarrabulbo. 


Any number ovei 


cudgello. 


Lazy - 


- lerike. 


three 




Where 


- nantra. 


This side - 


wallegul. 


Here 


- coona, ma. 


The other side 


narrakeia. 



Mr. Palmer's account of the tribe (which he obtained on 
the spot from a Black on his station named Yulegerri) 
supports my anonymous correspondent in most respects. 
From it I glean the following additional particulars : — 

There are in force several restrictions as to the use of 
certain articles of food. The young men, for instance, are 
forbidden to eat the native companion and emu's eggs. 
Small-pox, with which the tribe were affected within the 
last half century, is called nyamooroo. When the Whites 
first settled on the Oloncurry class-marriage was in full 
force, and the male of the class Marringo married a female 
of the class Goothamungo. The names of the other classes 
are not given. Consumption is at present the prevailing 
disease ; canoes are not in use ; fish is caught with hooks 
made of bone, and corpses are sometimes hung in trees. 
When the tribe is to be collected, the message-stick, called 
jakkoon, is sent round. The neighbouring tribes are the 
Mykoolan, Mygoodan, Mythaguddi, and Wallankammer. 
No hard and fast boundary lines of the several territories 



THE CLONCURRY RIVER. 335 

are fixed says Mr. Palmer. The Miappi hunted over the 
Conobie Station (which was the property of Mr. Palmer in 
1865) on both sides of the river and nearly to Donor's 
HiUs. 



336 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 99.— CLONCURB.Y. 
Anonymoits. ■ 



Kangaroo - 


- kooroo. 


Hand - 


- mullero. 


Opossum 


- kooquine. 


2 Blacks - 


- blagura bungil. 


Tame dog - 


. yambe. 


3 Blacks - 


- blagura noola 


Wild dog - 


- yambe. 




bungil. 

- ingomar. 

- blagura. 


Emu - 


- chongoberry. 


One - 


Black duck 
Wood duck 


- garraba. 

- ngalawul. 


Two - 


Pelican 


- thalgobun. 


Three - 


- muda nuda. 


Laughing jackass charroongul. 


Pour - 


- cudgello. 


Native companion thoroboko. 


Father 


- mojure. 


White cockatoo 


- morine. 


Mother 


- yagoora. 


Crow - 


- wire. 


Sister-Elder 


- coobamoo.* 


Swan - 


- 


,, Younger 


- coobamoo. 


Egg - 


- tando. 


Brother-Elder 


- ngaboon. 


Track of a foot 


- janna. 


,, Younger ngaboon. 


Fish - 


- balbee. 


A young man 


- yabbiyerria. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- mowa. 


Crayfish 


- piccool. 










An old woman 


- yappoora 


Mosquito - 


- wongoin. 






Ply - 


- nguimmool. 


A baby 


- coot-too-doo. 


Snake - 


- (all soi'ts different 


A White man 


- muddtha, par- 




names). 




rago. 


The Blacks 


- bungil. 


Children 


- podjonger. 


A Blaokfellow 


- bungil. 


Head 


- condil, munda. 


A Black woman 


- bunyah. 


Eye - 


- mille. 


Nose - 


- ningar. 


Ear - 


- binnare. 



This and the next three words are probably incorrect. 



THE CLONCUREY RIVER. 



337 





No. 99. — Cloncurkt — continued. 




Mouth ~ 


- yarra. 


Boomerang - 


- elgoberre. 


Teeth 


- yarrangundoo. 


Hill - 


- minde. 


Hair of the heac 


- waroombo. 


Wood - 


- coongai. 


Beard - 


- yanbar. 


Stone - 


- minde. 


Thunder - 


nooncup. 


Camp - 


- boornga. 


Grass - 


- yalguin. 


Yes - 


- ngear. 


Tongue 


- tomingil. 


No 
I 


- umpee. 


Stomach 


- ngabbara. 


■ ngio. 


Breasts 


- tambo. 


You - 


- undoo 


Thigh 


- tharro. 


Bark - 


- cimbin. 


Foot - 


- janna. 


Good - 


- yathi. 


Bone 


- thimmool. 


Bad - 


- martingaro. 


Blood - 


- cobble. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skm - 


- beer. 


Pood - 


- pattalge. 


Fat - 


- thango. 


Hungry 


- pulngee. 


Bowels 


- wau-wur-noon(?). 


Thirsty 


- 


Excrement - 


- wa-a-na. 


Eat - 


- pattalge. 


War-speair - 


- boonjabbee. 


Sleep - 


- wongUgee. 


Reed-spear - 


- piljai. 






Wommera or 


ulemun. 


Drink - 


- nookalge. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- jan (foot) mug 


Shield 


- yambooro. 




gear (ground). 


Tomahawk - 


- chookledoonga. 


See - 


- numilla. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- yinna. 


Sun - 


- pinjama. 


Yesterday - 


- pirregool. 


Moon - 


■ oockera. 


To-day 


- cowal. 


Star - 


- chinpee. 


To-morrow - 


- pirrager. 


Light - 


- pirre. 


Where are the wautra bungil ? 


Dark - 


- ngoola. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- yerrenge. 


I don't know 


- unipeenummello 


Heat - 


- woolbarre, 


Plenty 


- oudgello. 


Day - 


- winja. 


Big - 


- yaggoon. 


Night - 


- ngoola. 


Little - 


- challoo. 


Fire - 


- yango. 


Dead - 


- moochum. 


Water 


- commo. 






Smoke 


- coomera 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- muggear. 


Come on 


- cubbe. 


Wind - - 


- copin. 


Milk - 


- tambo. 


Rain - 


- commo culge. 


Baglehawk - 


- cooradilla. 


God - - 


- ■ 


Wild turkey 


- thuringa. 


Ghosts 


- parrago. 


Wife - 


- ngaddear. 


VOL. n. 




r 





338 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 99.— OLONCURRY RIVER. 



By Edward Palmer, Esq. 
See the words cam/p and ground. 



Kangaroo - 


- ngalana. 


Hand - 


- malaroo. 


Opossum - 


- kogoin. 


2 Blacks - 


- puUagarra bunjil. 


Tame dog - 


- mecum caramra. 


3 Blacks - 


- puUgarra-goroine 


Wild dog - 


- yamby. 




bunjil. 


Emu' - 


- junkerberry. 


One - 


- goroiiie. 


Black duck 


- binderra. 


Two - 


- puUagarrah. 


Wood duck 


- ngul-owan. 


Three - 


- puUagarrah- 


Pelican 


- thalooban. 




goroine. 


Laughing jackass jarrangool. 


Four - 


- inkammo. 


Native companion tharra-boogah. 


Father 


- moocho. 


White cockatoo 


- moor-ine. 


Mother 


- yakoro. 


Crow - 


- thoongaberry. 


Sister-Elder 


- koolamo. 


Swan - 


- yalke. 


„ Younger 


- bichamon. 


Egg - - 


- thando. 


Brother-Elder 


- ngabone. 


Track of a foot 


- wean. 


Young 


er bichamon. 


Fish - - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Ply - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


- wog-ie. 

- junju. 

- oonggoin. 

- nyimool. 

- mokoa. 

- bunjil. 

- bunjil. 


A young man 

An old man 

An old woman 

A baby 

A White man 

Children 

Head - 


- yap-ary. 

- moa. 

- warmoora. 

- goitho-thoo. 

- barrago. 

- cudda-kuduUa. 

- ngunkool. 


A Black woman 


- bunya. 


Eye - 


- milly. 


Nose - 


- roomyeen. 


Ear - 


- beenar. 



THE CLONCURRY RIVEE. 



339 



No. 99. — Cloncurky River — continued. 



Month 


- yarra. 


Teeth - 


- yarhjine. 


Hair of the head 


- warramboo. 


Beard - 


- yanbah. 


Thunder - 


- barry (to make 




noise or cry). 


Grasa - 


- yalkoine. 


Tongue 


- ngoolon. 


Stomach 


- wanbungo. 


Breasts 


- thambo. 


Thigh - 


- mogo. 


Foot - 


- jannah. 


Bone - 


- thimmool. 


Blood - - 


- goowarro. 


Skin - - 


- beeah. 


Fat - 


- thanko. 


Bowels 


- waukitcher- 




kurro. 


Excrement - 


- wanna. 


War-spear - 


- koong-koon. 


Reed-spear - 


- neenjerry. 


Wommera or 


yulemun. 


throwing-stick 




Shield 


- yamboro. 


Tomahawk - 


- marrea. 


Canoe - 


- nungkore. 


Sun - 


- rauntharra. 


Moon - 


- kogarrah. 


Star - 


- jinby. 


Light - 


- yurah. 


Dark - 


- ngoro-lo. 


Cold - - 


- yerringer. 


Heat - 


- mow-een. 


Day - - 


- muntharra. 


Night - 


- warrunga. 


Fire - 


- yango. 


"Water 


- yappoo. 


Smoke 


- koomeree. 


Ground 


- muggeer. 


Wind- - 


- koobeen. 


Rain - 


" oonjune. 


God - 


- 


Ghosts 


- limbeenjargo- 




long. 



Boomerang - 


- mirry kammo. 


Hill - 


- minde. 


Wood - 


- bokore. 


Stone - 


- mimdy oj- mindy 


Camp - 


- muggeer. 


Yes - 


- ngeah. 


No - 


- ngumpy. 


I - 


- ngiego. 


You - 


- yundo. 


Bark - 


- beemba. 


Good - 


- gooljin. 


Bad - 


- madthee. 


Sweet - 


- gooljin. 


Food - 


- oudthe. 


Hungry 


- boolne. 


Thirsty 


- yourby. 


Eat - 


- bathalyee. 


Sleep - 


- waujilje. 


Drink - 


- bathalyee. 


Walk - 


- wabi. 


See - 


- namalyee. 


Sit - 


- yenni. 


Yesterday - 


■ birregool. 


To-day 


- kowal. 


To-morrow - 


- birringeer. 


Where are 


;he wantha bunjil ? 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- wanthan kogool. 


Plenty 


- yinkammo. 


Big - 


- winyeer. 


Little - 


- kuddah. 


Dead - 


- mootchon. 


By-and-by - 


- nguUa. 


Come on 


- oubbe. 


Milk - 


- thambo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- coorythilla. 


Wild turkey 


- thoorna (plain 




turkey). 


Wife - 


- ngathea. 



340 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 100.— THE FLINDERS AND CLONCURRY 
RIVERS. 

By Alexander MacGtilliveay, Esq. 

I OWE the following information concerning the manners 
and language of the Oonoomurra tribe to the kindness of 
Mr. Alexander MacGillivray. 

The territory occupied by this tribe, commencing at 
Richmond Downs Station, on the Flinders, extends up that 
river and nearly to the Diamantina, thence stretches to the 
Cloncurry, and is bounded by that river to its junction with 
the GuUiet. Its boundary from that junction is an easterly 
line to the Flinders, which river it follows up to the starting 
point. When the Whites first entered on the extensive 
territory of the Oonoomurra in 1865 the tribe is estimated 
to have numbered only two hundred souls. In 1880 its 
numbers did not exceed one hundred, the other moiety 
having been either shot down or perished from introduced 
diseases. 

Many of this tribe seem to have reached an advanced age. 
No clothes were used originally except a sort of apron by 
the women. This appendage consisted of a number of 
strings made of opossum fur, which hung from a string 
round the waist, which the women manufactured of their 
own hair. At present the few who can obtain cast-off 
clothes wear them during the day. At night all sleep 
between small fires, covered with strips of ti-tree bark. 
For ornaments, the women wear necklaces made of yeUow 
cane, or of stems of grass cut into short lengths, which they 
string as we do beads. In their corroborees they imitate 



THE FLINDERS AND CLONCURRY RIVERS. 341 

the actions of the kangaroo and emu, smearing- their persons 
on such occasions with red ochre and gypsum. Their few 
effects they carry in pieces of ti-tree bark, and not in bags 
or nets. In fact, the bark of this plant seems to be the 
general stand-by of the tribe. They make nets for the cap- 
ture of fish and pigeons. They have neither fish-hooks nor 
fishing spears. Kangaroo and emu they spear as they 
come to water. 

Their tools are the usual stone tomahawk, the incisor 
tooth of the opossum, and fliats which they either hold in 
the fingers or fix at the end of sticks, and use as knives or 
chisels when making or carving their weapons. Animals 
are cut up and skinned with mussel-shells. Their weapons 
are large and small spears, the first thrown with the hand 
and the others with the wommera; boomerangs which return 
when thrown; and two-handed clubs. They have also larger 
spears, which are used in close quarters as lances. 

Their chief articles of food, omitting vegetables, which 
have not been mentioned by Mr. MacGillivray, are mussels, 
rats, and pigeons, which two last in some seasons they get in 
immense numbers. Indeed, in occasional years since our 
occupation of the Oonoomurra country these marsupial rats 
have amounted to a plague. In the huts of the squatters 
and their men, food, clothes, saddlery, &c., had to be specially 
secured against their attacks. As a man sat smoking at 
night, he would have in one hand a string, to the end of 
which a piece of meat was tied, and in the other a switch; 
the rats followed the meat, which the man drew towards 
him, and met their fate from a blow of the switch. In this 
way a single man would kill fifty in an evening, two or three 
hundred being killed at a hut, their numbers apparently 
remaining undiminished. The Oonoomurra have also kan- 
garoo, emu, opossums, water-fowl, and snakes to feast on. 
The smaller sorts of game are roasted on the coals or baked 
in the ashes. The larger are often cooked in ovens of the 
usual description. In their wild state these people were 
cannibals, and habitually eat their dead when not too much 



342 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

emaciated by illness. My informant has known them to eat 
some of their fellows who had been shot by the Whites. 

Marriages are contracted either in or outside of the tribe 
indifferently, but are strictly prohibited between relatives. 
Girls are promised to men in infancy, become wives at about 
ten years of age, and mothers at fourteen or fifteen. Polyg- 
amy is common. Infanticide is an ancient practice in the 
tribe. This people scar themselves on the biceps of the arm, 
down the back, and across the stomach.. They do not cir- 
cumcise, but some of their neighbours do. Of the Ka Ikatongo, 
or circumcised, who are more numerous than themselves, the 
Oonoomurra are much afraid, as the former make raids into 
their country, killing their men, and carrying off their 
women. The Oonoomurra confer the status of young men at 
fifteen years of age by knocking out two upper front teeth, 
after which those operated on are at liberty to get wives, if 
they can. They perforate the septum of the nose, and also 
make a large hole in the butt of one ear. 

This tribe stand much in awe of barrakoo, or evil spirits, 
said to dwell in large waterholes and extensive scrubs. 
Prior to our occupation, such of the dead as were not eaten 
used to be buried immediately after death. Now aU are 
buried. When life is extinct, the knees and neck of the 
corpse are tied together, and it is thus brought somewhat 
into the shape of a ball. It is then enveloped in grass, 
covered tightly with a net, and so interred in a hole about 
five feet deep. To complete the rite, a mound is raised over 
the body, on which are placed logs and boughs, which latter 
are renewed from time to time, as long as the party remain 
in the vicinity. A space around the tomb is also kept neatly 
swept. Both the wars and internal quarrels of the tribe 
generally arise on the subject of women. Message-sticks are 
in use. Members of the tribe who have not seen each other 
for a long time embrace on meeting. The people of this 
tribe do not object to tell their aboriginal names. Kulpa- 
kulpa and Kache are the names of two of the men, and Luro- 
luro, Wammutta, and Kachebowmurraof three of the women. 



THE FLINDERS AND CLONCURRY RIVERS. 343 

The name of the Oloncurry River is Piamnrra; of Fullarton 
Creek, Makapurre; and of the Williams River, Oorinde 
= stone. 

The vocabulary which follows has much in common with 
that of the Oloncurry. As occasionally happens, we find 
hill and stone expressed by the same word, the hills in those 
parts no doubt being stony, whilst the fact of there being 
but one word to express ground and camp is significant of 
the backwardness of the tribe, and of the usual style of 
their lodgings. It will be noticed that the equivalents of 
throwing-stick in the language of this tribe and of shield in 
the Sydney language are almost identical. 



344 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 100.— FLINDERS AND CLONCURRY RIVERS. 



Kangaroo - 


- mongorongo. 


Hand - 


- mumbila. 


Opossum 


- kakooin. 


2 Blacks - 


- kurto bungil. 


Tame dog - 


- yambe. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 


_ 








One - 


- kooroin. 


Kmu - 


- chungoburre. 






Black duck- 


- karrupa. 


Two - 


- kurto. 


Wood duck- 


- nurloin. 


Three - 


- kurto kooroia 


Pelican 


- whulkraburre. 


Four - 


- 


Laughing jackass 


Father 


- yato. 


Native companion turka. 


Mother 


- mirako. 


White cockatoo 


_ 








^ 


Sister-Elder 


- mumo. 


Crow - 


- wamering. 






Swan - 


- (none in the dis- 


,, Younger 


- mumo. 




trict). 


Brother-Elder 


- 


Egg - - 


- wirree. 


„ Younger 


Track of a foot 


- tunna. 






Fish - - 


- palpy. 


A young man 


- yappoierre. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- mooa. 


Crayfish 


- pikquol. 


An old woman 


- tamalla. 


Mosquito - 


- lewouin. 


A baby 


- kuttukka. 


Fly - - 


- milnga. 


A White man 


- burruka. 


Snake - 


- tinouir. 


Children - 


- kuttukkara. 


The Blacks - 


- nukker. 






A Blackf ellow 


- bungil. 


Head - 


- nawgool. 


A Black woman 


- bunya. 


Bye - 


- uko or yenko. 


Nose - 


- nykar. 


Ear - 


- binna. 



THE FLINDERS AND CLONCURRY RIVERS. 



345 



No. 100.— Flinders aot) Clonctirey Rivees- 


-continued. 


Mouth 


- thangula. 


Boomerang - 


- yelkaburre. 


Teeth - 


- yarcharring. 


Hill - 


- orringe. 


Hair of the head- woorumboo. 


Wood - 


- bakkaro. 


Beard - 


- mungurra. 


Stone - 


- orringe. 


Thunder 


- yunburree. 


Camp - 


- mukkeo. 


Grass ■ 


- kutther. 










Yes - 


- neea. 


Tongue 


■ nuUandee. 


No - 


- numbe. 


Stomach 


- wawbawgoo. 






Breasts 


- tampo. 


I 


- nigo. 


Thigh 


- mukko. 


You - 


- yoondo. 


Foot - 


- tunna. 


Bark - 


- biUa. 


Bone - 


- mookooin. 


Good - 


- kammanurro. 


Blood - 


- maohango. 


Bad - 


- mattee. 


Skin - 


- peea. 


Sweet - 


- jiroallingo. 


Fat - 


- karning. 


Food - 


. 


Bowels 


- wawkachcache 


Hungry 


- bulningo. 


Excrement - 


kurro. 
- noointo. 


Thirsty 


- yoorpiago. 


War-spear - 


- tinnepurre. 


Eat - 


- batalpo. 


Reed-spear - 


- tapouin. 


Sleep - 


- wongelgee. 


Wommera or 


youlmon. 


Drink - 


- batalgee. 


throwing-stiok 




Walk - 


- wapingo. 


Shield 


- 


See - 


- nungamma. 


Tomahawk - 


- murria. 


Sit 


- yennia. 


Canoe - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- birrakol. 


Sun - 


- kaampa. 


To-day 


- wowyal. 


Moon - 


- kumo-kurno. 






Star - 


- vonko. 


To-morrow - 


- birrengar. 




J 


Where are the wondo nukkera? 


Light - 


- tennouil 






Dark - 


- wokkomungo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- yemga. 


I don't know 


- nee kol. 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- nurlo-nurlo. 


Day - 


- 


Big - 


- 


Night - - 


- 


Little - 


- kurpia. 


Fire - 


- yango. 


Dead - 


- moochoia. 


Water 


- yappo. 


By-and-by - 


- warla. 


Smoke 


- yonbulko. 


Come on 


- kooyan. 


Ground 


- mukkeo. 










Milk - 


- tampo. 


Wind 
Rain - 


- kuppin. 


Eaglehawk - 


- kooritella. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- barkam. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- bunya. 



346 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 101.— THE BURKE EIVER. 

By Ernest Eolinton, Esq. 

The country of the Yelina tribe is on the Burke River. 
Its extent is not known, but was first occupied by the 
Whites in 1877. The number of this people is estimated to 
have been and still to be about two hundred. Concerning 
the manners of the Yelina tribe Mr. Eglinton gives me the 
few following particulars. 

Pieces of the leg-bones of birds, about two inches in 
length, are worn by them as earrings. The wommera and 
boomerangs of both sorts are in use, and carved to some 
extent. Cannibalism was found prevailing in this tribe at 
the time of our first occupation, and my informant mentions 
having detected some of its men eating the remains of a 
child who had died in the camp. Consumption is stated, 
in this as in other tribes, to be the most frequent cause of 
death. Circumcision is practised, but there are a few of the 
men of the tribe who have not been subjected to this rite, 
the reason for which exceptions is unknown. Pitcheree, I am 
informed, is in use, and that chewing it causes intoxication, 
a statement which does not agree with information which 
has reached me from other quarters. As regards the dead, 
the men of the tribe are described as eating their fiesh and 
burying their bones, displaying their sorrow by striking 
their heads until the blood flows, and then plastering them 
with pipe-clay. 



THE BURKE RIVER. 347 

In copying out this vocabulary, I have (as in several 
other cases) expressed Mr. Eglinton's ee by i. The reader 
will notice that hoola, a very general equivalent for 2 in 
Australian, appears with some addition as 3 in the language 
of this tribe. The constant occurrence of er as a termina- 
tion leads me to think that what is meant to be conveyed is 
the sound of a faintly pronounced. Bone and mood are 
expressed by the same word, and hill and stone by another. 
The terms hungry and thirsty perhaps mean literally not eat 
and not drink. 



348 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 101.— BURKE RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 


- nerkooner. 


Hand - 


- wanera. 


Opossum - 


- mitcheri. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


- monero. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - 


- 


One - 


- uooreroo. 


Emu - 
Black duck- 
Wood duck 


- womergooroo. 

- koorerboo (?). 


Two - 
Three - 


- cherkumber. 

- boolerler-boone 

roo. 


Pelican - - koobenroo. 
Laughing jackass 
Native companion booralgoo. 
White cockatoo - yungerli. 
Crow - - - wokkerla. 
Swan - 


Four - 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- cherkumber- 

cherkumber. 

- karlo. 

- mernoo. 

- thireri. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


- kargooner. 

- diner. 


,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- toweri. 


Fish - 


- eremerdo. 


Younger 


Lobster 


- 


A young man 


- wamerla. 


Crayfish 


- koondagi. 


An old man 


- kooper-kooper. 


Mosquito - 


- mukkerdoo. 


An old woman 


- myercha. 


Ely - 


- umundero. 


A baby 


- biUer-biller. 


Snake - 


- wamera. 


A White man 


- woothane. 


The Blacks - 


- erirar. 


Children - 


- ohoora. 


A Blackfellow 


- eri. 


Head - 


- moola. 


A Black woman 


- minmeri. 


Eye - 


- miUa. 


Nose - 


- erchi. 


Ear - 


- eneri. 



THE BURKE RIVER. 



349 





No. 101. — Btjbke River — contimied. 


Mouth 


- thaney. 


Boomerang - 


- byerla. 


Teeth 


- iar. 


Hill - - 


- mookerloo. 


Hair of the head - ulbanderoo. 


Wood - 


- tooker. 


Beard - 


- talberri. 


Stone 


- mookerloo. 


Thunder - 


- koonoo. 


Camp - 


- mootoo. 


Grass 


- kookerbi. 










Yes - 


- lamerer. 


Tongue 


- mileri. 










No - 


- koonderba. 


Stomach 


- 






Breasts 


- namer. 


I 


- neeya. 


Thigh 


- yapperli. 


You - 


■ nowa. 


Foot - 


- diner. 


Bark - 


- koolkerberer. 


Bone - 


- tooker. 


Good - 


- yanberma. 


Blood - - 


- booreroo. 


Bad - . - 


- nokkerdi. 


Skin - 


■ maperrer. 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- nilki. 


Food - 


- nerilin. 


Bowels 


- wooner. 


Hungry 


- kooler-nerilin. 


Excrement - 


- 


Thirsty 


- kooler-leyerlin. 


War-spear - 


- tookemi. 


Eat - 


- nerlyim. 


Reed-spear - 


- gilker. 


Sleep 


- noomerloo. 


Wommera or 


karemingo. 


Drink 


- tookerlym. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 


- mameroo. 


Shield- 


- koucherchucher. 


See - 


- namerlin. 


Tomahawk - 


- wamumberoo. 


Sit - 


- nymerloo. 


Canoe - 


. 


Yesterday - 


- uowerli. 


Sun - 


- miir. 


Today 


- ererli. 


Moon - 


- geber. 


To-morrow - 


- waddonaba. 


Star - 


- booderoo. 


Where are the 


taleri eregar ? 


Light - 


- ninermoo. 


Blacks ? 




Dark - 


- warder. 


I don't know 


- niir moolonaban 


Cold - 


■ maderi. 




alii. 


Heat - 


- umergin. 


Plenty 


- ringaba. 


Day - 


. 


Big - 


- yannoo. 


Night - 


. 


Little - 


- barleloo. 


Fire - 


- wachemee. 


Dead - 


- olunamoo. 


Water 


- koonoo. 


By-and-by - 


- kardee. 


Smoke 


- koodoo. 


Come on 


- kower gerna- 
berdi. 


Ground 


- toolee. 










Milk - 


- namer. 


Wind- 


- woonungoo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- mooneroonaler- 


Rain - 


- koonoo. 




gree. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- tookerner. 


Ghosts 


- otenni. 


Wife - 


- neer. 



350 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE. 



No. 102.— THE HAMILTON EIVEE, WARENDA. 

By W. Blaik, Esq. 

THE HAMILTON EIVEE. 

By R. N. Collins, Esq. 

THE LOWER GEOEGINA EIVEE. 

By J. Ceaioib, Esq. 

BETWEEN THE GEORGINA AND 
BUEKE EIVEES. 

By a. McLean, Esq. 

I HAVE received four communications concerning as many 
tribes which dwell in the localities above-named. Mr. 
Blair's contribution is confined to a vocabulary. To a 
vocabulary, Mr. Collins adds a short description of his tribe, 
which is 300 strong, dwells on the Hamilton, and calls itself 
Einga^ringa. Mr. Craigie describes the Eunga-Eungawah 
tribe on Eoxburgh Downs Station, which numbers 120 souls. 
The tribe about which Mr. McLean writes calls itself Ringa- 
Eingaroo, and dwells between the Georgina and Burke 
Eivers, between latitudes 20° and 21° south. 

These tribes are, I have no doubt, independent; what I 
have called associated ; and of common descent. My grounds 
for thinking so are, their languages, which have in common 
many local terms; the common rendering of the equivalents 
for no and the Blacks, and the striking similarity in the 
names of the tribes, which no doubt were originally one 
people. 



THE HAMILTON AND GEORGINA RIVERS. 351 

As regards the manners of these tribes, nothing of a 
novel character has reached me, so that it will be enough to 
record, that they all have the boomerang; that one of them 
uses the wommera, and another does not; and that circum- 
cision and the terrible rite prevail in all of them. 

Some portion of the country they occupy is reported to 
have been first settled in 1868, and afterwards abandoned, 
being finally re-occupied in 1876-77 and '78. 

Mr. McLean relates that the Ringa^Eingaroo call the 
star Venus mimungoona, or big-eye, and believe that it is a 
fertile country covered with bappa, the name of a sort of 
grass, the seeds of which the tribes here on earth convert 
into flour, and is inhabited by Blacks. It appears, however, 
that no water exists in the star, but there are ropes which 
hang from its surface to the earth, by means of which the 
dwellers visit our planet from to time, and assuage their 
thirst. A big old man of great power is also said to dwell 
in the star. In seasons of scarcity, these tribes have 
recourse to cannibalism, and eat their children. 

Mr. McLean gives me the following additional transla- 
tions : — 

Thunder-storm - - - meankooka. 

Morning murruUy. 

Noon kai'dingoola. 

Evening ----- yerki-yerki. 

To eat tigerlinger. 

Will eat - • - - - tigae. 

Did eat ----- tigekar. 

Will sleep . - - - moogi. 

Did sleep . - - - mochynar. 



352 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 102.— HAMILTON RIVER. 



By William Blaie, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


mutumba. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 


thinnabuUy. 


2 Blacks - 


kerna bareoola 


Tame dog - 


peawally. 


3 Blacks - 


barcoola nooro 


Wild dog - 






kerna. 


Emu - 


kulperry. 


One - 


noora. 


Black duck - 




Two - 


barcoola. 


Wood duck 




Three - 


barcoola nooro 


Pelican 




Four - 


barcoola-bar- 


Laughing jackass 






coola. 


Native companion 


borolga. 


Father 




White cockatoo - 


berdena. 


Mother 


numma. 


Crow - 


wakkala. 


Sister-Elder 




Swan - 




,, Younger - 




Egg - - - 


bambo. 


Brother-Elder ■ 




Track of a foot - 


thinna. 






Fish - 


cooia. 


,, Younger 




Lobster 




A young man 




Crayfish 




An old man 


yubere. 


Mosquito - 


kertewakka. 


An old woman - 


punderoo. 


Fly - 


oooengerry. 


A baby 


pitta. 


Snake 


kunderry. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


kerna. 


Children - 


pitta. 


A Blackf ellow 


kerna. 


Head - 


kunnea. 


A Black woman 


wunga petury. 


Eye - 


- mia. 


Nose - 


milla. 


Ear - 


nun-a. 



THE HAMILTON RIVER. 



353 





No. 102.— Hamilto 


N RivEB — continued. 


Mouth 


- pulka. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- milka. 


Hill - 




Hair of the heac 


- 


Wood - 




Beard - 


- nurca. 


Stone - 


gibba. 


Thunder - 


- pelba, bilpa. 


Camp - 


noora. 


Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach - 


- bugaroo. 

- thuUy. 

- kunuerra. 


Yes - 
No - 


murchillmga 
muUo. 


Breasts 


- kabboogo. 


I 


nutta. 


Thigh- - 


- murla. 


You - 


emba. 


Foot - 


- thinna. 


Bark - 




Bone - 


- bena. 


Good - 


myalle. 


Blood - 


- noorkey. 


Bad - 


munna. 


Skin - 


- nunderry. 


. Sweet - 




Fat - 


- wammo. 


Pood - 




Bowels 


- 


Hungry, 


naumalcha. 


Excrement - 


- koouua. 


Thirsty 


thimingla. 


War-spear - 


- nurroa. 


Eat - 


tutchegga. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


mutohugla. 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Drink - 




Shield- 


- yalkeberry. 


Walk - 


kundinga. 


Tomahawk - 


- warramberta. 










See - 


nutchelinga. 


Canoe - 


_ 










Sit - 


nungelunga. 


Sun - 


- walka. 


Yesterday - 




Moon - 


- geba. 


To-day 




Star - 


_ 










To-morrow - 




Light - 


- 


Where are the 


winta kerna 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- muley. 








I don't know 




Heat - 


- nuppo. 






Day - - 


_ 


Plenty 


burry. 


Night - 


- 


Big - 


mungora. 


Fire - 


- mukka. 


Little - 


perpeura. 


Water 


- kamo. 


Dead - 


yetia. 


Smoke 


- putthy. 


By-and-by - 


- cuma. 


Ground 


- mundey. 


Come on 


koway, koi. 


Wind- 


- thurobo. 


Milk - 




Rain - 


- kutha. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 




VOL. 11. 




z 





354 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 102.— HAMILTON RIVER, 
By R. M. Collins, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- muttjumpa. 


Hand - 


- mera. 


Opossum 


- pumbribharro. 


2 Blacks - 


- barkoola kerna 


Tame dog - 


- dabe. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - 


- myallee. 


One - 


- nooroorr. 


Emu - 


•• quilberri. 


Two - 


- barkoola. 


Black duck 


- konga. 


Three - 




Wood duck 
Pelican 


- potha. 

- murli-muller. 


Four - 


- 


Laughing jackass 


Father 


- abori. 


Native companion boralga. 


Mother 


- ama. 


White cockatoo 


- koolera. 


Sister-Elder 


- kako. 


Crow • 


- workulla. 


„ Younger 


- 


Swan - 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- wangi. 


Egg - 


- pambo. 


„ Younger 


Track of a foot 


- 






Fish - 


- kooia. 


A young man 


- berniaka. 


Lobster 


- 


An old man 


- kabo-kappa. 


Crayfish 


- 


An old woman 


- panderro. 


Mosquito - 


- murka. 


A baby 


- merri. 


Fly - 


- koonungeri. 


A White man 


_ 


Snake 

The Blacks - 


- goongera. 

- kuerna or "kerna. 


Children - 


- koorauggeri (?) 


A Blackfellow 


- kerna. 


Head - 


-- kurdi. 


A Black woman 


- wongata. 


Eye - 


- meea. 


Nose - 


- millia. 


Ear - 


- nara. 



THE HAMILTON RIVEE. 



355 





No. 102. — Hamilton 


Mouth 


- bima. 


Teeth 


- milka. 


Hair of the head 


- kooni. 


Beard - 


- unga. 


Thunder - 


- billpa. 


Grass - 


- buggera. 


Tongue 


- thalli. 


Stomach 


- manno. 


Breasts , - 


- muna. 


Thigh 


- merla. 


Foot - 


- ohinna. 


Bone - 


- prinna. 


Blood - 


- kemba. 


Skin - 


- kurli. 


Fat - 


- tootoo. 


Bowels 


- 


Excrement - 


- kooma. 


War-spear - 


- arra. 


Reed-spear - 


- kundewarra. 


Throwing-stick 


- 


Shield - 


- bibleburra. 


Tomahawk - 


- worrumberra. 


Canoe - 




Sun - 


- wUka. 


Moon - 


- changi. 


Star - 


- pinbi. - 


Light - 


- yoomenula. 


Dark - 


- yoomeloo. 


Cold - 


- malli. 


Heat - 


- koorokooro. 


Day - 


- 


Night - 


- yerri (?). 


Fire - 


- mukka. 


Water 


- kakko. 


Smoke 


- koodo. 


Ground 


- myi. 


Wind- 


- terribo. 


Ealn - 


- palla. 


God - - 


- elgera. 


Ghosts 


- muma. 



RiVEE — contimied. 
Boomerang - - billerberro. 



Hill - 

Wood- 

Stone - 

Camp - 

Yes - 

No - 

I 

You - 

Bark - 

Good - 

Bad - 

Sweet - 

Pood - 

Hungry 

Thirsty 

Eat - 

Sleep - 

Drink - 

Walk - 

See - 

Sit - 

Yesterday - 

To-day 

To-morrow - 

Where are the 

Blacks ? 
I don't know 
Plenty 
Big - - 
Little - 
Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 

Wife - 

2 



- dippo. 

- mooroo. 

- dippo. 

- noora. 



mallo. 



- tonguru. 



- uronguri. 

- thachier. 

- womulga. 

- timmia. 

- moooher. 

- kunderchier. 

- pepia. 

- nungia. 



inthia a kuerna? 

- tir nila. 

- perri. 

- uarraha. 

- yettier. 

- quema. 

- kowa. 

- kalbago. 

- barkum. 
-, kooberro. 



356 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE ; 



No. 102— ROXBURGH DOWNS, LOWER GEORGINA. 
By James Ceaigie, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


mutchumba or 


Hand - 


murra. 




muttumba. 


2 Blacks - 


barkoola kema. 


Opossum - 


wompella. 


3 Blacks - 


barkoola knoora 


Tame dog - 


toota. 




kema. 


Wild dog - 


peealee. 


One - 


knooroora. 


Emu - 


koolparry. 


Two - 


barkoola. 


Black duck 


goondanarri. 








Three - 


barkoola knoora. 


Wood duck 
Pelican 


kurlitulpa. 
kartungara. 


Pour - 


barkoola- 


Laughing jackass 






barkoola. 


Native compauior 


I bralgo. 


Father 


yapperi. 


White cockatoo - 




Mother 


numma. 


Crow - 


wokkardi. 


Sister-Elder 


yakko. 


Swan - 




„ Younger 




Egg - 


bembo. 


Brother-Elder ■ 


theti. 


Track of a foot - 


tina. 


,, Younger 




Pish - 


kobi. 


A young man 


willimenia. 


Lobster 












An old man 


katoogata. 


Crayfish 


tinungi. 


An old woman 


mutchu-chu. 


Mosquito - 


monulka. 






Ply . . . 


koonanjeri. 


A baby 


tukko. 


Snake - 


kutti. 


A White man ■ 


birri-birri. 


The Blacks - 




Children 


bunta. 


A Blackf ellow - 


kema. 


Head - 


karte. 


A Black woman - 


wongetta. 


Eye - - 


mee-e. 


Nose - 


melia. 


Ear - 


knarra. 



ROXBURGH DOWNS, LOWER GEORGINA. 



357 



No. 102. — ROXBUBGH 



Mouth 


- thera. 


Teeth 


- milka. 


Hair of the head - bungo. 


Beard 


- nunga. 


Thunder ■ 


- bilpa. 


Grass 


- bookera. 


Tongue 


- tharli. 


Stomach 


- toondoo. 


Breasts 


- katichu. 


Thigh 


- murla. 


Foot - 


- tina. 


Bone - 


- piua. 


Blood - 


- gimpa. 


Skin - 


- batta. 


Fat - - 


- toota. 


Bowels 


- dtoochi. 


Excrement - 


- koona. 


War-spear - 


- yettchirra. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Wommera or 




throwiag-stick 




Shield - 


- terrango. 


Tomahawk - 


- worrumbatta. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- walka. 


Moon - 


- chippa. 


Star - - 


- chingo. 


Light - 


- wokanna. 


Dark - 


- umallo. 


Cold - 


- mulU. 


Heat - 


- mukka-mukka 


Day ^ 


- 


Night - - 


- oongdoonga. 


Fire - 


- mukka. 


Water 


- knappo. 


Smoke 


- koatoo. 


Ground 


- mie. 


Wind - 


- thooruppa. 


Rain - 


- pulla. 


God - 


- 


Ghosta 


- yammeroo. 



Bovms— continued. 


Boomerang - 


- gilligella. 


Hill - 


- poori. 


Wood - - 


- mukka. 


Stone - 


- mukka (?). 


Camp - 


- knurra. 


Yes - 


- etcha. 


No - 


- mallo. 


I 


- knunga. 


You - 


- inknoo. 


Bark - 


- koolbaturre. 


Good - 


- 


Bad - 


- munna. 


Sweet - 


- pillarri. 


Food - 


- theohingi. 


Hungry 


- wonnara. 


Thirsty 


- ngattura. 


Eat - 


- thetchilinga. 


Sleep - 


- mutchulinga. 


Drink - 


- immallinga. 


Walk- 


- kurninga. 


See - 


- thuokamya. 


Sit - 


- nunkya. 


Yesterday - 


- kunwillooka. 


To-day 


- pumiarra. 


To-morrow - 


- merrilli. 


Where are 


the wara nunkia 


Blacks ? 


kema? 


I don't know 


- kuUi. 


Plenty 


- purri. 


Big - - 


■• mungoora. 


Little - 


- thieu. 


Dead - 


- koonta. 


By-and-by - 


- mooroo. 


Come on 


- kowa. 


Milk - - 


- amooguntooroo 


Eaglehawk - 


- koorithalla. 


Wild turkey 


- koUitona. 


Wife !■ 


- noopamuUa. 



358 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 102.— BETWEEN THE GEORGINA AND BURKE RIVERS. 



By Alexandeb MacLean, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


madchumbar. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


dinnabally. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


beeotie-muUagar^ 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog ■ 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 


koolperry. 


One - 
Two - 
Three - 


- ngooroo. 

- barcoola. 

- ngooroo-barcoola 


Pelican 




Four - 


- barcoola-barcoola 


Laughing jackass 




Father 


- 


Native companion baralgar. 


Mother 


- ngarma. 


White cockatoo 




Sister-Elder 


_ 


Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


dinna. 


„ Younger - 

Brother-Elder - 

,, Younger 


Fish - 


cooia or gweer. 


A young man 


- 


Lobster 




An old man 


- coopa-coopa. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- wangatha. 


Mosquito - 




A baby 


- 


Ply . 

Snake - 
The Blacks - 


- tin j ear. 

- kirua-mirrie. 


A White man 
Children 


- birrie-birrie. 


A Blaokfellow 


kerna. 


Head 


- gurdie. 


A Black woman 


- mirrie. 


Eye - 


- mer, milardy 


Nose - 


koonkurry. 


Bar - 


- ngarrowa. 



BETWEEN THE GBORGINA & BURKE RIVERS. 



359 



No. 102. — Between the Geokoina and Burke Rivers — continued. 


Mouth 




Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


■ millea. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- goonie. 


Wood - 


- parroo. 


Beard - 




Stone - 


- deepo. 


Thunder - 


- prilpa. 


Camp - 


- ngoora. 


Grass - 


- boogara. 


Yes - - 


- eya. 


Tongue 


- turley. 


No - 


- malloo, eranok. 


Stomach 


- warmo. 


I 


- utthu. 


Breasts 


- 


You - 


- inba. 


Thigh - 


- kurley. 


Bark - 


_ 


Foot - 
Bone - 
Blood - 
Skin - 
Fat - • 
Bowels 


- dinna. 

- brinna. 

- murkie. 


Good - 
Bad - 
Sweet - 
Food - 
Hungry 


- mially. 

- eramially. 

- erabulgurma. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Thirsty 


- boorlyla. 


War-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- tigerlinger. 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep 


- mochylinger. 


Wommera or 




Drink 


- temarlinger. 


throwing-atiok 




Walk 


- ranjo. 


Shield- - 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 


■ wolea or wolca. 
- cheepa. 


See - - 
Sit - ■ •• 
Yesterday - 
To-day 


- peeperlinger. 

- nungerlinger. 


'star - - 


- dingo. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- 


Where are the 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks? 




Cold - - 


- mallee. 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- undia, coorchi- 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 

Night - - 


coorchia. 

- murruUy. 

- ngooritally. 


Big - 

Little - 


- peerkillie, mun 

goora. 

- tyie-tyie. 


Fire -. 

Water 

Smoke 

Ground 

Wind- 

Rain - 


- gootha, ngappo. 

- boothi. 

- mie. 

- moorunguUa. 

- bulla. 


Dead - 
By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 


- yidgear. 

- cunna. 

- kowera. 

- ngarmo 


God - 


_ 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - " 





360 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 1G3.— HEAD OF THE HAMILTON EIYEE. 

By Ernest Bolinton, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and account of the Yanda tribe 
have been forwarded to me by Mr. Ernest Eglinton. The 
territory of this people, estimated at between 2,000 and 3,000 
square miles, was first occupied by the Whites in 1878, when 
the Yanda are said to have numbered only about 100 souls. 
Since then their numbers have been reduced to 15 men, 
20 women, and 15 children; in all, 50 persons. 

My informant thinks that, when he first knew the tribe 
in 1879, there were several amongst them who had reached 
the age of 80 years. Clothes are not worn by this tribe. 
The head is plastered with pipe-clay on occasions of 
mourning, and at corroborees the hair and skin are painted 
with red ochre and pipe-clay. The Yanda women wear, on 
occasions of corroboree, an ornament common in many parts 
of Australia, which they call bowm. It is made of the two 
front teeth of the kangaroo, which are fastened together at 
their butts with sinew and gum, and extend at an angle of 
45 degrees. They also wear the mungera (literally, opos- 
sum), which is a belt made of mixed opossum fur and human 
hair twisted together. This tribe have knives and tomahawks 
of chipped stone or flint ; spears which are thrown by hand ; 
boomerangs, slightly curved ; the tulumberri, a stick 4 feet 
long and 2| inches in circumference, which is used as a 
missile; and the kumbarli, a stick with a sharp flint fixed on 
one end with gum, commonly called a chisel. 



HEAD OP THE HAMILTON RIVER. 361 

This tribe, it appears, decline to eat the iguana, through 
superstitious motives, probably, for its flesh is well tasted. 
They practise cannibalism, however, and eat the bodies of 
young children who have died, and of their kinsmen slain in 
battle. They do not object to tell their names, of which Mr. 
Eglinton gives the following : — Males ; Ilpildirrien, Kudi- 
mulinem, Nitnli, and Mantuli. Females : Karriwono, Ean- 
ginta, Eubun, and Karkoomaralim. Fathers dispose of 
their daughters in marriage, which occurs both within and 
without the tribe. Few of the men have more than one 
wife. Consumption is the most prevalent disease. The skin 
is scarred in the usual way. Circumcision and the terrible 
rite are inflicted on the youth, by which means they are ad- 
mitted to the rights of men, a few always being exempted. 
Pitcheree, mixed with the ashes of the ffidea leaf, is chewed 
in the usual way. Some of this tribe have curly and others 
straight hair. The men embrace on meeting after a long 
separation. Wounds are plastered with mud, and heal 
quickly. 

Turning to the vocabulary, we find but one word to ex- 
press both bone and wood; and that kookaburri, so often the 
equivalent of laughing jackass, in this language means 
emu. 

The country occupied by the Yanda tribe is on the eastern 
border of the Central Division. 



362 



THE AUSTBALIAJSr RACE: 



No. 103.— HEAD OF HAMILTON RIVER. 



By Ernest Eglinton, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


matumba. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 


mungera. 


2 Blacks - 


warriki boolari 


Tame dog - 


mikamo. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 


mikamo. 


One ■ 


gooniba. 
boolari. 
ruto (?). 


Bmu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck 


kookaburri. 
bercamo. 


Two - 
Three - 


Pelican 


umbleterri. 


Four - 


ecarra. 


Laughing jackass 


kowitohi. 


Father 


koopon. 


Native companion 


booralga. 


Mother 


yunganna. 


White cockatoo - 




Sister-Elder 


karginna. 


Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - - - 

Track of a foot 


wokkola. 

kudo, 
tina. 


„ Younger 
Brother-Elder 
„ Younger 


kardunna. 
tita. 


Msh ■ 


wokarri. 


A young man 




Lobster 




An old man 


kuntaima. 


Crayfish 


toomban. 


An old woman 


yunganna. 


Mosquito - 


moonya. 


A baby 


karrinunna. 


Ply . . 

Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow 


ohiki-ehiko. 
goondaro. 
warriki. 
warriki. 


A White man 
Children - 
Head - 


■ gungi, goongia. 

- kardago. 

- mureda. 


A Black woman 


wongita. 


Eye - 


- meal. 


Nose - 


■ tirki or tuki (?). 


Ear - 


■ talgan. 



HEAD OF THE HAMILTON RIVER. 



363 



No 


103.— HuATi OF Hai 


IILTON RiVEE— 


continued. 


Mouth 


■ tya. 


Boomerang - 


- bepaporo. 


Teeth - 


- ira. 


Hill - 


_ 


Hair of the head- bungu. 


Wood - 


- bunda. 


Beard - 
Thunder ■■ 

Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach - 


- talbarri. < 

- ooraturri. 

- bookurra. 

- tyela. 

- booroo. 


Stone - 
Camp - 

Yes - - 
No - 


- goongo. 

- marrpan. 

- eallamarra. 

- wontitella. 


Breasts 


- beriko. 


I 


- anga. 


Thigh 


- tara, (calf) eulo. 


You - 


- imba. 


Foot - 


- tina. 


Bark - 


- tirki-tirki. 


Bone - 


- bunda. 


Good - 


- kalamundiri. 


Blood - - 


- karruga. 


Bad - - 


- karlokoto. 


Skin - 


- binmin. 


Sweet - 


_ 


Fat - 


- mulki. 


Food - 


- workia. 


Bowels 
Excrement - 


■ koona. 


Hungry 
Thirsty 


- goongindia. 

- mundia. 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 


- bipaparro. 


Eat - 
Sleep - - 


- kartitingia. 

- mutchelinya. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- ekarratingya. 


Shield 


- goonburra. 


Walk - 


- yannaninga. 


Tomahawk - 


- warrambuda. 


See - 


- bingininga. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- ninauinga. 


Sun - 


- tooro. 


Yesterday - 


- toro. 


Moon - 


• multohi. 


To-day 


- kiya. 


Star - 


- markatto. 


To-morrow - 


. 


Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - - 
Heat - 
Day - 
Night- - 


- tooro. 

- winta. 

- kitoha. 

- ringan. 

- narthanya. 

- winta. 


Where are the wariki wonar 
Blacks? kika? 
I don't know - narrimo. 
Plenty - - ekari. 
Big - - - beali. 


Fire - 


- eula. 


Little - 


- nekowla. 


Water 


- karko. 


Dead - 


- puUaurga. 


Smoke 


- toorko. 


By-and-by - 


- wiohunga. 


Ground 


- marban. 


Come on 


- towari eninga. 


Wind- - 


- wipar. 


Milk - 


- tambo. 


Rain - 


- karko. 


Eaglehawk 


- gooradilU. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


v - berkamno. 


Ghosts 


- bikerri. 


Wife - 


- natianna. 



364 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 104.— ON THE HAMILTON EIVER, AND NEAR 

BOULIA. 

THE BITTA BITTA TRIBE. 
By Ernest Eglinton, Esq. 

In addition to this vocabulary, Mr. Ernest Eglinton has 
also furnished me a short account of the Bitta Bitta trihe, 
which differs so little in manners from the Telina as to 
render its insertion unnecessary. No traces of small-pox 
have been seen in this portion of the continent. 



No. ] 


04.— HAMILTON RIVER, NEAR 


BOUT.TA 


Kangaroo - 


- matumba. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- tinaballi. 


2 Blacks - 


- barkoola kerna 


Tame dog - 


- munga. 


3 Blacks - 


- barkoolamero 


Wild dog - 


- punamya. 




kemo. 


Emu 


- goolburri. 


One ■• 


- moorraroo. 


Black duck 


- pepulu. 


Two - 


- barkoola. 


Wood duck 


- bompeparoo. 


Three - 


- barkoolanero. 


Pelican 


- malimurro. 










Four - 


- barkoola- 


Laughing jacka 


3S 




barkoola. 


Native companion golathurra. 




White cockatoo 


. 


Father 


- apari. 


Crow 


- wakala. 


Mother 


- amma. 


Swan - 


. 


Sister-Elder 


- karko. 


Egg - - 


- bembo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Track of a foot 


- wando. 


Brother-Elder 


- wangi. 


Fish - - 


- koopi. 


„ Younger 


Lobster 


- 


A young man 


- yapararri. 


Crayfish 


- 


An old man 


- kaboogaba. 


Mosquito - 


- mooroonga. 


An old woman 


- moitchu. 


Fly - - 


- mooki. 


A baby 


- merritai. 


Snake - 


- goondarra. 


A White man 


- tita. 


The Blacks 


- kerna. 


Children 


- tako-tako. 


A Blaokf ellow 


- kerna. 


Head - 


- kirti. 


A Black woman 


- moitu. 


Eye - 


- me. 


Nose - 


- melia. 


Ear - - 


- narrowa. 



ON THE HAMILTON RIVER, NEAR BOULIA. 



365 



No. 104 


.—Hamilton Rivbi 


I, NEAR BOTJLIA— 


continiied. 


Mouth 


perla. 


Boomerang - 


- teera. 


Teeth - 


milka. 


Hill . 


- kowarri. 


Hair of the head 


poingu. 


Wood - 


- moora. 


Beard - 


uunka. 


Stone - 


- tipo. 


Thunder - 


mungoona. 


Camp - 
Yea - 


- ooia. 


Grass - 


bookarra. 


- koh. 


Tongue 


turli. 


No 


- mallo. 


Stomach 


umba. 






Breasts 


kapatchu. 


I 


- ongya. 


Thigh - 


mirla. 


You - 


- imba. 


Foot - 


tina. 


Bark - 


- nalla. 


Bone - 


beena. 


Good - 


- myalli. 


Blood - 


kimba. 


Bad - 


- munna. 


Skin - 


nalla, ' 


Sweet - 


- myalli. 


Fat - 


toota. 


Food - 


- tatchia. 


Bowels 


- umba. 


Hungry 


- yinaba. 


Excrement - 


koona. 


Thirsty 


- pooalli. 


War-spear - 


narrara. 


Eat - 


- tatchia. . 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


- mootchia. 


Wommera or 












Drink - 


- timia. 


thro wing-stick 








Shield - 


tunmarroo. 


Walk - 


- kundia. 


Tomahawk - 


warrinbutta. 


See - 


- bipika. 


Canoe - 




Sit - 


- nunkia. 


Sun - 


walka. 


Yesterday - 


- moora-wulka. 


Moon - 


cheepa. 


To-day 


- karri. 


Star - 


chutaluminda. 


To-morrow - 




Light - 


kinkimarria. 


Where are the 


indowa kema 


Dark - 


- burrumpurra. 


Blacks ? 


nunkia 1 


Cold - 


- malli. 


I don't know 


■ kerli. 


Heat - 


mukka-mukka. 






Day - 




Plenty 


- pooinda. 


Night ■ 


- umalo. 


Big - 


- mungoora. 


Fire - 


- pooti. 


Little - 


- tii. 


Water - 


- kuta. 


Dead - 


- itchia. 


Smoke 


- boongya. 


By-and-by - 


- toorra. 


Ground 


- mya. 


Come on 


- kowa-e-rango. 


Wind - 


- tuirubo. 


Milk - 


- toma. 


Rain - 


- pula. 


Eaglehawk - 


- perrowalli. 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- pooranna. 


Ghosts 


- moma. 


Wife - 


- noba-nuUa. 



366 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 105.— JUNCTION OF KING'S CEEEK AND THE 
GEORGINA RIVER. 

By J. O. Machattie, Esq., and J. S. Little, Esq. 

The following information concerning the Moorloobulloo 
tribe was forwarded to me by the gentlemen named above. 
The country of this tribe, which is at the junction of King's 
Creek and the Georgina (formerly Herbert) River, was first 
occupied by the Whites in 1876. At that time the strength 
of the tribe was about 250 souls, but between the period of 
our occupation and 1883 thg number was reduced by con- 
sumption and venereal to 180. No clothes are worn by 
these people, who, when troubled by cold or mosquitos, 
sleep in earth huts (probably dug out of the side of a sand- 
hill and roofed with grass, bark, &c.), inside of which they 
make their fires. When in mourning the head is plastered 
with burnt gypsum, which singularly enough is called kopi, 
the name in use in the Marowera tribe, which dwells at the 
junction of the Darling and Murray, 750 miles to the south- 
ward, for those solid coverings of the head already described. 
The wommera is not in use in this tribe, but their arms and 
implements display a good deal of carving and painting. 
Their food consists principally of nardoo seeds, the animals 
and wild-fowl of their country, snakes, iguana, &c. It is to 
be noticed that though one tribe declines to eat mussels, 
another oysters, a third mushrooms, a fourth igiianas, and 
BO on, I am not aware that any rejects the snake, though 
in some tribes it is not a favorite article of food. My 



JUNCTION OP KING'S CREEK & GEORGINA RIVER. 367 

informants remark that the persons of this tribe take each 
the name of some bird or animal, which the individual calls 
brother, and will not eat. Of this system, unfortnnately, no 
further particulars are given, but it reminds one of what Sir 
G-eorge Grey (vol. 2, p. 228) says of the kobong in Western 
Australia. 

No signs of small-pox having existed appear in this tribe. 
I am informed by Mr. Machattie that, to his knowledge, 
seven children have been eaten during the last six years 
by the MoorloobuUoo, and that they habitually eat their 
dead when not too much emaciated. The following are 
names of persons : — Males: Woongongie, Kokomurti, Pill- 
chellie, Murrumooli, and MurkHla. Females: Podoki and 
Larlooti. Marriage is, for the most part, exogamous, and is 
contracted by the males at seventeen and the females at 
eleven years of age. Before, however, a male is allowed to 
possess a wife the ordeal of the terrible rite has to be sub- 
mitted to. These people scar the arms and shoulders 
with mussel-shells, pressing the lips of the wounds 
until they stand high above the general level of the 
skin. Pitcheree, which is prepared and used in the usual 
way, is obtained by barter from the nearest tribe on the 
Mulligan, and is said to produce intoxication. The average 
height of the males is five feet eight inches. The corroboree 
does not differ from those Mr. Machattie has seen in the 
southern portions of Queensland. The resemblances in the 
equivalents oijlre, mood, and camp will be noticed. Koo= 
yes, is found at Port Darwin in the north, on the West 
Coast, and on Cooper's Creek. To suck the breast as a 
baby does, is rendered kobbidya titia = breasts eat. 



368 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 105.— JUNCTION OF KING'S CREEK AND GEORGINA 

RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 


- koonabulla. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


- burloo. 


2 Blacks - 


- barkoola kur- 


Tame dog - 


- beeurli. 




rana. 


Wild dog ' 


- muUok. 


3 Blacks - 


barkooleroo kur 


Emu - 


- wargutchi. 




rana. 


Black duck - 


- kurligoolpar. 


One - 


- ooroo. 


Wood duck 


- kowwar. 


Two - 


- barkoola. 


Pelican 


- murlimarroo. 


Three - 


- barkooleroo. 


Laughing jackass (none). 


Four - 


- barkoolarbar- 


Native companion brolgar. 




koola. 


White cockatoo 


- (none). 


Father 


- yupri. 


Crow ■ 


- wakeri. 


Mother 


- amori. 


Swan - 


- kurti. 


Sister-Elder 


- yawkoo. 


Egg - - 


- pumpo. 


, , Younger 


- 


Track of a foot 


- tinna. 


Brother-Elder 


- kooperi. 


Fish - 


- koppi. 


„ Younger titi. 


Lobster 


- 


A young man 


- yuperi. 


Crayfish 


- trunagi. 


An old man 


- koopa-koopa. 


Mosquito - 


- gunte. 


An old woman 


- bundoora. 


Fly - - 


- gooningeni. 


A baby 


- takakoo. 


Snake - 


- kirtoba. 


A White man 


- whitepella. 


The Blacks - 


- kurrana murtoo. 


Children - 


- woolkaparri. 


A Blackfellow 


- kurrana. 


Head - 


- kirti. 


A Black woman 


- purraja. 


Eye - 


- mi. 


Nose - 


- mealia. 


Bar - 


- arra. 



JUNCTION OF KING'S CREEK & GEORGINA RIVER. 369 



No. 105.— Junction of Kino's Cbebk and Geokgina Rivee — 





continued. 




Mouth 


■ teera. 


Boomerang - 


- giera. 


Teeth - 


- milka. 


mil - 


- waieri. 


Hair of the head 


- pundju. 


Wood- 


- murra. 


Beard - 


- nunka. 


Stone - 


- keppo. 


Thunder - 


- bUpa pundera. 


Camp - 


- murra. 


Grass - 


■ bookera. 


Yes - 


- koo. 


Tongue 


- turli. 


No - 


- wobba. 


Stomach 


- tundoo. 


I 


- uncha. 


Breasts 


- kobbedya. 


You - 


- imba. 


Thigh - 


- kurla. 


Bark .- 


- nulla. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Good - 


- ulyarri. 


Bone - 


- briuna. 


Bad - 


- munna-munna. 


Blood - 


- jimpar. 


Sweet - 


- queongo. 


Skin - 


- nulla. 


Food - 


_ 


Fat - 


- tatta. 


Hungry 


- ommonchilla. 


Bowels 


- murda-murda. 


Thirsty 


- woolka murra- 


Excrement - 


- goona. 




wondia. 


War-spear - 


- urrurra.- 


Eat - 


- titia. 


Reed-spear - 


- (none). 


Sleep - 


- muchia. 


Wommera or 


gundi-gundi. 


Drink - 


- temalinna. 


throwing-stick 




Walk - 




Shield- 


- koomburra. 










See - 


- tokomia. 


Tomahawk - 


- warramutta. 






Canoe - 


- (none). 


Sit - 


- munga-mungan- 
dia. 


Sun - 


- walka. 


Yesterday - 


Moon - 


- chungi. 


To-day 


moonyarribidyia. 


Star - 


- jimpi. 


To-morrow - 


- oo-oo-moUo. 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


;he kuma winienda ? 


Dark - 


- umolo. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- nulli. 


I don't know 


- kurli. 


Heat - 


- yerrawier. 


Plenty 


- murtpo or parri. 


Day - 




Big - - 


- punkilli. 


Night - 


- 


Little - 


- wurpa-wurpa. 


Fire - 


- mukka. 










Dead - 


- ityea. 


Water 


- nappe. 


By-and-by - 


- kumatoord. 


Smoke 


- kurtoo. 




Ground 


mai-i. 


Come on 


- kow-wa. 


Wind- 


■ tooropgo. 


Milk - 


- kobbedya. 


Rain - 


- kurta. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - 


.. 


Wild turkey 


- kurreturo. 


Ghosts 


- kunmurri. 


Wife - 


- nopoona. 


VOL. II. 


2 


A 





LOWER DIAMANTINA. 371 



No. 106.— LOWER DIAMANTINA. 
(Long. 141° E.; Lat. 25° S.) 

Anonymous. 

An anonymous contributor has sent me a short account 
of the Karawalla and Tunberri tribes, which dwell on the 
Lower Diamantina, and as they are described as neighbours, 
and but one vocabulary has reached me, I presume, as often 
happens, that they speak the same language, or nearly so. 
A yery important statement made in the account of the 
manners of these tribes is that monogamy prevails in them, no 
man being allowed to have more than one wife. Other than 
this but little worthy of notice has reached me. These 
tribes use the boomerang, but not the wommera ; no traces 
of small-pox exist; children are eaten occasionally; marriage 
is exogamous ; consumption is the most prevalent disease ; 
pitcheree is chewed ; and circumcision, by means of which 
the rights of manhood are conferred, is undergone by the 
males when about seventeen years of age. 

2 A 2 



372 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 106.— LOWER DIAMANTtNA. 



Kangaroo - 


koora. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


burloo. 


2 Blacks - 


- barkoola kerna 


Tame dog - 


pande. 


3 Blacks - 


- barkoola-orroo 


Wild dog - 


pande. 




kerna. 


Emu - 


warrawudgi. 


One - 


- orroo. 


Black duck - 


mingenarra. 


Two - 


- barkoola. 


Wood duck 
PeUoan 

Laughing jackass 


chiberli. 

turta. 

(none). 


Three - 
Four - 


- barkoolamarna 

- barkoola-bar- 

koola. 


Native companioH 
White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - 
Track of a foot 


kuntharata. 

murramute. 

wokeri. 

(none). 

pompo. 

mulka. 


Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- aperie. 

- urnde. 

- kako. 

- nathura. 

- naire. 


Fish - 


wongo. 


„ Young 


3r 


Lobster 




A young man 


- wagi. 


Crayfish 


unde. 


An old man 


- karooro. 


Mosquito - 


- kunthi. 


An old woman 


- mutitu. 


Fly - - 


- mongi. 


A baby 


- nukaka. 


Snake - 


- minga. 


A White man 


- peri-peri. 


The Blacks - 


- kerna. 


Children - 


- poorloora 


A Blackfellow 


- orroroo. 


Head - 


- kunka. 


A Black woman 


■ punga. 


Eye - 


- milki. 


Nose - 


- purloo. 


Ear - 


- nuri. 



LOWER DIAMANTINA. 



373 





No. 106. — LowEE, DiAMANTiNA — Continued. 


Mouth 


- bina. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- den. 


Hill - 


- meri. 


Hair of the head - tunda. 


Wood - 


- moora. 


Beard - 


- unka. 


Stone - 


- murtra. 


Thunder - 


- unkinda. 


Gamp - 


- aru. 


Grass - 


- kuntha. 


Yes - 


- ko. 


Tongue 


- purlpa. 


No - 


- woba. 


Stomach 


- wopa. 


I 


- unge. 


Breasts 


- numma. 


You - 


- tini. 


Thigh - 


- ura. 


Bark - 


- warinde. 


Foot - 


- tina. 


Good - 


- patchi. 


Bone - 


- kunbo. 


Bad - 


- terri. 


Blood - 


- kaluka. 


Sweet - 


- kudye. 


Skin - 


- kurla. 


Food - 


- munka. 


Fat - 


- mume. 


Hungry 


- minikibe. 


Bowels 


- moonnoo. 


Thirsty 


- wardu. 


Excrement - 


- koona. 


Eat - 


- tinna. 


War-spear - 


- windra. 


Sleep - 


- parinda. 


Reed-spear - 


- (none). 


Drink - 


- 


Throwiug-stick 


- turtee. 


Walk - 


- tidina. 


Shield - 
Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 


- toombaroo. 

- murdra. 

- (none). 

- koorle. 

- peumangle. 

- kolunthe. 

- burk. 

- mooka. 


See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are 
Blacks ? 


- kalinda. 

- kunda. 

- oorakoorle. 

- keene. 

- ununda. 

the wirdong kema ? 


Cold - 


- terrili. 


I don't know 


- woba unge. 


Heat - 


- wiltoro. 


Plenty 


- matoo. 


Day - 


- 


Big - 


- piri. 


Night - 


- 


Little - 


- montooito. 


Fire - 


- tooroo. 


Dead - 


- paMda. 


Water- 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind - 
Eaiu - 


- nappa. 

- koodoo. 

- pulo. 

- jimbo. 

- tindarheri. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 


- ooroo. 

- kowi. 

- tuncat and ama 

- kunthuUo. 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- A^Tirkum. 


Ghosts 


, 


Wife - 


- newya. 



374 THE AUSTEALIAN RACE: 



No. 107.— THE JUNCTION OF THE THOMSON 
AND BAECOO RIVERS, ALSO THE WHITULA 
CREEK. 

By J. Hbaoney, Esq., Fbaser, Esq., and Bdwaed Cuek, Esq. 

Of the Birria, Koongerri, and Kungarditclii tribes, whicli 
dwell in the country adjacent to the junction of the Thomson 
and Barcoo Rivers, I have received an account from Mr. 
Heagney, as also vocabularies of each of their dialects. Of 
one of these tribes — the Birria — I have also received a de- 
scription and vocabulary from my son, Mr. Edward Curr. 
Mr. Heagney 's relation is to the following effect: — 

The tribes in this locality are called Birria, Koongerri, 
and Kungarditchi. The territory of the Birria is on the 
western bank of the Thomson, and extends from Jundah to 
the confluence of that river and the Barcoo, and further for 
fifty miles down their united streams, which form Cooper's 
Creek. From its frontage to these streams this territory 
stretches back about forty miles in the direction of the 
Diamantina. The country of the Koongerri* tribe i& on 
the eastern bank of the Thomson, and comprises all the 
country between that river and the Barcoo below Jundah, 
and below Welford Downs on the Barcoo. It includes also 
a strip of country about forty miles wide on the eastern side 
of the Barcoo, from Welford Downs to its junction with the 
Thomson, and along Cooper's Creek to the junction of the 

* This word meaiis clry. 



JUNCTION OF THOMSON & BARCOO RIVERS. 375 

Kiabara Creek. The Kungarditchi country is about twenty 
miles square, and is bounded on the south by the Kiabara 
Creek, and on the west by the Koongerri country. The 
territory of these tribes was gradually occupied by the 
Whites during the interval between the years 1874 and 
1878, the aggregate population of the three tribes at the 
first of these dates being estimated at twelve hundred. The 
women at present (1883) considerably outnumber the men, 
many of the latter having been shot down by the Whites 
when they first established themselves in the district. 
Syphilis is and has been raging fatally in these tribes, of 
which seven per cent, are children. Many of these people 
are thought to have reached the age of sixty. Originally 
they were quite naked, but now the few who can obtain cast- 
off clothes from the Whites wear them. Their huts are 
spaces scouped out of the sand-hills, covered in with grass 
and clay, and the fires, which are made inside, keep 
the dwellers warm and the mosquitos out. The same orna- 
ments are worn by both sexes, and consist of necklaces 
made of strong grass-stems, cut into lengths and threaded; 
also the teeth of other Blacks (how worn or obtained is not 
stated), and feathers, and bright seeds set in gum. They 
likewise stick fur and down on their skins with the same 
substance ; color themselves white when in mourning, and 
adorn the person here and there with red or yellow ochre on 
occasions of corroboree. For carrying water about in their 
dry country, when travelling or hunting, they use boat- 
shaped vessels of bark, about two feet six inches long, eight 
inches deep, and eight inches wide. The principal imple- 
ments of these tribes used to be stone tomahawks, ground to 
an edge, which they obtained from neighbouring tribes in 
exchange for spears, as their own country produces no stone 
suited to the purpose. Since the occupation of their country 
by the Whites, however, they have gradually obtained iron 
tomahawks. They say that some few iron tomahawks and 
knives found their way into their country, passed on from 
one tribe to another, some thirty years before the squatter 



376 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

appeared on the scene. Their weapons are carved to some 
extent, and one of them is the boomerang, which, however, 
only returns half way when thrown, as my informant 
remarks. They are said to he an unwarlike people, and that 
most of their quarrels have their origin in jealousies about 
their women. Animals being very scarce in their country, 
their principal food consists of reptiles, bulbs, seeds, and 
fruits. Temporary ovens are sometimes used in cooking. 
The young people are forbidden to eat emu eggs and the 
flesh of the eaglehawk. Strange to say, these tribes, accord- 
ing to my informant, object to eat fat. SmaU-pox has never 
been heard of amongst them. Cannibalism is not very pre- 
valent, as far as is known, though occasionally a child found 
difficult to rear is eaten. The people of these tribes do not 
object to tell their names. 

Each tribe, I am informed, is divided into several classes, 
and a man may marry into any class but his own, or get a 
wife from another tribe. Perhaps there is some inaccuracy 
in this statement, as the system is but imperfectly known; 
at all events, marriage between persons nearly related by 
blood is prohibited. At the present day in these tribes the 
females largely outnumber the males, many of the men having 
been shot, so that about ten per cent, of the males have more 
than one wife. The original customs in such matters Mr, 
Heagney has left unstated, if he knew them. Since the 
advent of the Whites, few children are reared — the rifle, 
syphilis, and debauchery having, as usual, commenced the 
work of extermination. 

These tribes scar themselves for the purpose of ornamen- 
tation on the abdomen, chest, arms, and thighs, sometimes 
horizontally, and at others vertically. In some of the divisions 
the young men are circumcised, and in others not. At about 
fourteen years of age they knock out the two middle front 
teeth of the upper jaw, using for the purpose two sticks, one 
as a punch, and the other as a hammer. They also pierce 
the septum of the nose, wearing occasionally in the orifice a 
bone, feather, or twig. 



JUNCTION OP THOMSON & BARCOO RIVERS. 377 

The people of these tribes, says Mr. Heagney, believe in 
the existence of invisible beings, who can make them happy 
or miserable, and are said to hover about the burial places of 
the dead, and to be deeply offended by breaches of the laws 
relating to food restrictions and to marriage. Should a young 
Black, for instance, even break an emu egg, it is believed that 
the offended spirits will shortly raise a storm of thunder and 
lightning, in which the unlucky culprit will probably be 
struck down. Often the tribe adjure these invisible beings, 
in a song dedicated to the purpose, to inflict vengeance on 
their enemies. They also supplicate them to send rain, by 
placing a particular sort of stone on the edge of a waterhole. 
No amount of reasoning or experience of the failures of their 
charms, says my informant, can shake their belief in them. 
Pitcheree, he continues, is used for chewing. It is prepared 
by the plant being reduced to powder, and mixed with the 
ashes of gidjee leaves, and produces, says my informant, 
a sort of mild intoxication. No sort of sign language exists 
amongst these tribes. They have no canoes, though in times 
of flood no tribes have greater need of them. Even the use 
of bark canoes by the Whites has not led to their adoption. 
Emu are captured with nets, and killed with boomerangs. 
They also catch fish in nets. Kangaroo there are none. The 
males of these tribes are made young men at about seventeen 
years of age, the ceremony in some of the divisions being 
circumcision. Their dead they bury in sand-hills, with much 
show of sorrow, whitening their skins with pipe-clay, which 
they leave on for seven days. 

Message-sticks have not been noticed. On meeting after 
an absence, these people embrace and shake hands. The old 
men have much influence with the tribes, but nothing is 
known of any form of government. In some cases urine is 
swallowed as medicine. Wounds are dressed with fat and 
clay. Such is Mr. Heagney's account of these tribes. 

I have already said that a second account of the Birria 
tribe has been sent to me by my son. The facts he gives 
were taken down from the statements of Mr. Fraser, a 



378 THE AUSTEALIAK RACE: 

gentleman who had resided for a considerable time on the 
Whitula Creek, which runs through the country of the Birria. 
My son's vocabulary was obtained from a Birria Black boy, 
whose knowledge of English was rather defective. The 
statements made by Mr. Fraser were to the following 
purport : — 

The Whitula Creek Station was taken up in 1874, the 
Birria tribe, whose country it is, numbering at that time 
about 500 souls. Longevity seems to be common amongst 
them, for many have lost their teeth from age, and appear 
to have reached eighty. "When first the Whites came 
amongst them they wore no clothes, though such as can get 
them do so now. Their huts are partly hollowed out of the 
sand; are covered with sticks and earth, and have the fire 
inside. Stripes of red ochre are their holiday adornment, 
and in times of mourning they cover themselves with pipe- 
clay. They have bags and fishing-lines made of wild hemp, 
and construct dams for the capture of fish. The stone 
tomahawks they formerly used were ground to an edge. 
Their weapons are the ordinary boomerang which returns 
when thrown, very ill-made spears and two-handed swords, 
all of which they smear with red ochre. They have no 
wommeras (throwing-sticks). Mussel-shells and flints are 
used for cutting. Their food consists principally of wild 
rice, nardoo, and grass seeds, all of which they make into 
loaves and bake in the ashes. They also eat reptiles. Their 
country being subject to terrible droughts, they have often 
been reduced to great straits for food, and on such occasions 
they had recourse to cannibalism. From the nature of 
their food, sheep and cattle feeding must have been ruinous 
to them. In the drought of 1876-7 they eat all their 
children. In this tribe the possession of more than one wife 
is absolutely forbidden, or was before the coming of the 
Whites. Males and females are married at from fourteen to 
sixteen, but are not allowed to rear children until they get 
to be about thirty years of age; hence infanticide is general. 
Males are circumcised when about twelve years of age. 



JUNCTION OP THOMSON & BARCOO RIVERS. 379 

They scar the person about the same time. Two upper 
front teeth are knocked out, and the septum of the nose is 
pierced, and a bone or quill worn through the orifice. 

The hair of the Birria tribe is straight, they chew 
pitcheree, and paint themselves white when in mourning. 
It is the custom to embrace, and it is said kiss, after a long 
separation. 



380 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 107.— VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECT OP THE 
KUNGARDITCHI TRIBE. 

By J. Hbagnbt, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


cutohira, coola. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 


warnunga, co- 


2 Blacks - 


carooora bar- 




thera. 




coola. 


Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 


barcoola matina 


Wild dog - 


dethee, conatha. 




carcoora 


Emu - 


coolperry. 


One - 


matina, ungal. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 
Laughing jackass 


yellamoora. 

goonary. 

thirta. 


Two - 
Three - 
Four - 


barcoola boolara. 
barcoola matina. 
barcoola bar- 
coola. 


Native companion goontheri. 
White cockatoo - mooramerry. 


Father 


copunya, moo- 


Crow - 

Swan - 

Egg - - ■ 

Track of a foot 


wawkerlo. 
gootheroo. 
coocurry. 
thinna. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 
,, Younger 


naro. 
ominya. 
coorcorminya. 
pathunya. 


Fish - 
Lobster 


goombilla, gooya. 


Brother-Elder - goorkinya. 
,, Younger 


Crayfish 


boagalli, thorna- 


A young man 


yiripie. 




bun. 


An old man 


wongie. 


Mosquito - 


noka. 


An old woman 


wulko. 


Fly - - - 


moonthooan. 


A baby (male) 


- oornoo. 


Snake - 


thoolperoo, thia- 


,, (female) 


- urtoo. 




gara. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


carooora, capo. 


Children 




A Blackfellow 




Head - 


- bumbo. 


A Black woman 


wondthowerry. 


Eye - 


- meyel. 


Nose - 




Ear - 


- munga. 



JUNCTION OF THOMSON & BARCOO RIVERS. 



381 



No. 107. — KuNGAEBiTCHi Teibe — Continued. 



Mouth 


- tyowa, thia. 


Boomerang - 


- yalka,bububeroo. 


Teeth - 


- yerrang, berra. 


Hill - 


- ree, weetyoo. 


Hair of the head- bungee. 


Wood - 


- wocka, rirlka. 


Beard 


- onga, nunka. 


Stone - 


- berry, curdee. 


Thunder - 


- bookura. 


Camp - 


- oora, wooira. 


Grass - 


- condtha. 


Yes - 


- cardi. 


Tongue 


- thalang. 


No - - 


- walya. 


Stomach 


- aimella, mirra. 


I 


- boorko, nuthoo. 


Breasts 


- umma, ngamun. 


You - 


- ingowa, yinti. 


Thigh 


- moorta. 


Bark - 


- wathorra, pirra- 


Foot - 


- thinna. 




birra. 


Bone - 


- etohewarra, 


Good - 


- burlo. 




coongoon. 


Bad - 


- wiltha. 


Blood - 


- coorooka. 


Sweet - 


- 


Skin - 


- dthucarry, can- 


Food - 


- goonmango. 




thirri. 


Hungry 


- wamaintha. 


Fat - 


- dthootha. 


Thirsty 


- wambawintha, 


Bowels 


- warrawooroo. 




binganbundya. 


Uxorement - 


- goonna. 


Bat - 


- wonmanthoo, 


War-spear - 


- moortya, eanna. 




ourrinukeroo. 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 
throwing-stick 
Shield - 


- 


Sleep - 
Drink - 
Walk - 


- beka, woonellera 

- coothango. 

- thango, wauwil- 


- thumberoo. 




poora. 






See - 


- munna, nockun- 


Tomahawk - 


- goabara, paining. 




thereena. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- nanko. 


Sun - 


- moorie. 


Yesterday - 


- booka. 


Moon - 


- uUatha. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- coolaroo. 


To-morrow - 


- wikka. 


Light - 


_ 


Where are 


the wanthelUca, car 


Dark - 


- buigell. 


Blacks? 
I don't know 


coora ? 
- weeya. 


Cold - 


- gilea, moorana. 


Plenty 


- mirty, nokul. 


Heat - 


- yowee, rincung. 


Big - - 
Little - 


- wulko. 


Day - 


- cothogun. 


- napoondya. 


Night - 


- gongongoo. 


Dead - 


- bookan, cotya- 


Fire - 


- wichun, oorla. 




minni. 


Water 


- cacoa. 


By-and-by - 


- wandthee. 


Smoke 


- mooyoo. 


Come on 


- cowally. 


Groimd 


- thima. 


Milk - 


- umma, ngamoon. 


Wind- 


- yarrika. 


Eaglehawk - 


- corrowira, coori- 


Rain - 


- birta, yookun. 




adthilla. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- goonging. 


Ghosts 


- goondtha. 


Wife - 


- noopunya. 



382 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 107.— VOCABULARY OP THE KOONGERRI LANGUAGE. 



By J. Hbaonet, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


balcun. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 


wamonga. 


2 Blacks - 


karkoora 


Tame dog - 






barcoola. 


Wild dog - 


deethee. 


3 Blacks - 


barcoola murina 


Emu - 


koolperry. 




karkoora. 


Black duck - 


yellamoora. 


One - 


murina. 


Wood duck 


goonery. 


Two - 


barcoola. 


Pelican 


thirta. 


Three - 


barcoola murina 


Laughing jackass 




Four - 


barcoola 


Native companion goontherra. 




barcoola. 


White cockatoo ■ 


mooramerry. 


Father 


thatanya. 


Crow - 


waukerlo. 


Mother 


umerninya. 


Swan - 


kootero. 


Sister-Elder 


- goorkuminya. 


Egg - - 


kookurry. 


„ Younger 


- bathunga. 


Track of a foot 


thinna. 


Brother-Elder 


■ goorkinia. 


Fish - 


goombilla. 


„ Younger 




Lobster 




A young man 


yiripy. 


Crayfish 


thoombur. 


An old man 




Mosquito - 


noka. 


An old woman 


walko. 


Ely ■ - 


moonan. 


A baby 


oornoo. 


Snake - 


koorianurra. 


A White man 




The Blacks - 


karkoora. 


Children - 




A Blackf ellow 


karkoora. 


Head - 


bumbo. 


A Black woman 




Eye - 


meyel. 


Nose - 


raingo. 


Ear - 


munga 



JUNCTION OF THOMSON & BARCOO RIVERS. 



383 



No. 107. — VOCABULABY OF THE 

Mouth - - thia. 

Teeth - - - kirra or rirra. 
Hair of the head - buntyoo. 

Beard- - - nunka. 

Thunder - - bookura. 
Grass - 

Tongue - - tallang. 

Stomach - - mirra. 

Breasts - - ngummun. 

Thigh - - moorta, 

Foot - - thinna. 
Bone - 

Blood - - - kurooka. 
Skin - 

Fat - - thootha. 

Bowels - - warramurra. 

Excrement - - koonna. 

War-spear - - kanna. 
Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 
throwing-stick 

Shield - - thumboora. 

Tomahawk t ■■ paining. 

Canoe - - - 

Sun - - - moori. 

Moon - - - uUatha. 

Star - - - yeokee. 
Light - 

Dark - - - bingel. 

Cold - - - yirli. 

Heat - - . warroong. 

Day - - - kothogum. 

Night- - - kulka. 

Fire - - - wiohun. 

Water - - kacka. 

Smoke - - mooyoo. 

Ground - - thirna. 

Wind - - - yarika. 

Rain - - . 
God - 

Ghosts - - gooing. 



iooNGEBKi Language— coniinieed 


Boomerang - 


- yalka. 


Hill - 


- ree. 


Wood- 


- wokka. 


Stone - 


- berry. 


Camp - 


- oora. 


Yes - 


- ietha. 


No - 


- bombo. 


I 


- iowa. 


You - 


- enowa. 


Bark - 


- wathoora. 


Good - 


- burlo. 


Bad - 


- manyuthirria. 


Sweet - 


- 


Food - 


- goomango. 


Hungry 


- womando. 


Thirsty 


- woonboweena. 


Eat - 


- wonmunthoo. 


Sleep - 


- beka. 


Drink 


- koothango. 


Walk - 


- thango. 


See - - 


- oonee. 


Sit - 


- uma. 


Yesterday - 


- booka. 


To-day 


- 


To-morrow - 


- wikka. 


Where are 


ihe wanthera 


Blacks ? 


karkoora? 


I don't know 


- weeya. 


Plenty 


- mirty. 


Big - - 


- wulko. 


Little - 


- napoodyeto. 


Dead - 


- boooanitya. 


By-and-by - 


- wanthee 




wanthee. 


Come on 


- kowally. 


Milk - 


- amma. 


Eaglehawk - 


- corowera. 


Wild turkey 


- worka. 


Wife - 


- noopunga. 



384 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 107.— VOCABULARY OF THE BIRRIA LANGUAGE. 



By Edwakd Cueb, Esq. 

In this vocabulary compare heat and fire. The resemblance is an un- 
common one. In it also we meet in use the letter v. The phrase track 
of a foot is not equivalent to foot simply, as generally happens. Fish is 
rendered hammoo, which usually means water, so that altogether I think 
some of the words unreliable. 



Kangaroo - 


- palgan. 


Opossum 


- woomanga 


Tame dog - 


- 


Wild dog - 


- tuti. 


Emu - 


- kubane. 


Black duck - 


- peya. 


Wood duck 


- 


Pelican 


- tarta. 



Laughing jackass 

Native companion mulvani. 

White cockatoo - murmari. 

Crow - - - wawgala. 

Swan - 

Egg - - - kokarri. 

Track of a foot - migla. 



Pish - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito - 

Fly - - - 

Snake 

The Blacks - 

A Blaokf ellow ■ 

A Black woman ■ 

Nose - 



kammoo. 



naka. 

moonan. 

kadi. 

mirti. 

mirti. 

muchmali. 

mingoo. 



Hand - 


- marra. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- mirina. 


Two - 


■ barkooloo. 


Three - 


• barkool marrar. 


Four - 


- barkoolabarkoola 


Father 


- tatanya. 


Mother 


- narmaquia. 


Sister-Elder 


- koorkagni. 



„ Younger - nabuku. 
Brother-Elder - purghi. 

,, Younger nathana. 
A young man 
An old man 

An old woman - walgo. 
A baby - - mararida. 
A White man 
Children 

Head - - pumba. 

Eye - - - me-il. 
Ear - - - kurra. 



JUNCTION OF THOMSON & BARCOO RIVERS. 



385 



No. 107.- 


-VOCABULAEY OF THE 


BiEEiA liAnavAOE—cmitimied. 


Mouth 


- tya. 


Boomerang - 


- biboobooroo 


Teeth - 


- yerra. 


Hill - 


_ 


Hair of the heac 


- warqu. 


Wood - 


- wagga. 


Beard - 


- nanga. 


Stone - 


- parri. 


Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 


- murra. 


Grass - 


- kanda. 


Yes - 




Tongue 


- talli. 


No - 




Stomach 


- mirra. 






Breasts 


- ngamma. 


I - - 


- 


Thigh - 


- tarra. 


You - 




Foot - 


- tinna. 


Bark - 


- wadura. 


Bone - 


- ohiora. 


Good - 


- 


Blood - - 


- karuga. 


Bad - 


- 


Skin - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 


- tudda. 


Food - 


_ 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


_ 


Excrement - 


- koorna. 










Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- kanni. 






Reed-spear - 


- yalamba. 


Eat - 


- 


Wommera or 


warga. 


Sleep - 


- 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- 


Shield- - 


- pygiUa. 


Walk - 


- 


Tomahawk - 


- kulby. 


See - 


- 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- 


Sun - 


- murra. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- uallada. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


- yichi. 


To-morrow - 


_ 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- velli. 








J 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- wawgin-nawgin. 






Day - 


_ 


Plenty 


- 


Night - - 


- 


Big - 


- 


Fire - 


- wawgin. 


Little - 


- 


Water 


- kagoo. 


Dead - 


- 


Smoke 


- trugoo. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- 


Come on 


- 


Wind - . 


• yarga. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- kuguroo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - - 


- 


VOL. II. 


2 


B 





BOOK THE NINTH 



2U 2 



BOOK THE NINTH. 

PREFATORY REMARKS. 

We now begin with the manners and languages of the 
tribes which inhabit what I have termed the Eastern 
Division of the continent. Those brought under notice in 
this book are from the northern portion of the division. . In 
this area circumcision and the terrible rite are unknown 
except in one tribe. This is a most remarkable feature. It 
is to this area also we have confined the curious custom of 
the languages in many cases being named after their negative 
adverbs and in others the tribes. As regards the order in ' 
which I have numbered and described the tribes of the Eastern 
Division it is important to notice that though I have taken 
them from east to west and then from west to east alternately, 
and so gradually descended south, that language shows the 
spread of the race in this locality to have been, roughly 
speaking, in several north and south lines, one of which fol- 
lowed the coast, another skirted the Central Division, there 
having been one or more in the interval between these two. 



No. 108.— PEINCESS CHAELOTTE'S BAY, NORTH 
QUEENSLAND. 

By W. 0. HoDOKiNSON, Goldfields Wabden, Mattown. 

The following particulars concerning a tribe resident at 
Princess Charlotte's Bay were obtained by Mr. W. 0. 
Hodgkinson from a boy ten years of age called Mai, one of 
a couple captured in that locality. By whom the capture 
was effected Mr. Hodgkinson does not say, and probably 
does not know, for it is not at all an unusual circumstance 



390 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



in North Queensland for a boy of tender years to be seized 
by a White man, taken away from his tribe and country, and 
brought up as a stockman or station hand, in which capacity 
his excellent sight and powers of tracking animals render 
him specially useful. The country of Mai's tribe is called 
Mukinna. The men of it practise cannibalism, and Mai's 
ears are pierced for the reception of some ornament. 

Amongst the few words obtained from the child we have 
kulka for war-spear, a word which with some alterations we 
meet with in several parts of the continent. The equivalents 
otfire and wood also dilBer but slightly, which is a very 
common feature in our languages. There is but one word 
for star and smoke. We have seen that another tribe look 
on the Magellan clouds as smoke. 



No. 108.— PRESrCESS CHARLOTTE'S BAY, 



Kangaroo ■ 
Opossum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - - - 
Swan - 

Egg - - - 
Track of a foot - 
Fish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Hy - - - 
Snake - - . 
The Blacks - 
A Blackfellow - 
A Black woman - 
Nose - , . 



yearpee. 
koolan. 



guarga. 
boongil. 



kurnpul. 
buudeela. 
wattalla. 
telpee. 

emil. 

takko. 

wunpoo. 



bulbul. 
yeerum. 

muntyin. 



Hand - 

2 Blacks - 

3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 
Three - 
Four - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,, Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 

,, Younger 
A young man 
An old man 
An old woman - 
A baby 
A White man 
Children 

Head - - - 
Eye - 
Ear • 



- boolom. 



parra. 



- mea. 

- toontree. 

- yimpa. 



PRINCESS CHARLOTTE'S BAY. 



391 



No. 


108. — Pelncess Chahlotte's Bay — contimied. 


Mouth 


- kama. 


Boomerang - 


- winche. 


Teeth - 


- kummun. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the heac 


- mea. 


Wood - 


. yoompa 


Beard - 


- watta. 


Stone - 


- koola. 


Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 


- wippe. 


Grass - 


- 


Yes - 


- 


Tongue 


- darbi. 


No - 


_ 


Stomach 


- toolka. 


I 




Breasts 


- ohacha. 


You - 




Thigh - 


- puhn. 


Bark - 




Foot - 


- takko. 


Good - 




Bone - 


- 


Bad - 


. 


Blood - 


- 


Sweet - 


. 


Skin - 


- 


Food - 


. 


Fat - 


- 


Hungry 


- 


Bowels 


- 


Thirsty , - 


- 


Excrement - 


- 


Eat - 


. 


War-spear - 


- kulka. 


Sleep - 




Reed-spear - 


- 


Drink - 


_ 


Throwing-stick 


- botcha. 


Walk - 




Shield 


- cheege. 


See - 




Tomahawk - 


- wakko. 






Canoe ■ 


- tandi. 


Sit - 




Sun - 


- wootcha. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- arpe. 


To-day 




Star - 


- tumpe. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 


- 


Where are the 




Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- 


I don't know 


- 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- 


Day - 


- 


Big - - 


- 


Night - 


- 


Little - 


. 


Fire - 


- yuma. 


Dead - 




Water 


. 






Smoke 


- tumpa. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


_ 


Come on 


- 


Wind- 


_ 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


. 



392 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 109.— ENDEAVOUK EIVEE. 

By Captain Cook and Captain P. P. King. 

The following short vocabularies are extracted, the first from 
the account of Captain Cook's Voyages, as set out in The 
Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, published in 
1790, and the second from Captain P. P. King's Survey of 
the Coast of Australia. Meul = eye and gulka = spear are 
the only terms common in Australia which appear in these 
vocabularies. Several of the words, however, are met with 
in the vocabularies of Cape York, of the Granite Range at 
the head of the Mitchell, and of Weary Bay. I have not 
been able to obtain any original information from this neigh- 
bourhood. Eemarks on the word kangaroo have been made 
at page 27, vol. I. 



English. 


Captain Cook. 


Captain P. P. King. 


Head - - - - 


Wageegee. 




Hair - - - - 


Morye - - - - 


Moreah. - 


Eyes . - - - 


Meul - - - .. 


Me-ell, caree. 


Ears - - - - 


Melea - : - - 


Milkah. 


Nose - - - - 


Bonjoo - - - . - 


Emera,ria,, pote-er.. , 


Tongue 


Unjar. 




Beard - - - - 


Wallar - - - r 


WoUah. * 


Hands- - - - 


Marigal. 




Thighs 


Coman. 




Eeet - - - 


Edamal. 




Cockatoo 


Wanda. 




Sun - 


Gallan. 




Eire - - - - 


Meanang. 




A man 


Bama, bamma. 




Canoe - - - - 


Marigau 


Maragan. 


Sit - - - - 


Takai, tooaya. 




Dog - 


Cotta, kota. 




Blood - 


Garmbe. 




Wood - - - - 


Yocou. 




Father - 


Dunjo. 





ENDEAVOUR RIVER. 



393 



English. 


Captain Cools:. 


Captain P. P. King. 


Woman 


Mootjel. 




Bone . - - - 


Baityebai. 




Teeth - - ■ - 


MuWre or m61e 


Molear. 


Breasts 


Coyor. 




Stomach 


Gippa. 




Kangaroo - 


Kangooroo - 


Meuftah. 


Fish - - - - 


Poteea. 




Water - 


Poorai. 




Earth - - - - 


Poa-poa. 




Spear - - . - 


Gulka. 




Wommera - 


Melpairo. 




Eat ... - 


Boota, yatta. 




Drink ... 


Chuohala. 




Sit - - . - 


Tuoai. 




Sleep ... - 


Poona. 




Come hither 


Hala, mA^. 




Afly . 


Tabugga, chapaua. 





No. 110.— WEABY BAY. 

By Thomas Hughes, Esq. 

A vocABTJLAET of the language spoken at Weary Bay and 
a few facts connected with the tribes in that locality have 
been kindly forwarded to me by Mr. Thomas Hughes. 
Several tribes, whose habits are but imperfectly known, live 
in association on the shores of Weary Bay and the country 
immediately adjacent. Their names are Bulpoonarra, Koo- 
nara, Wolburra, Moolburra, Moo-arra, Yokarra, Ikkarra, 
Yekkarra, Amaggi, and Geugagi. With the exception of 
having wooden canoes with outriggers (whether made by 
themselves or obtained from the Malays or others is not 
stated), there seems to be nothing to distinguish these from 
other Australian tribes. Thus, cannibalism is practised ; 
their arms are spears, shields, and clubs, which they smear 
with red ochre and grease ; they make the usual nets and 
bags, have reed necklaces, and dance the corroboree. They 



394 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



also knock out one or more teeth in youth, scar the skin, and 
subject the young males to certain secret ceremonies. Cir- 
cumcision, the terrible rite, and the marks of small-pox are 
not met with in this neighbourhood. Food, which consists 
chiefly of yams, roots, and fruits, is plentiful in the country 
of these tribes. 

Turning to the vocabulary, we find kooea =Jish; murra = 
hand; meil = eye; kulka = spear; also that milk_&'nA. breasts 
are expressed by the same word, bibi ; and that there is but 
one word iotfoot and track of afoot — all Australian pecu- 
liarities more or less widely spread. Bumma = Blackfellom 
is found with little alteration in the same sense at Endeavour 
Eiver, and on the head-waters of the Walsh and Mitchell 
Rivers. 



No. no.— WEARY BAY. 



By Thomas Hughes, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


darbar. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


kokoren. 


2 Blacks - 


- mummera 


Tame dog - 


kai-a. 




bumma. 


Wild dog - 




3 Blacks - 


- koUur bumma. 


Emu - 


korundi. 


One - 


- nobin. 


Black duck - 


kalmaira. 


Two - 


- mummera. 


Wood duck- 




Three - 


- kollur. 


Pelican 


bulwarra. 


Four - 
Father 




Laughing jackass 
Native companion 


- nundin. 


White cockatoo - 


bemba. 


Mother 


- nammo. 


Crow - 


watta. 


Sister-Elder 


- pappar. 


Swan - 




„ Younger 


- booba. 


Egg - 


dewan. 


Brother-Elder 


- yabba. 


Track of a foot - 


bena. 


„ Younger yabbado. 


Fish - 


kooea. 


A young man 


- warroro. 


Lobster 




An old man 


- binanugh. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly . 




An old woman 
A baby 


- gumba-gnmba 

- gimgal. 


Snake - 


tingalmo. 


A White man 


- wangar. 


The Blacks - 


bumma. 


Children 


- gungal. 


A Blackf ellow 


bumma. 


Head ,- 


- tokal. 


A Black woman - 


dalbo. 


Bye - 


■ meil. 


Nose - 




Ear - 


- njitkabuggir. 





WEARY 


BAY. 


2 




No. 110.— Wkauy Bay— continued. 




Mouth 


- unbrga. 


Boomerang - 


- wongai. 


Teeth 


- noman. 


Hill - 


- munjal. 


Hair of the head 


- 


Wood - 


- toko. 


Beard - 


- wallar. 


Stone - 


- kulgai. 


Thunder - 


- morban. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- karrara. 


Yes - 


- yho. 


Tongue 


- teall. 


No 


- karrir. 


Stomach 


- tepar. 






Breasts 


- bibi. 


I 


- ngio. 


Thigh- - 


- narir. 


You - 


- yoono. 


Foot - 


- tenna. 


Bark - 


- bital. 


Bone - 


- paggeboy. 


Good - 


- mintii. 


Blood - 


- 


Bad - 


- warrar. 


Skin - 


- youalban. 


Sweet - 


- talbo. 


Fat - 


- wondole. 


Pood - 


- mena. 


Bowels 


- towal. 


Hungry 


- taquey. 


Excrement - 


- dada. 


Thirsty 


- wawoli. 


War-spear - 


- kulka. 


Eat - 


- nocal. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


- warungo. 


Wommera or 


tekara 






throwing-stick 




Drink - 


- nocal. 


Shield 


- toppar, wainbil. 


Walk - 


- notori. 


Tomahawk - 


- tea, buba. 


See - 


- nichal. 


Canoe - 


- berongaboy. 


Sit - 


- bundy. 


Sun - 


- ungar. 


Yesterday - 


- yeeli. 


Moon - 


- kitar. 


To-day 


- neco. 


Star - 


- towar. 


To-morrow - 


- ungan. 


Light - 


- tingar. 


Where are the yrudowondo 


Dark - 


- woltour. 


Blacks? 


bumma ? 


Cold - 


- kiwai. 


I don't know 


- wontong. 


Heat - 


_ 






Day - 


. 


Plenty 


- kokora. 


Night - - 


- 


Big - 


■ teri. 


Fire - 


- watchil, kungin. 


Little - 


- buban. 


Water 


- banna or bauna. 


Dead - 


- woUai. 


Smoke 


- nalgo. 


By-and-by - 


- tooma. 


Ground 


- gobo. 


Come on 


- kuttai. 


Wind- 


- kooinar. 


Milk - 


- bibi. 


Rain - 


- kappar. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- kural. 


Ghosts 


n 


Wife - 


- munnar. 



395 



396 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 111.— AKOONKOON, PALMEE EIVER. 

By Bdwabd Palmbe, Esq. 

The following vocabulary and short account of the Mirkin 
tribe were forwarded to me by Mr. Edward Palmer. 

The country of this tribe, which extends from Palmerville 
to the junction of the Palmer and Mitchell, is stated to have 
been first occupied by the Whites in 1874, Mr. Palmer 
becoming personally acquainted with it in 1878. In 1884, 
the Mirkin tribe had not yet been " let in," as the phrase 
goes ; in other words, the Whites' were still at war with 
them, many having been shot down in retaliation for spear- 
ing horses and cattle. From whom the vocabulary which 
follows was obtained is not stated, but Mr. Palmer mentions 
a woman of the tribe being domesticated on his station, and 
it may have been from her. Of the few customs detailed 
but a small portion are of interest. Cannibalism and infan- 
ticide, it is stated, both prevail ; the tribe is divided into four 
classes in connection with marriage laws; some of the people 
have their bodies scarred; circumcision is not practised; two 
teeth are knocked out; fish is procured by spearing, and also 
by poisoning waterholes; and a. drink is said to be made 
from the Eucalyptus tetrodonta and water (as well as some 
other plants) for the cure of fever. This is a curious fact, if 
correct. 

As regards the vocabulary, it contains few of the features 
general in our languages. The equivalents of mother, spear, 
and you are, however, undoubtedly Australian in root. Fire 
and wood are expressed by one word, breasts and milk by 



AEOONKOON, PALMER RIVER. 397 

another ; and there are distinct terms for elder and younger 
brothers and elder and younger sisters, all of which are 
common features in the languages of this continent. 
Athurur = pelican is found on the Norman Eiver. 

In my long list of related tongues, of which, I am afraid, 
even the ethnologist will grow weary, many, nevertheless, 
present certain minor features of their own. As a rule, time 
has been wanting to draw attention to details of this sort, 
and the student has been left to discover them for himself. 
It may, however, be noticed here that in some of the voca- 
bularies the words generally comprise many syllables, in 
others but few; that in a third, r as an initial sound is 
common ; and in a fourth the ch is absent, and so on. In 
the vocabulary of the Mirkin, the peculiarity is an unusual 
prevalence of o and oo as initial sounds. In this as in the 
last vocabulary eat and drink have but one word to express 
them. 



398 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 111.— PALMER RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 


innar. 


Opoasum 


oolon. 


Tame dog - 




Wild dog - 


oota. 


Emu - 


oorooba. 


Black duck 


onoogi. 


Wood duck 




Pelican 


atharoo. 


Laughing jackass 




Native companion 


ingibbi. 


White cockatoo - 


enbogunby. 


Crow - 


atha. 


Swan - 




Egg - - - 


anthool. 


Track of a foot • 


amul. 


Pish - 


oyi. 


Lobster 




Crayfish - 


omothoo. 


Mosquito - 


ombolum. 


Fly - - - 


amin. 


Snake 


oloor. 


The Blacks - 




A Blackfellow - 


immi. 


A Black woman - 


aruutha. 


Nose - 


omo. 



Hand - 


- irre. 


2 Blacks - 


- immi impa. 


3 Blacks - 


immi aroolko 


One - 


appool. 


Two - 


impa. 


Three - 


aroolko. 


Four - 


abunji. 


Father 


atheem. 


Mother 


among. 


Sister-Elder 


thuppa. 


„ Younger 


ejeeja. 


Brother-Elder 


athil. 


Youngei 


amoko. 


A young man 


agannoong. 


An old man 


oolpa. 


An old woman 




A baby 


awillung. 


A White man 




Children 




Head - 


ambogo. 


Eye - 


immun. 


Ear - 


iunur. 



AKOONKOON, PALMER RIVER. 



399 





No. 111. — Palmek 'RiyEB.—continiied. 


Mouth 


- amitting. 


Boomerang - 


- mulkarra. 


Teeth - 


- ookool. 


Hill - 


- jakkaro. 


Hak of the head 


- aUnng. 


Wood - 


- oomar. 


Beard - 


- aworko. 


Stone - 


- oolkon. 


Thunder - 


- 


Camp - 


- ogue. 


Grass - 


- ookin. 










Yes - 


- yowo. 


Tongue 


- elpin. 


No - 


- anuncha. 


Stomach 


- oroom. 










I 


- inun. 


Breasts 


- onyong. 






Thigh - 


- amathling. 


You - 


- inoo. 


Foot - 


- aunil. 


Bark - 


- ooukil. 


Bone - 


- okko. 


Good - 


- oonge. 


Blood - - 


- onyel. 


Bad - 


- inthe. 


Skin - 


- atteen. 


Sweet - 


- inboo. 


Fat - - 


- ongne. 


Pood - 


- athenning. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- ange. 


Excrement - 


- oothun. 


Thirsty 


- ingky. 


War-spear - 


- ulka. 


Eat - 


- athathi. 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - - 


- enthul. 


Throwing-stick 


- ombone. 


Drink - 


- athathi. 


Shield 


- koolmurra. 


Walk - 


- aguUaki. 


Tomahawk - 


- egan. 


See - 


- tarti. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


_ 


Sun - 


- etha. 


Yesterday - 


- anunba. 


Moon - 


- thargan. 


Today 


- amilmean. 


Star - 


- ilbannoong. 


To-morrow - 


- oloong. 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Dark - - 


- ilboong. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- oloorgo. 


I don't know 




Heat - 


- atha. 










Plenty 


. 


Day - 


- ethuttaga. 






Night - 


- 


Big - 
Little - 


- ingam. 

- otohoo. 


Fire - 


- oomar. 










Dead - 


- oolbin. 


Water 


- ogno. 






Smoke 


- orkoon. 


By-and-by - 


- oloolbinunga 


Ground 


- ogooe. 


Come on 


- 


Wind- - 


- olboongol. 


Milk - 


- oyong. 


Rain - 


- ogno. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- inmanningam. 


Wife - - 


- 



400 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 112.— THE LYND RIVER. 

By W. 0. K. Hill, Esq., Goldfields Warden, Geokoetown. 

The following information concerning the Queeariburra 
tribe was forwarded to me by Mr. W. 0. K. Hill, who 
obtained it from Mr. F. C. Urquhart, Sub-inspector of 
Native Mounted Police. Burra, the termination of the 
tribal name, will be seen to be a very common one amongst 
the tribes which inhabit the country between the Burdekin 
and the sea. This tribe, it is said, roams over a large area, 
frequenting the ranges at the head of the Lynd in the 
summer or wet season, and the east coast in winter. But 
the imperfect acquaintance we have with tribes in this 
neighbourhood, and the conflicting accounts we receive of 
the boundaries of their territories, renders it an impossibility 
to map them with any accuracy. 

This portion of Queensland the Whites began to occupy 
in 1872, and in 1883 the Queeariburra tribe was estimated 
by Mr. Urquhart to consist of 800 women, 270 men, and a 
very few — say 100 — children. Assuming this estimate of 
the women to have been correct, and that the females of the 
tribe had remained unaltered since 1872, I should set down 
the Queeariburra population at the date of our occupation to 
have been 2,400 men, 800 women, and 1,600 children, or 
4,800 persons in all, which I consider to be a decidedly 
excessive figure. However this may be, Mr. Urquhart 
attributes the great falling off in numbers to the rifle and 
syphilitic diseases introduced by the Whites. From his 
account I gather further th« following facts. 

The Queeariburra, like all the tribes in this part of 
Queensland, go naked. They use both the boomerang and 
wommera, which, together with their clubs, are profusely 
painted a,nd carved. One of their principal articles of diet 
is the root of the lily. That they are cannibals my informant 
has had ocular demonstration. No marks of small-pox 
exist, but measles, contracted no doubt from us, have raged 
amongst them, and indeed between 1860 (and perhaps 
earlier) and 1883, many tribes in various portions of 



THE LYND RIVER. 



401 



Australia are known to have suffered severely from this 
disease. The following are names of individuals of the tribe : 
Men: Boango, Milgarday, and Jerubo. Women: Olono- 
thanga, Wyoola, and Thaloogi. The males, in exchange for 
their daughters and sisters, obtain as wives the girls of other 
tribes, some of whom are said to become mothers so early as 
eleven years of age. Their children, as in all other cases in 
Australia, belong to the tribe of the father. Bronchitis is 
said to be the disease most prevalent. This people ornament 
themselves with scars and knock out two front teeth, but 
neither circumcise nor pierce the septum of the nose. 
Neither pitcheree nor any other narcotic is known amongst 
them. Fish are taken with hooks, spears, and nets. 
Elaborate ceremonies are in use on the occasion of young 
males being accorded the privileges of men. The tribes 
whose lands bound those of the Queeariburra are the 
Morruburra, Ulagona, and Warrialgona. 

The attached vocabulary is a very imperfect one, and 
evidently hardly to be relied on. It will be noticed, however, 
by readers acquainted with the Eidley's Kamilaroi that the 
Queeariburra is the most northerly tribe, so far as known, by 
which Murri is used as the equivalent of the Blacks or a 
Blackfellow. 



No. 112.— LYND RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum ■ 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Crow 

Track of a foot 
Fly - - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackf ellow 
A Black woman 
One - 
Two - 
A young man 
An old man 

VOL. II. 



avarinowo. 


An old woman 


- ray-molinga. 


moUuUo. 


A baby 


- mooloo-mooloo 


podgoro. 


A White man 


- jorujaragee. 


goro. 


Teeth - 


- marra-marra. 


karaja. 


Tomahawk - 


- manyi-gogee. 


bichqu. 


Fire - 


- booandara. 


nyun-nyun. 
murri. 


Yes - 


- yanga (g soft). 


mall. 


No - 


- numbea. 


molinga. 


Hungry 


- koi-il-lana. 


nyana. 


Where are 


the yungoe murri ? 


noyuona. 


Blacks ? 




jolaja. 


I don't know 


- nyan-nyan. 


jolajengaray. 


Dead - 


- wongi. 



2C 



402 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 113.— GRANITE RANGE, CLOSE TO THE HEAD 
OF THE MITCHELL RIVER AND EAST OF THE 
HODGKINSON GOLDFIELDS. 

By H. M. Mowbray, Esq. 

This account of the tribe wMcli inliabits the granite range, 
close to the head of the Mitchell River, as well as the accom- 
panying vocabulary, I owe to the kindness of H. M. Mowbray, 
Esq., Goldfields Commissioner on the Hodgkinson diggings, 
whose residence in the locality dates from 1874, about six 
years back from the time I write. 

The name of the tribe is not known to my informant. 
He describes it as having been numerous, but now much 
reduced by its frequent encounters with the Native Police and 
the settlers, as well as by diseases introduced by the Whites. 
Individuals of this tribe live to be very old, and Mr. Mow- 
bray mentions one whose hair has grown quite white, and 
who is blind from age, and seems, as far as he can judge, to 
be 80 or perhaps 90 years of age. They wear no clothing of 
any sort, but when the nights are cold cover themselves with 
bark of the ti-tree, and sleep surrounded by little fires. But 
though they go naked, they adorn themselves with feathers 
in the hair, diamond-shaped pieces of crystallized quartz 
round the neck, and necklaces of cockle-shells. They also 
smear the skin with a mixture of grease and ruddle, especially 
when the March flies are troublesome, and with pipe-clay 
and white ashes when dancing the corroboree. The women 
have a variety of bags, made of grass, bark, or reeds, and the 
men a sort of bag-net, constructed without knots. They have 
also tomahawks of ground stone, with double cane handles ; 
spears, some of iron-tree and others of reeds or grass-tree, 
tipped with that wood ; also wooden swords between three 
and four feet in length; boomerangs which return when 
thrown ; and wommeras or throwing-sticks. Their weapons 
are sometimes elaborately carved, inlaid with shells, and 



GRANITE RANGE, HEAD OP MITCHELL RIVER. 403 

polished with wild fig-tree leaves. For knives they have, 
as usual, sharp pieces of quartz. Their food in great measure 
consists of yams, fruits, nuts, kangaroo, eggs, fish, &c. They 
cook on the coals, and also in ovens of a temporary nature, 
using heated stones, and covering them and the food with 
bark of the ti-tree, and afterwards with earth in the orthodox 
way. Boys and women are forbidden to eat certain sorts of 
food. After a death in the tribe, women must abstain from 
meat for several months, when the young men are specially 
enjoined not to make them presents of game. No marks 
of small-pox have been noticed. 

The pecuharity of this tribe — for most tribes have some 
peculiarity — is the extent to which they carry cannibalism. 
Mr. Mowbray informs me that he has found them roasting 
and eating their own children. Prior to the coming of the 
Whites, children were killed for the most trivial offences, 
such as for accidentally breaking a weapon as they trotted 
about the camp. Marriages are made either within or with- 
out the tribe, but not between near relatives. The men are 
allowed to marry at about twenty, and the females have 
husbands forced on them when mere children. Some of the 
men have as many as three wives, usually obtained in 
exchange for female relatives. The principal diseases are 
syphilitic, even the children having what is described as 
rottenness of the groin. These, there is no doubt, originated 
with the Whites. Fever also occurs, and is treated by bleed- 
ing the head. This tribe scar both sexes on the chest and 
stomach. They do not circumcise. When the males are 
made young men — which occurs at about twenty years of 
age — the right upper tooth is knocked out, the septum of the 
nose is pierced, and a bit of reed worn through it. The usual 
superstition about rain-making exists, for perhaps every tribe 
has a conjuror, one of whose accomplishments is making rain 
by incantation. 

Rude drawings of men, kangaroo, moons, and other 
things are executed with red ochre, but there are no drawings 
of women. 

2 C 2 



404 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



Some of tlie dead are buried, and others eaten, and their 
bones wrapped in ti-tree bark, and tied up with, twine. Over 
these they often sing in a mournful manner, weeping and 
fasting. To denote mourning the women wear twine, wound 
over one shoulder and under the other. Their wars generally 
originate in thefts of females, the assailants sneaking on their 
foes and spearing them whilst asleep. Eelatives kiss each 
other after a long absence. 

It is noticeable that in the Additional Words we have 
word wappoon signifying lagoon, and that Wappoon is the 
native name of the River Loddon in Victoria. "To dive" 
in the Additional Words is rendered molla, which, in the 
Bangerang language, means water. 

This language is evidently near akin to, but not identical 
with, that at the head of the Walsh River. One or two 
words, amongst others the equivalent of man, which is a 
most important word for establishing the affinity or otherwise 
of tribes, show that this language is also related to that of 
the Endeavour River. The negative kurree appears also 
with little change on the Diamantina and elsewhere. 



No. 113. — ^Additional Words. 



Hard - 


- dundee. 


Carpet snake 


- kunyaka. 


Soft - 


- kimma. 


Lagoon 


- wappoon. 


Sore - 


- patchy. 


Shade - 


- wapoor. 


Close - 


- burry. 


Kiss - 


- poimpee. 


Unole - 


- kuUgna. 


Cry - 


- paltoonee. 


Grandmother 


- kununee 


Laugh - 


- munka. 




(ngummee ?). 


C^mb- 


- wantiudy. 


Grandfather 


- ngutchee. 


Ti-tree bark 


- wukka. 


Cousin 


- warree. 


Dilly-bag - 


- wanohoo. 


Wild geese - 


- wooppa. 


Horse - 


- diarree. 


Stand up - 


- tanninnee. 


Tail - 


- pitchee. 


Native hut - 


■ ki-yimba. 


Louse - 


- kallee. 


Corroboree - 


- ooloomoonka. 


Club - 


- doori. 


Fight - 


- koolee. 


Wooden sword 


- wucki. 


Oven - 


- koorma. 


Fish spear - 


- yirrimba. 


Bread - 


- woolta. 


Sick - 


- kucka. 


Ring-tailed 


pittoon. 


White - 


^ keroo. 


opossum 




Black - 


- tarkoo. 



GRANITE EANGE, HEAD OF MITCHELL RIVER. 405 



No. 113. — Additional Words — continued. 



Roan - 
Urine - 
Dig - 
Cover up - 
Take it up - 
Throat 
Crooked 
Blend - 

Running stream ■ 
River - 
Plain - 
Flat country 
Rainbow 
Dust - 



Understand (see 
Ear) 
Stupid 
Make a fire - 
Honey 
Bees' nest - 
Small bee - 
Large bee - 
Bees' wax - 



tiintun. 

kuppee. 

puokelmi. 

nuntelmi. 

wanty-chalmi. 

mannoo. 

rurrunjerree. 

mee-i moppun. 

tooan. 

warrippa. 

wallingar. 

boUo. 

pampo. 

tappoo. 

jerpo. 

binna. 

binna pooyan. 

corny watchoo. 

dilka. 

calimpa, 

wurran. 

tuppoo. 

koopun doori. 



Cypress pine 
Swim - 
Dive - 
Scrub turkey 
Mourning twine 

worn by women 
Bark wrapped 

round the bones 

of the dead 
Vessel to dip 

water 
Grass-tree stick 

for making fire 

by friction 
Stinging-tree 
Sting or burn 
Morning 
Evening 
Crush - 
Sweat - 
Ironbark-tree 
Box-tree 

Ironwood-tree - 
Smell (see Sweet) 



kulpur-woor. 

yungoomy. 

woUa. 

dooau. 

murrunkee. 

wuloan. 



tupa-tupa. 
burn. 



millee. 

watcheeohee. 

nurkuppa. 

eli. 

tootahni. 

jilloo. 

roorikan. 

derree. 

wukkoor. 

jilla. 



Food. 



Large yam which tastes like quinine 

when cooked 
Fig-tree, with figs on stem - 

Small fig-tree 

Two kinds of lily roots growing in 

fresh-water lagoons 
Yam like arrowroot - - - - 
Yam tasting like tobacco - 
Yam plentiful in wet seasons and 

purgative 
Nuts crushed and made into bread - 

Names of Men. 
Kinyoo. 
Hogabia, 
Tallo. 
Imbermo. 
Waggerinya. 
Derkoo. 
Wucka. 



hooki. 

ngooli. 

chattamall. 

narroobukkan and tellchur, 

koonjingna, 

poondi. 

pullcha. 

wurrumbil. 

Names of Women. 
CheraboUoo. 
Turrauttaka. 
Yurmunday. 
Porprnda. 
Tattaburry. 
Pankurmilmutchy. 
Wooraptchin. 



406 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 113.— GRANITE RANGE, HEAD OF MITCHELL RIVEE. 



By H. M. Mowbbat, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- rninya. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- yowwa. 


2 Blacks - 


- pumma mumurra 


Tame dog - 


- kia. 


3 Blacks - 


- pumma kartu. 


Wild dog - 


- 






Emu - 


- panyan. 


One - 


- nupun. 


Black duck - 


- nilli-nilli. 


Two - 


- mumurra. 


Wood duck- 


- 


Three - 


■ kartu. 


Pelican 


- tilture. 


Four - 


- wappilly. 


Laughing jackass wakooka. 


Father 


- nunchun. 


Native companion -worrumbul. 
White cockatoo - ki-eecha. 


Mother 


- amoo. 


Crow - 


- watcha. 


Sister-Elder 


- pappa. 


Swan - 


- 


„ Younger 


- pappa. 


Egg - - 


- derinya. 


Brother-Elder 


- yuppa. 


Track of a foot 


- booree. 










„ Younger yuppa. 


Fish - 


- kooyu. 






Lobster 


. 


A young man 


- jirrai. 


Crayfish 


- mucheecan. 


An old man 


- binga. 


Mosquito - 


- puncha. 


An old woman 


- borra. 


Fly - ■ - 


- burra-burra. 


A baby 


- jampeer. 


Snake - 


- yarram. 


A White man 


- beeroo-beeroo. 


The Blacks - 


- pumma. 


Children - 




A Blackfellow 


- pumma. 






A Black woman kunjee ; (middle 


Head - 


- dungoo. 


(young) 


aged) talpo. 


Eye - 


- mee-i. 


Nose - 


- koowoo. 


Ear - 


- binna. 



GRANITE RANGE, HEAD OF MITCHELL RIVER. 



407 



No. 113.— 


jRANTTE Range, He ad oe Mitchell River — continued. 


Mouth 


- jowa or jiwa. 


Boomerang - 


- wangee. 


Teeth - 


- 


Hill - 


- yilimbo. 


Hair of the head- moonka. 


Wood- 


- toko. 


Beard - 


- walla. 


Stone - 


- chunker. 


Thunder - 


- 






Grass - 


- bookan. 


Gamp - 


- yampa. 


Tongue 


- nappil. 


Yes - 


- yae. 


Stomach 


- juppa. 


No - 


- kurree. 


Breasts 


- pippee. 


I 


- niyoo. 


Thigh - 


- tatta. 


You - 


- yunto. 


Foot - 


- jinna. 


Bark - 


- woolunga. 


Bone - 


- durree. 


Good - 


- minnee. 


Blood - 


- kerkun. 


Bad - 


- nooyan. 


Skin - - 


- yulpan. 


Sweet - 


- minnee. 


Fat - 


- toopun. 


Food - 


_ 


Bowels 


- burroo. 


Hungry 


- wonki. 


Excrement - 


- tatta. 






War-spear - 


- kulka. 


Thirsty 


- wawoo. 






Eat - 


- nookununee. 


Reed-spear - 


- pappoor. 






Wommera or 


takowanchaleni, 


Sleep - 


- wooni. 


throwing-stick 


murkoo. 


Drink - 


- wookummee. 


Shield- - 


- kunjurin. 


Walk- 


- dunganee. 


Tomahawk - 


- wyambi. 


See - 


- nacheechee. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit - 


- poondandee. 


Sun - 


- unga. 


Yesterday - 


- yeUa jerpojerpa. 


Moon - 


- reetchur. 


To-day 


- nike. 


Star - 


- kooroopitche. 


To-morrow - 


- jerpojerpa. 


Light - 


- ulnoor. 


Where are 


the werjimpapumma? 


Dark - 


- peetohur. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- wakuree. 


I don't know 


- wanchum karilla. 


Heat - 


- ulpin. 






Day - 


- imgaranga. 


Plenty 


- wapilly. 


Night - - 


- peetchur. 


Big - - 


- muchan. 


Fire - 


- humee or oomj. 


Little - 


- poopi. 


Water 


- patna. 


Dead - 


- oolin. 


Smoke 


- koopoo. 


By-and-by - 


- tumma. 


Ground 


- borra. 


Come on 


- kutta. 


Wind- 


- koomge. 


Milk - 


- parumba. 


Rain - 


- patna. 


Eaglehawk - 


- yellingar. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- nunda. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- munya. 



408 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 114.— NEAE THE HEAD OF THE WALSH 
RIVER. 

By John Athbrton, Esq. 

The following particulars concerning a tribe located near the 
head of the Walsh River, in the Cook District of Queens- 
land, as also the attached vocabulary, which resembles a 
good deal that of the Gilbert, I owe to the kindness of Mr. 
John Atherton. 

The country of this tribe, Mr. Atherton informs me, was 
occupied as a squatting station in 1876, and the attacks 
made by the Blacks on the stock led to a considerable 
slaughter of the original possessors of the soil. This tribe 
wear no clothes. Some amongst them seem to have reached 
the age of 70 or 80 years. They have small bags made of 
cane, and others of strong grass. Their tomahawks are 
ground, and have handles of cane wrapped round them, and 
secured in the usual way. The boomerang is not in use, 
but long wooden swords, wommeras, and shields are, and 
are nicely painted. For cutting, they use pieces of quartz. 
Kangaroo are speared, and taken in pits. When pushed for 
food, the people resort to cannibalism. Polygamy is in 
vogue, and marriages occur both within and without the 
tribe. The females have children, it is thought, as early as 
twelve years of age. Infanticide has always been practised 
in the tribe. They scar the skin, and pierce the septum of 
the nose. Their dead are sometimes burnt, and sometimes 



NEAR THE HEAD OF THE WALSH RIVER. 409 

buried; but it is common in this and in several other tribes 
on the Mitchell and Palmer to carry about the bones of the 
dead for some months, wrapped up in ti-tree bark. • This 
people sometimes kiss when saluting, and make rude 
paintings, whether on sheets of bark or on slabs of stone 
Mr. Atherton does not say. 



410 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 114.— NEAR THE HEAD OP THE WALSH RIVER. 



By John Atheeton, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


yuree. 


Hand - 


- muUa. 


Opossum - 


kuthera. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 




3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 


oundoo. 


One - 


- werrba. 


Emu - 


cubbaree. 






Black duck - 


coobaree. 


Two - 


- boolerry. 


Wood duck - 




Three - 


- koorberra. 


Pelican 


kuuumbirra. 


Four - 


- moorka. 


Laughing j aokass 


karooburra. 


Father 


- kiana. 


Native companion 


kooloora. 


Mother 


- yabama. 


White cockatoo ■ 


kiambuUa. 


Sister-Elder 


- yabooroo. 


Crow - - - 
Swan - - - 


wut-thagun. 


„ Younger 


- ngiey. 


Egg - • - 


goo-gooje. 


Brother-Elder 


- moogina. 


Track of a foot - 


dinna. 


„ Young( 


3r burrgnun. 


Fish - 


kooyoo. 


A young man 


- murrgurra 


Lobster 




An old man 


- birmga. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- tumby. 


Mosquito - 
Ely - 


thallow (?). 
moonool. 


A baby 


- ngunga. 


Snake 


thumble. 


A White man 


- migooloo. 


The Blacks - 


moorka. 


Children - 


- 


A Blaokfellow - 


bamma. 


Head - 


- kut-thul. 


A Black woman - 


wurrgnoo. 


Eye - 


- diUy. 


Nose - - - 


kootha. 


Bar - 


- munga. 



NEAR THE HEAD OF THE WALSH RIVER. 



411 



No. 114. — Near the Head of the Walsh Rivee — continued. 



Mouth - 


- thowa. 


Boomerang - 


- wungul. 


Teeth - 


- leera. 


Hill - 


burry. 


Hair of the heac 


- moora. 


Wood - 


thoola. 


Beard - 


- thulba. 


Stone - 


burry. 


Thunder 


- cheekooroo. 






Grass - 
Tongue 
Stomach 


- yakoo. 

- thuUung. 

- boongirr. 


Camp - 

Yes - 
No - 


yumbunga. 

yo-i. 

kurra. 


Breasts 


- ngammoon. 


I 


■ ngia, ngoongool. 


Thigh - 


- yuTigurra. 


You - 


inda. 


Foot - 


- dinna. 


Bark - 


bulgun. 


Bone - 


- balbun. 


Good - 


- thurreburra. 


Blood - 


- kooma. 


Bad - 


wurgoo. 


Skin - - 


- thilly. 


Sweet - 


- bunga. 


Fat - 


- thummy. 


Food - 




Bowels 


- thoothoor. 


Hungry 


kooyee. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Thirsty 


oora. 


War-spear - 


- kulka. 


Eat - 


oothalgoo. 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


ooka. 


Wommera or 


oomboon. 


Drink - 


oothalgo (same 


throwing-stick 






as to eat). 


Shield- - 


- pickin. 


Walk - 


yanuinga. 


Tomahawk - 


- yappa. 


See - 


nguka. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sit 


nginna. 


Sun - 


- kurry. 


Yesterday - 


- oorrgooloo. 


Moon - 


- buUauoo. 


To-day 


- ngilla. 


Star - 


- boorrgunga. 


To-morrow - 


- goondamoo. 


Light - 


- ngunda. 


Where are the 


wia bamma ? 


Dark - 


■ goonda. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- kittoor. 


I don't know 


- kurra ngia 


Heat - 


- bangiue. 




ngugga. 


Day - 


- ngilla. 


Plenty 


- moorga. 


Night - 


- goondunga. 


Big - - 


■ moongarroo. 


Fire ■ 


- birree. 


Little - 


■ wobbooroo. 


Water - 


- komoo, kamoo. 


Dead - 


oolunga. 


Smoke - 


- thooka, chooka. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- nurmy. 


Come on 


nguUy ytmnagoo 


Wind - 


- yookun. 


Milk - 


ngammoon. 


Rain - 


komoo. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - . 


- goen. 


Wild turkey 


goonoomuUy. 


Ghosts 


goen. 


Wife 


boor-bai-ey. 



412 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 115. — COUNTRY ABOUT THORNBOROUGH 
DIGGINGS, AND NEAR THE HEAD OP 
THE MITCHELL. 

By 0. W. HoDGKiNSON, Esq., Goldfields Warden. 

The following vocabulary, kindly forwarded to me by Mr, 
0. W. Hodgkinson, has several points of interest. It 
contains the sounds of the letters v, g, and ch; its equivalent 
for Blackfellow is found in the neighbourhood of Peake 
Downs, and those oi foot, milk, war-spear, no, and m/e, but 
little altered, in various parts of the Australian continent. 



No. 115.— COUNTRY ABOUT THORNBOROUGH DIGGINGS, ETC. 
By 0. W. Hodgkinson, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- nombo-voramook. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- yowa. 


2 Blacks - 


. 


Tame dog - 


- kaya. 


3 Blacks - 


_ 


Wild dog - 


- the same. 


One - 


- noobttn. 


Emu - 


- punjun. 


Two - 


- churnbooloo. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck- 


- nyelli-nyelli. 


Three - 


- kootohoo. 


Pelican 


- cherra. 


Four - 


- chungortoha 


Laughing jackass wako-ga. 


Father 


- ungttn. 


Native companion koorchal. 


Mother : 


- namo. 


White cockatoo 


- keama. 


Sister-Elder 


- kummega. 


Crow 


- wichtlka. 


,, Younger 


- parbiirra. 


Swan 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- yabbttr. 


Egg 

Track of a foot 


- unga. 

- chlnna. 


„ Younger yabooga. 


Fish - - 


- kumma. 


A young man 


- wooaitom 


Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


- cheewagga. 

- tingee. 


An old man 
An old woman 


pamgoo. 

- peengtigS. 

- kumba. 


Fly - 


- kumma. 


A baby 


- poorpa. 


Snake - 


- kope. 


A White man 


- muUoo (?). 


The Blacks - 


- natchin 


Children 


- namwalka. 


A Blackfellow 


- pamma. 


Head - 


- tungo. 


A Black woman 


- moolimooli. 


Eye - 


- mirra. 


Nose - 


- wimo. 


Ear - 


- pinna. 



COUNTRY ABOUT THORNBOROUGH DIGGINGS. 413 



No. 115.— Con 


NTBT ABOUT Thobnborofgh Digoinos, 1.10.— Continued 


Mouth 


- chunna. 


Boomerang - 


- wongiil. 


Teeth - 


- tirra. 


Hill - 


- yoombS. 


Hair of the head mOnga. 1 


Wood (or tree) 


- chookoo. 


Beard - 


- ilnga. 


Stone - 


- koorchi. 


Thunder - 


- yerrarrg. 


Camp - 


- yambra. 


Grass - 


- niimba. 


Yes - 


- yoo-ai. 


Tongue 


- nyabbil. 


No - 


- kurri. 


Stomach 


- choorpoo. 






Breasts 


- toomoo. 


I 


- najya. 


Thigh 


- peepa. 


You - 


- yilndoo. 


Foot - 


- chmna. 


Bark - 


- yoorlbiln, 


Bone - 


- yelka. 




oongfll. 


Blood - 


- kowli. 


Good - - 


- minni. 


Skin - 


- purra. 


Bad - - 


- warra. 


Fat - 


- koormoo. 


Sweet - 


- karka, 


Bowels 


- kukktoi. 




purra, wurri. 


Excrement - 


- tatchS. 


Food - 


- mai-I. 


War-spear - 


- kulka. 


Hungry 


- willingiirra. 


Reed-spear - 


- ntimbra. 


Thirsty 


- Wowoolim. 


Wommera - 


- poomum. 


Eat - 


- durngd. 


Shield 


- koolmiirri. 


Sleep - 


- woomba. 


Tomahawk - 


- kongul. 


Drink - 


- cherbSe. 


Canoe 


- 


Walk - 


- yuuda, toornga 


Sun - 


- woongga. 


See - 


- natchiUa. 


Moon - 


- geetcha. 


Sit - 


- tatcha. 


Star - 


- moorta. 


Yesterday - 


- naatago. 


Light - 


- tiUngrri. 


To-day 


- kneeko. 


Dark - 


- peechurtm. 


To-morrow - 


- woomgun. 


Cold - - 


- wokkfirri. 


Where are the yurriinga 


Heat - 


- woongalli. 


Blacks? 


natchin ? 


Day - 


- oongtln, 


I don't know 


- cherkundi. 




woongooin. 


Plenty 


- chungori. 


Night 


- peechurtm. 


Big - 


- poolmaburra. 


Fire - 


- woondoo. 


Little - 


- poopaiaba. 


Water 


- kokS. 


Dead - 


- ola. 


Smoke 


- kopo. 


By-and-by 


- 


Ground 


- poorra. 


Come on - 


- karta. 


Wind- 


- quingal. 


Milk - 


- pepi. 


Rain - 


- narrl. 


Eaglehawk 


- yamgtil. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- tewan. 


Ghosts 




Wife - - 


- munyurre. 



414 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 116.— GEAOTTE EANGE, AT THE HEAD OF 
THE WALSH EIVBE. 

By R. R. Davidson, Esq. 

This vocabulary differs but little from No. 113. The equiva- 
lents of Blackfellow show that the two vocabularies belong 
to separate tribes. The equivalent of canoe is imuch the 
same as in the Endeavour Eiver language. 



No. 116.— GRANITE RANGE, HEAD OP WALSH RIVER. 
By R. R. Davidson, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


chunebudno. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossum 




2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


gya- 


. 3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 












One - 


nuboon. 


Emu - 


koorangee. 






Black duck - 




Two - 


mummera. 


Wood duck- 




Three - 


koortoo. 


Pelican 




Four - 


tangoor. 


Laughing jackass 


warcooga. 


Father 




Native companior 


I 


Mother 




White cockatoo - 






Crow - 




Sister-Elder 




Swan - 




„ Younger 




Egg - - - 




Brother-Elder 




Track of a foot - 




„ Youngei 




Fish - 


kooyoo. 






Lobster 




A young man 




Crayfish 




An old man 




Mosquito - 


boonger or bun- 


An old woman 






ger. 


A baby 




Fly - - - 


burra-burra. 


A White man 




Snake - 




Children - 




The Blacks - 








A Blackfellow - 


girreh. 


Head - 


tungoo. 


A Black woman - 


talpoo. 


Eye - 


mirriaworker 


Nose - 


go. 


Ear - 


bidna. 



GRANITE RANGE, HEAD OF "WALSH RIVER. 



415 



No. 116. — Geanite Range, head of Walsh Rivek — continued. 



Mouth 




Boomerang - 


- wungie. 


Teeth - 


dirra. 


HUl - 




Hair of the head 


moongur. 


Wood - 


- batohu. 


Beard - 








Thunder - 


woorumpar- 


Stone - 


- junga. 




bidna. 


Camp - 


- 


Grass - 


marpoor, bookan. 


Yes - 


- 


Tongue 


nabbie. 


No - 




Stomach 




I 




Breasts 




You - 




Thigh - 




Bark - 




Foot - 


chidner. 










Good - 


- minnie. 


Bone - 








Blood - 


- kerkoon. 


Bad - 


- boyoon. 


Skin - - 




Sweet - 


- 


Fat - 




Food - 


- 


Bowels 




Hungry 




Excrement - 




Thirsty 


- 


War-spear ■ 




Eat - 


- junkie. 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


- woodna. 


Wommera or 




Drink - 




thro wing-stick 




Walk - 


. 


Shield - 


- 


See - 




Tomahawk - 




Sit 




Canoe - 


- murregan. 






Sun - 


- woogna. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


- 


To-day 




Star - 


. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 




Where are 


the 


Dark - 




Blacks? 




Cold - 




I don't know 




Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


- wabulli. 


Day - 




Big - 




Night - 
Fire - 




Little - 


- poopuUangan 


" 


Dead - 


- woodna. 


Water 


- bunna. 






Smoke 




By-and-by - 




Ground 


. 


Come on 


- 


Wind - ■ - 


_ 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God . 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- bero. 


Wife - 





416 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 116. — Additional Words. 



Heel - 


chugar. 


Talking 


- yalle kunaker 


Sole of foot - 


- doombur. 


To sing 


- koko. 


Toe - 


- karkoo. 


Fowl - 


- moorka. 


Throat 


ooroongooden. 


Kiss - 


- tapoombi. 

- kulka. 


Wings (see hand) 


- murra. 


Hill - 


Ants - 
Girl - 


jinga-jinga. 
murker. 


Knife - 


- mukkii. 


Hailstone - 


karparangoor. 


Moustache - 


- nurume. 


Leaf - 


pera. 


Finger-nails 


- millgroo. 


River - 


jaloon. 


Naked 


- gittar. 


To speak - 


kulker. 


To cry 


- bunbuddi. 


No. 117.— HKAT) OF GILBERT RIVER. 




By Edward Cure, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


uree. 


Hand - 


mulla. 


Opossum 


kuttara. 


2 Blacks - 


noong gooi. 


Tame dog - 


uUimboo. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 
Emu - 


kubberi. 


One - 


noong. 


Black duck - 


coobbari. 


Two - 


bnllaroo. 


Wood duck- 




Three - 




Pelican 


kunnul. 


Four - 




Laughing jackass poolemba. 


Father 


kaia. 


Native companion 




Mother 


yebunneboo. 


White cockatoo - 








Crow - 


waduggan. 


Sister-Elder 


purrinul. 


Swan - 




,, Younger 




Egg - - - 


woobnurra. 


Brother-Elder - 


koornigul. 


Track of a foot ■ 


yelga. 


„ Younger 




Fish - 


kooyoo. 


A young man 


kulyina. 


Lobster 




An old man 




Crayfish 




An old woman 




Mosquito - 
Fly - 


kooingarr. 


A baby 


baloona. 


Snake - 


d'thumbul. 


A White man 




The Blacks ■ 


gooi. 


Children 




A Blackf ellow - 




Head - 




A Black woman - 


warrungoo. 


Eye - 


diUi. 


Nose - 


kooda. 


Ear - 


munga. 



HEAD OP GILBERT RIVER. 



417 



No. 117. — Head of Gilbebt RrrEB.— continued. 



Mouth 


d'thulli. 


Boomerang - 


Teeth - 


- kira. 


Hill - 


Hair of the head 


■ koonaroo. 


Wood - - - kaibool 


Beard - 


d'thulba. 


Stone - - - purri. 


Thunder - 
Grass - 


mooroonggooloo. 
yagoo. 


Camp - - - yamba. 
Yes - 


Tongue 


d'thuUi. 


No - - - 


Stomach 




I - - 

You - 

Bark - - - kooka. 


Breasts 
Thigh - 
Foot - 


turra. 
tinna. 


Bone - 


- moogoo. 


Good - 


Blood - 


- kineba. 


Bad - 


Skin - - 


thingoo. 


Sweet- - - koorja. 


Fat - 




Pood - 


Bowels 




Hungry 


Excrement - 




Thirsty 


War-spear - 


- bungi. 


Eat - 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


Wommera or 




Drink - 


throwLQg-stick 




Walk - 


Shield 

Tomahawk - 
Canoe - 
Sun - 
Moon ■ 


- koobnarri. 

- kurri. 

- buUanoo. 


See - 

Sit - - - 

Yesterday - 

To-day 


Star - 


- ugilla. 


To-morrow - 


Light - 


- kurbella. 


Where are the 


Dark - 


- koonda. 


Blacks ? 


Cold - 


- kiddoo. 


I don't know 


Heat - 


- 


Plenty 


Day ■ 


- 


Big - 


Night ■ - 


- 


Little - 


Fire - 


- kaibool. 


Dead - 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind- - 
Rain - 


- kummoo. 

- d'thunboobaroo. 

- uanni. 

- gowri. 

- kummoo. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milt - 
Baglehawk - 


God - - 


. 


Wild turkey 


Ghosts 




Wife - 


VOL. n. 


i 


D 



418 , THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 118.— HINOHINBROOK ISLAND AND THE 
MAINLAND ADJACENT. 

By M. Aemstrong, Esq., Inspector of Police, and John Mukrat, Esq, 

Of the tribe which occupies Hinchinbrook Island and the 
mainland adjacent I have received two fragmentary accounts. 
One is from Mr. M. Armstrong, Inspector of Police, who 
informs me that the country of the tribe was first occupied by 
the Whites in 1863 or thereabouts. The tribe wore no clothes 
in their original state, but those who are now (in 1880) allowed 
to come to Cardwell do so. They use for ornaments neck- 
laces made of red berries, and the men smear the person 
with grease, red ochre, and pipe-clay when preparing to fight. 
They have bags made of cane, tomahawks ground smooth, 
and boomerangs which return when thrown. Their spears 
are carved, which is unusual, and thrown with the wommera 
or throwing-stick. Cannibalism used to be practised 
amongst them, and they have been known to eat White 
men. They scar the skin, the males on the back, and the 
females on the shoulders and arms. Their canoes are of 
bark, sewn and bound with cane and fibres of bark. Fish is 
caught with nets and with hooks made of bone. The people 
of the tribe signalize each other by columns of smoke sent 
up through hollow logs. 

My other correspondent,, Mr. John Murray, informs me 
that the tribe is divided into four classes like that of Wide 
Bay, which he contrasts in this way: — 

Wide Bat Classes. Hinchinbrook Island Classes. 
Trawyne. Koorkeela. 

Buudu. KookooroQ. 

Barrang. Woongo. 

Balgoin. Wooitoheroo. 



HmCHINBROOK ISLAND, ETC. 



419 



These names of tlie Hinchinbrook classes have much in 
common with those of Port Mackay. Mai = Blackfellom 
is also found on the Lynd. 

The following Vocabulary and Additional Words were 
contributed by Mr. Murray : — 





Additional Woeds. 




Ship- 


- woorbi. 


Wooden sword 


- bakkaroo. 


Bucket 


- noopa. 


Necklace - 


- angyerri. 


Bag - - 


- kakkirra. 


Horse 


- thiarri. 


Pigeon - 


- woorgoodjo. 


Bullock 


- toomoorberoo 


Scrub turkey 


- koorgerri. 


Blanket, also 


kumbi. 


Club - 


• koolungoo. 


clothes 





Z D 2 



420 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 118.— HINCHINBROOK ISLAND. 



By John Murray, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


burgun. 


Hand - 


- munndai. 


Opossum 


meetin. 


2 Blacks - 


- yekkamal. 


Tame dog - 


wooyou. 


3 Blacks - 


- kurrboo mal. 


Wild dog - 








Emu - 


koondooloo. 


One - 


- yoongool. 


Black duck - 


cooberie. 


Two - 


- yekka. 


Wood duck - 




Three - 


- kurrboo. 


Pelican 


wookoolooloo. 


Four - 


- tukkin. 


Laughing jackass 


koorallan. 


Father 


- tonga. 


Native companion 


terroi. 






White cockatoo 


kiambala. 


Mother 


- yappo. 


Crow - 


wagun. 


Sister-Elder 


- tunde. 


Swan - 


woolboo. 


„ Younger 


- 


Egg - 


bamboo. 


Brother-Elder 


- telamboo. 


Track of a foot 


pinghun. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


- taboo. 


A young man 


- kooki. 


Lobster 


- yeekerra. 


An old man 


- keeline. 


Crayfish 


- mouwa. 


An old woman 


- weeke-weeke 


Mosquito - 


- quoy-quoy. 






Ply . . 


- mabuU. 


A baby 


- yeppe. 


Snake 


- winjai. 


A White man 


- kooin. 


The Blacks - 


- mal. 


Children - 


- yeppe-yeppe. 


A Blackfellow 


- mal. 


Head - 


- booyoo. 


A Black woman 


- tumpe-tumpe. 


Eye - 


- kuyka. 


Nose - 


- wooroo. 


Ear - 


- beena. 



HINCHINBROOK ISLAND, ETC. 



421 



No. 118. — HiNCHiNBKOOK ISLAND — Continued. 



Mouth 


- unda. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- yeera. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- karran. 


Wood - 


- wambooy. 


Beard - 


- tuUba. 


Stone - 


- barrie. 


Thunder - 


- tchickaroo. 


Camp - 


- meetcha. 


Grass - 


- bunboo. 


Yes - 


- nghee. 


Tongue 


- talline. 


No ■ 


- mya. 


Stomach 


- kooUto. 


I 


- ipa. 


Breasts 


- ngamoon. 


You - 


- eenda. 


Thigh 


- wucka. 


Bark - 


- kooka. 


Foot - 
Bone ■ 
Blood - 
Skin - - 
Fat - 


- pinguin. 

- toolkill. 

- koorai. 

- yoonga. 

- tumme. 


Good - 
Bad - 

Sweet - 
Food - 


- muUee. 

- weakee. 

- toongoo. 

- mootcha. 


Bowels 


- woomba. 


Hungry 


• umeree. 


Excrement - 


- goonang. 


Thirsty 


- coorungooi. 


War-apear - 


- kulgie. 


Eat - 


- eenda mootcha 


B«ed-spear - 


- tohip-pLa-kulgie. 




(you eat). 


Wommera or 


yoolmun. 


Sleep - 


- boongai. 


throwingstiok 




Drink - 


- yungna or 


Shield- - 


- peekinn. 




tunghna. 


Tomahawk - 


- kawearie. 


Walk - 


- woongha. 


Canoe - 


- woolgo. 


See 


- oonda. 


Sun - 


- weeyee. 


Sit - 


- tcheega. 


Moon - 


■ nillghun. 


Yesterday - 


- kulmarra. 


Star - 


- yeargilingera. 


To-day 


- cunyou. 


Light ■ 


- yungarie. 


To-morrow - 


- tetillgo. 


Dark - 


- nghoona. 


Where are 


the wingia mal ? 


Cold - - 


- kibool. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- kelanghie. 


I don't know 


- beei wingia. 


Day - 


- 


Plenty 


- duckin. 


Night - 


- woonanghu. 


Big - - 


- woorbie. 


Fire - 


- wambooi. 


Little - 


- toMppin. 


Water 


- kummoo. 


Dead - 


- wooli. 


Smoke 


- boonoong. 


By-and-by - 


- maumoo. 


Ground 


- kiee. 


Come on 


- kaau. 


Wind- 


- ghimboolanie. 


Milk - 


- 


Eain ■ 


- yookun. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


- 



422 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 119.— HERBERT RIVER. 



By William S. Stephen, Esq. 



In this vocabulary war-spear 
a very common root for strike, 
wood. 



seems to be derived from booma or hoomga, 
There is but one word to express^™ and 



Kangaroo - 


koobla. 


Opossum 


mitten. 


Tame dog - 


whoyyer. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 




Black duck - 


kumboonoo. 


Wood duck - 




Pelican 




Laughing jackass 


kowgurra. 


Native companion 




White cockatoo - 




Crow - 


wawgun. 


Swan - - - 




Egg - - - 


bumboo. 


Track of a foot - 


toobna. 


Fish - 


kooia. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


koommo. 


Ply - 


marbul. 


Snake - - - 


wingee. 


The Blacks - 




A Blackfellow - 


koonga. 


A Black woman - 




Nose - 


wooroo. 



Hand - 


- mundi. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


- yunegul. 


Two - 


- yugga. 


Three - 


- karrbo. 


Pour - 




Pather 


■ tunga. 


Mother 


- yabboo. 


Sister-Elder 


- tundi. 


,, Younger 




Brother-Elder 


- googoon. 


„ Young 


er 


A young man 




An old man- 


- kittun. 


An old woman 




A baby 


- wuUomorgo 


A White man 




Children 




Head ■ 


- bulgow. 


Eye - 


- mill. 


Ear - 


- binna. 



HERBERT RIVER. 



423 





No. 119.— Heebekt River — cmttinued. 


Mouth- 


■ uuda. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- era. 


Hill - - 


. 


Hair of the head 


- chingo. 


Wood - 


- mmgo. 


Beard - 


- 


Stone - 


- barrie. 


Thunder - 


- koondoono. 


Camp - 


. 


Grass - 


- boogun. 


Yes - 




Tongue 


- tallan. 




Stomach 


- woomba. 


No 


- 


Breasts - ■ 


- ummoon. 


I- - - 


- 


Thigh - 


- wugga. 


You - 


- 


Foot - 


- biugum. 


Bark - 


- 


Bone - 


- toogil. 


Good - 


_ 


Blood - 


- kree. 










Bad - 


_ 


Skin - 


- ynnga. 






Fat - 


- gearee. 


Sweet - 


- 


Bowels 




Pood - 


- mootarnee. 


Excrement - 


- 


Hungry 


- tungarnee. 


War-spear - 


- boomabunni. 


Thirsty 


- 


Reed-spear - 




Eat - 


. 


Wommera or 




Sleep - 


- wittel. 


throwing-stick 




Drink - 


_ 


Shield - 


■ biggU. 


Walk - 


- oonarnoo. 


Tomahawk - 


- kowarru. 


See - 


. 


Canoe - 


- woolgo. 


Sit - 


- chegunnee. 


Sun - 


- wee. 


Yesterday - 


- kungnoo. 


Moon - 


- wuggawurri. 


To-day 


. 


Star - - 


- boolgaroo. 


To-morrow - 


- toondargo. 


Light - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Dark - 


- 


Blacks ? 


, 


Cold - - 


- kittel. 


I don't know 


. 


Heat - 


- towan. 


Plenty 


- kundul. 


Day - 

Night - 


- 


Big - - 


- • 


Fire - 
Water - 


- mingo. 

- kununoo. 


Little - 
Dead - 


- koo-oo-ga. 

- woolli. 


Smoke- 


- woombul. 


By-and-by - 


- 


Ground 


- kaiee. 


Come on 


- hurra. 


Wind- 


- kimpaynee. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- hugnn. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - . 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


, 



424 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 120.— HALIFAX BAY. 

Bt James Cassady, Esq., and R. Johnstone, Esq, 

Of the tribe which inhabits Halifax Bay and the lower 
portion of the Herbert Eiver two accounts have been for- 
warded to me, one by Mr. James Cassady and the other by 
Mr. R. Johnstone. The first of these gentlemen gives me 
the following information. 

The Halifax Bay tribe occupies a tract of country 
fronting the shore of the bay for about fifty miles, and 
extending fifteen miles inland. It is divided into seven sub- 
tribes, called Ikelbara, Doolebara, Mungulbara, Mandam- 
bara, Karabara, Bungabara, and Yoembara. In 1865, when 
the Halifax Bay country was first occupied by the Whites, 
the tribe is estimated to have amounted to about 500 
persons. The numbers which existed in 1880 are set down 
approximately to have been 40 men, 30 boys over ten years, 
100 womeii and girls over ten years, and 30 chUdren of 
both sexes under ten years ; in all 200 souls. This decrease 
my informant attributes to the brutality of the Native 
Mounted Police and some of the settlers, who, in the begin- 
ning, relentlessly hunted down and shot as many of the 
males ©f the tribe as possible. The present excess of 
females over males (the common proportion in our tribes 
being about three males to one female) bears out this state- 
ment. 

The Halifax Bay tribe in their wild state wore no clothes. 
On occasions of corroboree the men smear themselves with 
a mixture of fat and red ochre. Their weapons, save the 
boomerang which returns, my informant has not par- 
ticularized, but remarks generally that those in use are 
carved by means of flints and shells. They have bags made 
of grass and baskets of cane. Amongst their articles of 



HALIFAX BAY. 



425 



food are swamp-nuts, fish, and wallabies, which they cook 
on the embers, or in temporary ovens of heated stones 
covered with earth. 

In this locality no signs of the former existence of small- 
pox have been noticed. The men object to tell their names. 
Restrictions concerning food exist, and some of the yoang 
women are forbidden to eat the flesh of male animals and 
eels. Marriage occurs both within and without each of the 
sub-tribes, and is regulated by classes. Of these there are 
four, to one of which each person belongs. The system 
works in this way: — 



Males. Females. 

Korkoro marries Wongarungan, 
Wongo „ Korkorungan, 
Korkeen „ Woterungan, 
Wotero „ Korkeelingan, 



Males. 

i Wotero 
Korkeen 
WoBgo 
Korkoro 



Females. 
Woterungan. 
Korkeelingan. 
Wongerungan. 
Korkorungan. 



All the neighbouring tribes pursue the same system, and 
the classes just given have their acknowledged equivalents 
in them. Hence, when a man marries outside of his tribe, 
it must be a female whose class corresponds to the one in 
his own tribe, into which he is at liberty to marry. Children 
are frequently betrothed in infancy. Polygamy is practised, 
and men have occasionally as many as four wives. A 
widow becomes the wife of a brother of her deceased hus- 
band. Lung diseases and fever prevail. Shells are worn as 
ornaments. Both males and females have the shoulders and 
chest scarred. They also knock out a front tooth of the 
upper jaw, pierce the septum of the nose, and wear a bone 
through the orifice. The women have a joint of the first 
finger amputated, and it is noticeable that the same custom 
existed in the Sydney tribe, as well as in some of the 
southern portions of Queensland. Circumcision is unknown. 

The Halifax Bay tribe believe in a good and bad spirit, and 
that their doctors are able to make rain and wind by incan- 
tation, and to inflict sickness and death on their enemies. 
Message-sticks are in use amongst them. Fish are procured 



Uncle - 


- kowa. 


Aunt - 


- bimo. 


Cousin 


- balgalla. 


Up ■ 


- kaney. 



426 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 

with spears and hooks. Canoes are made of sheets of bark 
sewn together, and kangaroo and emu are captured with 
nets. 

The tribe to the north of the one under consideration is 
called Wombelbara, and that to the south Korambelbara. 
Mr. Oassady has sent me the following words in addition to 
those of the Common Vocabulary: — 

Down - - - yeno. 

Across - - dindeyara. 

Arm - - - mango. 

Knee - - - mokko. 

It is very remarkable that mero=ivommera, which prevails 
so extensively on the west coast, two thousand mUes off, is 
also found in this and in the languages of Hinchenbrook 
Island and Port Mackay. Does not this lead to . the infer- 
ences that this weapon was known to the first comers, or at 
all events to their descendants before the race had been very 
much spread, and that miro was its original name ? 

What Mr. Johnstone has to say concerning the tribes in 
this locality is as follows: — About Halifax Bay there are 
six bara, or tribes, called ikelbara, Dulenbara, Karrabara, 
Yauembara, Mungalbara, and Mandambara. They speak 
dialects of one language. Their country was occupied by the 
Whites to some extent in 1864, since which period, as the 
result of measles, consumption, and drink, the numbers com- 
posing the tribes have greatly diminished. My informant 
assigns forty years as the duration of life amongst these 
people, so far as he is able to judge; but from the short ex- 
perience yet had of them, it is perhaps premature to offer 
any opinion on the subject. In the day-time the people of 
these tribes wore no clothing in their natural state, though 
now they put on when about the township such cas1>off 
trousers, shirts, &c., as they are able to obtain, but strip at 
night and supplement the warmth obtained from their fires 
by covering themselves with Melaleuca bark, or with a sort 
of blanket manufactured from the bark of the kurrajong 



HALIFAX BAY. 427 

tree, and also ty smearing themselves with clay. On occasions 
of corroborees and fights they paint their skins with red 
ochre and pipe-clay, and with charcoal when in mourning. 
Besides the bags and nets common throughout the continent, 
these tribes have water-bags, which they make of closely- 
plaited "lawyer" {Calamus Australis), and also of palm- 
leaf sewn with the sinews of animals. They also use fish- 
hooks made of tortoise-shell and of mother-of-pearl. Their 
weapons are spears, some simply pointed, others barbed, and 
others edged with flints ; they have also harpoons, wooden 
swords, shields, and clubs. Some of these are carved and 
painted; spears are thrown both by hand and with the 
wommera. The boomerang is not mentioned. Their imple- 
ments are the usual flint knives and stone tomahawks, some 
ground and some chipped to an edge. They have also bark 
canoes, sewn at each end. For food, besides marsupial game, 
they have fish, roots, and fruits of several kinds. From 
some of the roots they extract, before they can be eaten, 
certain poisonous qualities by more than one ingenious pro- 
cess. Of the cannibal practices of these tribes my informant 
speaks very decidedly, for he says he has seen them eating 
Kanackas, White men, and corpses of their own tribe. He 
also notices that they object to tell their names. Polygamy 
is in vogue, and the tribes are divided into the following 
classes: — 

Males. Femalefl. 

Korearo. Korearobingan. 

Wongo. Wongobingan. 

Korkeen. Korkeenbingan. 

Wordon. Wordoingan. 

These divisions, no doubt, have reference to their system 
of marriage, though my informant does not say so. Infanti- 
cide was practised before the coming of the Whites. The 
diseases now most common are consumption, fever, and 
rheumatism. The practices of punching out teeth, piercing 
the septum of the nose, and scarring the skin are also in vogue. 
Message-sticks, Mr. Johnstone informs me, are in use, the 



428 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



marks carved on them, he remarks, " being a guarantee of 
the messenger, the same as a ring with ns in former times." 
He also remarks that the hair of these Blacks is generally- 
curly, but often straight; that they paint representations of 
imaginary animals in caves and on rocks, and dispose of their 
dead by laying them on platforms, by burying in the 
ground, and by eating them. In the vocabularies attached 
we find two words which begin with r, and the word wee, 
which in some places means j'lre, the equivalent of sun. 



No. 120.— HALIFAX BAY. 



By J. Cassady, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- bally. 


Opossum 


- katra. 


Tame dog - 


- knarbo. 


Wild dog - 


- gerole. 


Emu - 


- kondolo. 


Black duck - 


- te-te. 


Wood duck 


- 


Pelican 


- yembor. 


Laughing jackas 


s kowokara 


Native companion korore. 


White cockatoo 


- gemra. 


Crow - 


- wagan. 


Swan - 


- 


Egg - 


• meto. 


Track of a foot 


- genua. 


Fish - 


- knoto. 


Lobster 


- motoga. 


Crayfish 


- 


Mosquito - 


- komo. 


Fly - 


- koyom. 


Snake 


- 


The Blacks 


- tinga. 


A Blackfellow 


- tinga. 


A Black woman 


- kolokolo. 


Nose - 


■■ woro. 



Hand - 


■■ mandy. 


2 Blacks - 


- yakka tinga. 


3 Blacks - 


- cabo tinga. 


One - 


- yongole. 


Two - 


- yakka. 


Three 


- kabo. 


Four or more 


- yongonda or 




kikaborgo. 


Father 


- baby. 


Mother 


- kora, yong, 




yonga. 


Sister-Elder 


- murkingun, 




boban. 


,, Younger 


- tantchuan. 


Brother-Elder 


- murkin, thalnbo 


„ Younger tantchuling. 


A young man 


- nabigaro. 


An old man 


- kelan. 


An old woman 


- kellingan. 


A baby (male) 


- morgo. 


,, (female) 


- murkey. 


A White man 


- mecolo. 


Children - 


- yabingara. 


Head - 


- wallow. 


Eye - 


- koro. 


Ear - 


- binna. 





HALIFAX BAY. 


4 




No. 120.— Halifax 'Sa.y —contmwd. 




Mouth 


nanda. 


Boomerang - 


- wongal. 


Teeth 


- yera. 


Hill - 


- mongan. 


Hair of the head 


- molong. 


Wood- 


- tano. 


Beard - 


- talba. 


Stone - 


- balgal. 


Thunder - 


- oondono. 


Camp - 


- rongo. 


GrasB ■ 
Tongue 


- wota. 

- talang. 


Yes - 
No 


- ye. 

- bai. 


Stomach - 


- keppa. 










I- 


- kmba. 


Breasts 


- ngamoon. 






Thigh- - 


- wakka or tharra. 


You - 


- nino. 


Foot - 


- genna. 


Bark - 


- yonga. 


Bone - 


- tolkul. 


Good - 


- touoa. 


Blood ■ 


- koma. 


Bad - 


- wago. 


Skin ■ - 


- yonga. 


Sweet - 


- matana. 


Fat - 


- tanuny. 


Food - 


. 


Bowels 


- bara-bara. 


Hungry 


- ngoami. 


Excrement - 
War-spear - 


- gona. 

- kalge. 


Thirsty 


- walnga. 


Reed-spear - 


- raba. 


Eat - 


- dialgo. 


Wommera or 


mere. 


Sleep - 


- werail. 


throwing-stick 




Drink 


- bona. 


Shield 


- pikel. 


Walk 


- yanya. 


Tomahawk - 


- bargo. 


See - 


- nalgalgo. 


Canoe - 


- wolgo. 


Sit - 


- nena or nega 


Sun - - 


- tula. 


Yesterday - 


- minonga. 


Moon - 


- balano. 


To-day 


- ki-kin. 


Star - 


- karomin. 


To-morrow - 


- cobara. 


Light - 


- miera 


Where are the 


winta tinga? 


Dark - 


- knowronga. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 
Heat - 


- gerole. 

- tow-wong. 


I don't know 


- knab molgee 
kniba. 


Day - 

Night- - 


- miera. 

- knowronga. 


Plenty 


- yongonda. 


Fire - 


- tano, ka,ndagya. 


Big - 


- nucoa. 


Water 


- yakko. 


Little - 


- tantchu. 






Dead - 


- boral, wolie 


Smoke 


- tonone. 






Ground 


- ki-ie. 


By-and-by - 


- wolo. 






Come on 


- ngari. 


Wind- 


- bundle. 










Milk - 


- ngamoon. 


Rain - 


- ukan. 


Eaglehawk - 


- cory-tella. 


God - 


- wonga-mally. 


Wild turkey 


- cabocalla. 


Ghosts 


- wonga. 


Wife - 


- gain. 



429 



430 



THE AUSTRALIAN 'RACE ; 





No. 120.— HALIFAX BAY. 






By R. Johnstone, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


borley. 


Hand - 


mandy. 


Opossum 


kartra. 


2 Blacks 


yakka tinga. 


Tame dog - 


knarboo. 


3 Blacks 


karboo tinga. 


Wild dog - 


gerool. 


One - ' - 


yonggole. 


Emu - 


kondooloo. 


Two - 


yakka. 


Black duck - 


ta-ta. 


Three - 


karboo. 


Wood duck- 




Four and any 


cicaborgo yon- 


Pelican 


yeemboo. 


number over 


gonda. 


Laughing jackass 


kawookarra. 


Father 


babai. 


Native companion 


koorom. 


Mother 


- kora or yunga 


White cockatoo - 




Sister-Elder 


murkengun. 


Crow - 


worgan. 


„ Younger 


teutcheran. 


Swan - 
Egg - - 
Track of a foot 
Fiah - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 


meto. 
genar. 
knoto. 
■ motogar. 

komo. 


Brother-Elder 

„ Younger 
A young man 
An old man- 
An old woman 
A baby (boy) 


- murkin. 

- tantcheeling. 

- marcara. 

- kelang. 

- kalangan. 

- worloomoogoo 


Fly - - 


kojom. 


„ (girl) 


- morkeyen 


Snake - 




A White man 


- mecolo. 


The Blacks 




Children 


- yabingaia. 


A Blackfellow 


tinga. 


Head - 


- wallow. 


A Black woman 


- kolo-kolo. 


Eye - 


- koro. 


Nose - - , 


- woro. 


Ear - - 


- binna. 





HALIFAX BAY. 


4S1 




Ko. 120— Halifax Bay— continued. 




Mouth 


- knakna. 


Boomerang - 


- wangal. 


Teeth - 

Hair of the head 
Beard - 
Thunder - 
Grass - 


- jera. 

- molong. 

- talba. 

- oondono. 

- wotar 


Hill - 
Wood - 
Stone - 
Camp - 


- mongan, 

- tano. 

- balgal. 

- ringo. 


Tongue 


- tallang. 


Yes - 


- jea. 


Stomach 


- kippa. 


No - 


- 


Breasts 


- ammun. 


I 


- kniba. 


Thigh- - 
Foot - 
Bone - 
Blood - 


- wakka. 

- gena. 

- tolkeel. 

- koma. 


You ■ 
Bark - 
Good - 


- enba. 

- yoonga. 


Skin - - 
Fat - 


- yonga. 

- tammy. 


Bad ^ 

Sweet - 


- wargo. 


Bowels 


- bara-bara. 


Food - 


- * 


Excrement • 


- goonna. 


Hungry 


- knamey. 


War-spear - 


- kalge. 


Thirsty 


- warlnga. 


Efied-spear - 


- raba. 


Eat ■ - 


- diana. 


Wommera or 


colngo or 


Sleep - 


- werail or yokey. 


thro wing-stick 


maroo. 


Drink - 


- bona. 


Shield 

Tomahawk ■ 
Canoe 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Light - - 


- queeary. 
• kargoo. 

- wolgo. 

- potera. 

- bartamoo. 

- karromen. 


Walk - 
See - 
Sit - 
Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 


- yan-ya. 

- nawiua, nalgala. 

- nina, nega. 

- nenonga. 

- ky-kin. 

- cobarra. 


Dark - - 


- knora. 


Where are the wonta tinga ? 


Cold - - 


- gerole. 


Blacks ? 




Heat - 


- banjera. 


I don't know 


- narlnoolga kniba 


Day - 


- miera. 


Plenty 


- yere. 


Night - - 


- knoronga. 


Big - 


- nuca. 


Fire - - 


- tano, kandanye. 


Little - 


- tantchee. 


Water 


■ ya,koo. 


Dead - 


- boril. 


Smoke 


■ tonon. 


By-and-by - 


- wolo. 


Ground 


- kya. 


Come on 


- knari. 


Wind ■ 


- bundy-bundy. 


Milk - 


- nammoon. 


Rain - 


- ukan 


Eaglehawk- 


- coretala. 


God - 
Ghosts 


■ wonga. 


Wild turkey 
Wife - 


- cabocala. 

- gain. 



432 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 121.— THE HEAD-WATERS OF THE BURDEKIN 

RIVER. 

By W. 0. HoDGKiNSON, Esq., Waedbn of Goldpiblds, Mattown. 

The following facts connected witli the Breeaba tribe, 
whose country is on one of the head- waters of the Burdekin, 
as also the attached vocabulary of their language, were 
kindly forwarded to me by Mr. W. 0. Hodgkinson, who 
obtained them, as he informs me, from a very intelligent 
middle-aged Breeaba woman who lives at Maytown on the 
Palmer River. 

This tribe have opossum-skin rugs^ which probably they 
use only at night. They possess also the wommera and 
boomerang. Certain articles of food are forbidden to the 
women. It is worthy of notice that this is the most 
northern tribe of Eastern Australia which reports the former 
existence of small-pox amongst them. It is called chin-chin, 
and is said to have proved fatal to many at some recent 
period. The woman Wonduri, from whom Mr. Hodgkinson 
obtained his information, declares that the tribe decided at 
the time of this scourge that any one it attacked should be 
killed without delay whilst asleep, and that this plan was 
carried out. However, seeing that the disease is not heard 
of nearer than 300 miles to the south, no confidence can be 
placed in Wonduri's statement that it existed. Prior to the 
coming of the Whites, children who died from natural causes 
were eaten, not by their parents or brothers, but by their 
cousins and other more distant relatives of the male sex. 
Their hands and fat were the parts most esteemed, as we 
find in other cases. Polygamy prevails in the tribe, and a 
widow becomes the wife of the deceased husband's brother. 
Twins are occasionally born. One tooth is knocked out at 
the age of puberty, and the septum of the nose pierced. 
Fish are taken with nets, spears, and hooks ; also by 




A TREE ON THE DIAMANTINA RIVER QUEENSLAND 
RECORD or A FIGHT WHICH TOOK PLACE IN THE LOCALITY 



THE HEAD-WATERS OF BURDBKIN RIVER. 



433 



poisoning waterholes with, leaves possessing narcotic pro- 
perties. Women and old men are buried without ceremony, 
hut the remains of able-bodied males are placed on platforms 
constructed in the boughs of trees. Message-sticks are in 
use. The attached is the sketch of a tree marked by the 
tribe to commemorate one of their fights. 

Eeferring to the vocabulary, my informant expresses 
doubts as to the correctness of his translation of three and 
four. The reader will notice the termination hurra in some 
of the words which follow. This, I suspect, is the equivalent 
hr people, or perhaps many. Chinaman, it will be noticed, 
they call Murri, like their own people, whilst they have a 
distinct term for White man. Watch is expressed by the 
same word as sun, and socks by a term derived from the 
equivalent oi foot. The following words as applying to 
objects of which the Australian had no knowledge prior to 
the advent of the White man are of interest: — 



Cat - - - moorboo. 
Horse - - - ngooraboongoo. 
Cow, bullock - toomooburra. 
Calf - - kinquan. 

Sheep - - - burra-burra. 
AVMte woman - yallaman. 
Chinaman - - murri. 
Domestic fowls - kookabinya. 
Chicken - - wongurra (?). 
Watch- - - kurri. 
Look out ! he is throwing a spear - 

Look out ! he is throwing a boomerang 

Whereabouts is water to be found? - 

Do you see the road or track ? - 

Yes, I see the road - - - . 

What track or road ? - - . 

I see two kangaroos - - . . 

VOL. II, 



mun. 
tinnago. 
bingarro, kampe. 

mere, 
kunkurre. 

- dekurra. 

- woogogo. 

- toola. 



Boot - 

Socks - 

Gown, coat, 
trousers 

Bridle - 

Knife, also fork 

Spoon - 

Chair - 

Table - 
Indi nukka kulka. 
You see spear. 
Indi nukka (or indi kooti) wongul. 
You see (you see) boomerang. 

■ Wunta kamo? 
Where water? 

■ Indi nukkuUa tinna ? 
You see track ? 

- Nia nnkkulla tinna. 

I see road. 

• Unne tinna ? 

What track ? 

■ Nya nukka boolaroo kargul. 
I see two kangaroos. 

Z E 



434 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 121.— BURDEKIN RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 


kargul. 


Hand - 


- muUa. 


Opossum - 


tungeroo. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


moora. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - - 


ngurbuUa. 


One - 


- wirba. 


Emu - - - 


koondooloo. 


Two - 


- boollaroo. 


Black duck - 


koorpooloo. 


Three - 


- koolbarro. 


Wood duck- 


birga. 






Pelican 


billibungerra. 


Four - 


- koorunga. 


Laughing jackass- 


towa-towa. 


Father 


- yaboona. 


Native companion 


burgum. 


Mother 


- yungunna. 


White cockatoo - 


diggoree. 


Sister-Elder 


- kootanna. 


Crow - - . 


wotagan. 


„ Younger 


- wobbooin. 


Swan - 




Brother-Elder 


- kutta. 


Egg. - 


kookabinya. 


„ Young 


er warbo. 


Track of a foot 


- chinna. 


A young man 


- warbooroo. 


Fish - 


- kooiyoo. 


An old man 


- bringubba. 


Lobster 




An old woman 


- murkoorra. 


Crayfish 




A baby 


- kandoo or kum 


Mosquito - 


mobo. 




doo. 


Ely - 


bralla. 


A White man 


- mikooloo or ma 


Snake - 


kobbul, mooda. 




koolo. 


The Blacks - 


murri-murri. 


Children - 


- kurndoo. 


A Blackfellow 




Head - 


- kirta. 


A Black woman ■ 


wirmo. 


Eye - 


- tillee. 


Nose - 


koo. 


Ear - 


- woUoo. 



THE HEAD-WATERS OP BURDEKIN RIVER. 



435 





No. 121. — BuBDEKiN RiTEK — Continued. 


Mouth 


- tunga. 


Boomerang - 


- wongul. 


Teeth - 


- nulla. 


HiU - 


- mignrra. 


Hair of the head- tinge. 


Wood - 


- tula. 


Beard - 


- unga. 


Stone - 


- purri. 


Thunder - 


- morrella. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- yago. 


Yes - 


- nya (nai-a ?). 


Tongue 


- tuUi. 


No - 


- kurra. 


Stomach - 


- bulloo. 


I- - 


- nia. 


Breasts 


- ngumoon. 


You - 


- yinda or indi. 


Thigh - 


- durra. 


Bark - 


- bulkan. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 










Good - 


- binbi. 


Bone - 


- bulbun. 






Blood - 


- kooma. 


Bad - 


- kicha. 


Skin - - 


- yunga. 


Sweet - 


- munta. 


Fat - 


- tommi. 


Food - 


- ugonga. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- quee, kurmoona 


Excrement ■ 


- 


Thirsty 


- woorgoo toonka. 


War-spear - 


- kulka. 


Eat - 


- indi-uka. 


Reed-spear - 


- tuUa. 


Sleep - 


- umberra ooka. 


Wommera or 


boolaroo.. 


Drink - 


- indi-uka. 


throwing-stick 




Walk- 


- yaninga. 


Shield- - 


- koolmarri. 


See - 


- nukka, kooti. 


Tomahawk 
Canoe - 


- balgo. 


Sit - 


- kooree. 


Sun - - 


- kurri. 


Yesterday - 


- woorgaloonga. 


Moon - 


- pallanno. 


To-day 


- yachiUo. 


Star - - 


- ugo. 


To-morrow - 


- peergunga. 


Light - - 


- boori. 


Where are 


;he wunta murri ? 


Dark - 


- ngurnnu. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- werera. 


I don't know 


- kurra (no). 


Heat - 


- yago. 


Plenty- 


- moorga. 


Day - 


- kurringa. 


Big - - 


- boolgi. 


Night - - 


- ngurnnu. 


Little - 


- warburroo. 


Fire - 


- poori. 


Dead - 


- woonunga. 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 


- kamo. 

- tooga. 

- nanni. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 


- yeta kurbunga. 

- woongunga. 


Wind- - 


- kowri. 


Milk - 


- ngamoom. 


Rain - 


- tanduuga. 


Eaglehawk - 


- wirta. 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- tirkooyee. 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- birgoo. 



436 



THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 



No. 122.— CLARKE RIVER. 



FOBWARDED BY GRESLBY LITKIN, ESQ. 



Kangaroo - 


Hand - 


merda. 


Opossum - - kajea. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - - - goondooloo. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 




Black duck 


Two - . 




Wood duck 


Three 




Pelican 


Four - 




Laughing jackass 


Father 




Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


younga. 


Swan - 


„ Younger - 




Egg - - - 


Brother-Elder - 




Track of a foot - 


„ Younger 




Fish - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito - - kikaberdee. 

Fly - 

Snake 


A young man 

An old man 

An old woman - 

A baby 

A White man 


wurboon 


The Blacks- - murdee. 


Children - 


galbin. 


A Blackfellow - yelda. 


Head - 


kida. 


A Black -woman - warrangoo. 


Eye - 


jeelee. 


Nose - - - go. 


Ear - 





CLARKE RIVER. 



437 





No. 122. — CiAKKB RivKR — cowtinued. 


Mouth 


ta. 


Boomerang- 


- 


Teeth 


- urdea, 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the heac 


jingo. 


Wood- 




Beard- 




Stone - 


- byree. 


Thunder - 


mur-rung-al-la. 


Camp- 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- yago. 


Yes - 


. 


Tongue 


■ tallay. 


No - 




Stomach - 








Breasts 




I- - 


- 


Thigh 




You - 


- 


Foot ■ 


jinna. 


Bark- 


■ - 


Bone - 




Good - 


- 


Blood- - 


baragan. 


Bad - 


- 


Skin - 




Sweet- 


- 


Fat - 


- tammee. 


Food - 


_ 


Bowels 




Hungry 


_ 


Excrement- 




Thirsty - 


. 


War-spear - 


- bung-gi. 


Eat - 




Reed-spear- 








Wommera or 


tarilla. 


Sleep - 


- wawga 


throwing-stick 




Drink- 


- 


Shield 


koolmaree. 


Walk - 




Tomahawk (stone) balgo. 


See - 




Canoe 




Sit - - 




Sun - 


ki-ilUa. 


Yesterday - 




Moon - 


balanoo. 


To-day 




Star - • . 




To-morrow- 


. 


Light - 




Where are 


the 


Dark - 




Blacks ? 




Cold - 


wilda. 






Heat - 




I don't know 


-.. 


Day - 




Plenty 




Night 




Big - - 




Fire - 


taroo. 


Little - 


- kangor 


Water 


kamoo. 


Dead - 


- hoolan 


Smoke 


toga. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 




Come on - 


- enjee. 


Wind 


memerry. 


Milk - 




Rain - 




Eaglehawk- 




God . 




Wild turkey 


- turgoo 


Ghosts - 




Wife - . 





438 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 122.— THE CLARKE OR THE CAPE RIVER. 

Words by Mr. De la Tour. 

The writer is uncertain whether these words belong to the Clarke or the 

Cape River. 



Sticks with which kamiUa. 


Claws 


- piga. 


fire is made by- 


Go away 


- munda. 


friction 




Sheep 


- toomba. 


Kangaroo 


net - bundara. 


Gun - 


- pardoogo. 


Pigeon 


- mammilla. 


Club - 


- werrga. 


Sharp 


- berrkay. 


Break 


- goonjen. 


Blunt 


- koodoo. 


Dirt - 


- nannee. 


Whiskers 


- nunga. 


Sore - 


- gin-gin. 


Lips - 


- numbool. 


Give - 


- wawgandally 


Eyebrows 


- ngoon. 


Sick - 


- wee-wee. 


Knee 


- wa-gi-ill. 


Pipe-olay 


- bearanba. 


Elbow 


- barago. 


Red ochre 


- kalmoo^ara. 


Lightning 


- bermannow. 


Bottle-tree- - kamberra. 


Hail - 


- palpee. 


Grass-tree 


- tackaberda. 


Corroboree- - mulgurry. 


Mud - 


- goonarree. 


Tail - 


- wanna. 


Leaves 


- kanga. 




Names 


OP Men. 






Dindera. 




NgoraiiTia. 




Moonga. 




Angoree. 




Munga. 




Poonque. 




Warree. 




Mabbo. 




Gobaranna. 




Mooemoo. 




Wawboo. 




Koongee 




Mundaree. 




Normee. 




Mugiueye. 




Purmboo. 




Mannow. 




Booee, 



THE CLARKE OR THE CAPE RIVER. 

Names of Women. 



Wanneree. 
Goolberee. 
Munduree. 
Mimgaree. 
Linderree. 



Boongouree. 
Obardee. 
Bobbma. 
Toeroyabban 



439 



440 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 123.— TOP OF THE RANGE NEAR DALRYMPLE. 

This Vocabulary, with some Additional Words, were kindly sent to me by 
W. E. Armit, Esq., Inspector of the Native Mounted Police. 



Kangaroo - 
Opossum - 
Tame dog - 


kargood. 

tangoord. 

kowla. 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 


gunduUu. 


Wood duck- 




Pelican . - 




Laughing j aokass - 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 


kagoobarra. 


Crow - 


watta. 


Swan - 




Egg - - - 
Track of a foot ■ 
Fish - 
Lobster 


dinango. 
kuya. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - 
Snake - 


moonda. 


The Blacks - 

A Blaokfellow ■ 


marringo. 
marri. 



A Black woman - margan or birgo. 
Nose - - - goo. 



Hand and arm - malla. 

2 Blacks - - marringo bulla. 



3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- 


Two - 


- bulla. 


Three - 


- 


Four - 


- 


Father 


- yaboo. 


Mother 


- mama. 


Sister-Elder 


- 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- 


,, Younger 


A young man 


- walbarra. 


An old man 


- 


An old woman 


- cuymeu. 


A baby 


- 


A White man 


- gooin. 


Children - 


- 


Head - 


- katta. 


Eye - 


- dilly. 


Ear - 


- walloo. 



TOP OF : THE RANGE NEAR DALRYMPLE. 



441 



No 


123. — Range nbae 


Daleymplb — contintied. 


Mouth 


- daa. 


Boomerang - 


- wangal. 


Teeth - 


■ yerra. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


mowra. 


Wood- 




Beard- 


dingo. 


Stone - 




Thunder - 




Camp - 


yamba. 


Grass - 




Yes - 




Tongue 




No - 


karra. 


Stomach ■ 




I 


nya. 


Breasts 


namoon. 


You - 


inda. 


Thigh 


tarra. 


Bark - 




Foot - 


dinna. 


Good - 




Bone - 




Bad - 




Blood - 




Sweet - 




Skin - 




Food - 




Fat - 




Hungry 




Bowels 




Thirsty 




Excrement - 


goona. 


Eat - 


yugain. 


War-spear - 


pikalla. 


Sleep - 


wooka. 


Eeed-spear- 




Drink - 




Wonnmera or 








throwing-stick 




Walk - 


ngani. 


Shield 




See - 




Tomahawk - 


bargoo. 


Sit - 




Canoe 




Yesterday - 




Sun - 


karri. 


To-day 


yigilga. 


Moon - 


nylian. 


To-morrow - 


wooga. 


Star - 


wilba. 




. 






Where are the 


wanda marri ! 


Light - 








Dark - 




Blacks ? 




Cold - 


kirroo. 


I don't know 




Heat - 




Plenty 


• curbarra. 


Day - 




Big - 




Night - 




Little - 


- wuputchum. 


Fire - - 


burri. 


Dead - 




Water 


gamoo. 


By-and-by - 


- yabunda. 


Smoke 








Ground 




Come on - 




Wmd 




Milk - 




Rain - - . - 


yugan. 


Baglehawk- 


- yilga. 


God - 




Wild turkey 




Ghosts 




Wife - 





442 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 123. — Range neab Dalkymple— comifeaed. 
Additional Words. 



Shin-bone - 


yangarra. 


Bullock 


- tumooburru. 


Sword 


pichercan. 


Yam, yams - 


- malboo, malboon. 


Club - 


nerroo. 


Honey-comb 


cabba or cudja. 


Kangaroo net 


waagal. 


To lie - 


- oatti. 


Dilly bag - 


coonaa. 


You lie 


catti nginda. 


Coolaman (water- 


wargarra. 


Salt-water (sea) 


- oalleyunga. 


trough) 




Scrub - 


- dulgi. 


Creek - 
Mountain - 


calbama. 
- balgi. 


Agun- 

Plenty of Blacks 


- margin. 

- curbarra marri. 


House - 
Houses 
Bandicoot - 
Pigeon 
Iguana 
Rat - 


goooa. 

goooanga. 

wugalla. 

coombree. 

tagani. 

carroola. 


Where? - 
To run 
You run 
A boy - 
To kill 


- wanda? 
■ wagga. 

waggiua. 
yabba. 

- gundy. 


Kangaroo-rat 


taiju. 


I will kill you 


nyagna margiudo 


Carpet snake 


cabool. 


with a gun 


gundy. 



No. 124.— CLEVELAND BAY. 



By Abthue R. Johnstone, Esq., and Montagu Cube, Esq. 

The following vocabularies, whicL. were forwarded to me, the 
one by Mr. Arthur Johnstone and the other by my brother, 
Mr. Montagu Curr, are both assigned to Cleveland Bay, and 
belong no doubt to the dialects of two tribes in that 
locality. 

Mr. Johnstone informs me that when a Black of this tribe 
dies he is buried and a large fire made over his grave. 
Whilst it is burning, a gigantic man, it is believed, comes 
and takes away aU the remains of the dead man with the 



CLEVELAND BAY. 



443 



exception of his shadow and fingers. Should his surviving 
kinsfolk travel at night without fire-sticks, they fancy they 
see the shadow of the departed, now here^ now there, 
amongst the trees. The men gash themselves horribly 
on the death of a relative, and blacken their faces with 
charcoal. 
Mr. Johnstone furnishes the following Additional Words: — 



Forehead - 


- mooloo. 


Eyebrows - 


poorloo. 


Throat 


■ rooka. 


Whiskers - 


■ thalburra. 


Moustache - 


- moolia. 


Chest - 


- ra,llee. 


Shoulders - 


- dilbree. 


Navel 


- toogool. 


Arm - 


- culgul. 


Elbow - 


- mooroo. 


Wrist- 


■ poolgammoo 


Fingers and toes 


- eweera. 


Little finger 


- kobbee. 


Back ■ 


- thooree. 


Knee - 


moko. 


Calf of the leg 


- arka. 


Shin - 


- rumpa. 


Ankle - 


- mookal. 


Rump - 


- moon. 


Anus - 


- pundein. 


Urine - 


- coral. 


Salt-water - 


- unda. 


Coral - 


- thumbee. 



Devil - 


- mungal. 


Paddle for canoe 


, - pareel. 


Fishing-line 


- rara. 


Fish-hook - 


- mingee. 


Corroboree - 


- mareka. 


To swim 


- ununga. 


To burn 


- kundimena. 


To cut 


- koonaborra. 


Come ! 


- oorein! 


To throw - 


- runna. 


To sing 


- mureka. 


To bite' 


- koongunna. 


Let go 


- nnna. 


To cook 


- unga. 


Sick - 


- moogee. 


Turtle - 


- yungiin. 


Wallaby - 


" thallum. 


Iguana 


- pingoonburra 


BSche-de-mer 


- toonbulla. 


Pigeon- 


- noolamoola. 


Sword (native) 


- koonowa. 


Bag - 


- murrimikkee 



444 



THE AUSTEALIAN RACE; 



No. 124.— CLEVELAND BAY. 



Br A. R. Johnstone, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


- thallun. 


Hand - 


muUa. 


Opossum - 




2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 




3 Blacks - 
One - 




Black duck 


-■ oorandoo. 


Two - 




Wood duck 


_ 


Three- - 




Pelican 




Four - 




Laughing jackass" kakoogoo. 


Father 




Native companion 


Mother 




White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - - 


- keemaroo. 


Sister-Elder 

„ Younger - 
Brother-Elder - 




Track of a foot 




, , Younger 




Fish - 




A young man 




Lobster 




An old man 




Crayfish 




An old woman - 




Mosquito - 

Ply . . 

Snake 
The Blacks- 


kabool. 


A baby 

A White man - 

Children - 


moolooramoon 


A Blackfellow 


■ elgooral. 


Head - 




A Black woman 


muugun. 


Eye - 


mil. 


Nose - 


ooroo. 


Ear - 


pena. 



CLEVELAND BAY. 



445 



No. 124.— Clbvelaijd Bay— continued. 



Mouth 


- tha. 


Boomerang - 


- ungal. 


Teeth - 


keera. 


Hill - 


. 


Hair of the head 


- moolooit. 


Wood - 


- puree. 


Beard - 




Stone - 


. 


Thunder 




Camp - 


- oora. 


Grass - 


oyulo. 


Yes - 


. 


Tongue 


thalein. 


No - 




Stomach 


keepa. 


I- 




Breasts 


namoon. 


You - 




Thigh - 


thara. 


■ 


Foot - 


tinna. 


Bark - 


- 


Bone ■ 




Good - 


• noolambarroo 


Blood - 


kungen. 


Bad - 


- areea. 


Skin - 




Sweet - 


- 


Fat - - 




Food - 


- moodthuuna. 


Bowels 


keerulgarul. 


Hungry 


- oolein. 


Excrement - 




Thirsty 


. 


War-spear - 
Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 




Eat -, 
Sleep - 


- koongool. 

- yookecarko. 


thro wing-stick 




Drink - 


- punga. 


Shield - 


kooeeree. 


Walk - - 


- thararoo. 


Tomahawk - 




See - 


■ 


Canoe - 


oolgaroo. 


Sit - 


- neeka. 


Sun - 


oba. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moor. - 


bulbun. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


puekarakkara. 


To-morrow - 




Light - 




Where are the 




Dark - 




Blacks? 




Gold - 


keeto. 


I don't know 




Heat - 


einburra. 


Plenty 




Day - 




Big - 


- kuka. 


Night - 




Little - 




Fire -. - 


paree. 


Dead - 


- ooleina. 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 


thalmul. 

puno. 

arroeen. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 




Wind - 




Milk - 




Rain - s. 


ooreal. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - - 




Wild turkey 


oorumpa. 


Ghosts 




Wife - 


keu or ken. 



446 



THE. AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 124.— CLEVELAND BAY. 



By Montagu Cube, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


poUee. 


Hand - 


- mal-la. 


Opossum 


kudthara. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


oyeo. 


3 Blacks - 


- 


Wild dog - 




One - 


- yoongul. 


Emu - 


windoloo. 










Two - 


- yug-ga. 


Black duck - 
Wood duck- 
Pelicau 


yamooroo. 

gooda-gro-go. 

buUoo. 


Three - 
Four - 


- murgine. 


Laughing jackass 




Father 


- a-boo. 


Native companion kondil. 


Mother 


- a-mee. 


White cockatoo - 


gim-o-ro. 


Sister-Elder 


- ava-ru. 


Crow - - - 


o-gal. 


„ Younger 


- 


Swan - 




Brother-Elder 


- aw-ood-tha. 


Egg - 


korindil. 


„ Younger 


Track of a foot - 


yalgi. 










A young man 


- mur-gur-ra. 


Fish - - 


ood-gurh. 






Lobster 




An old man 


- woor-goor-bee. 


Crayfish 




An old woman 


- ko-lo-la. 


Mosquito - 


koo-be-yal. 


A baby 


- nunga. 


Ply - - - 


koo-roo-mo. 


A White man 


. 


Snake - - - 


ur-buUa. 


Children - 


- d'thoon-ga-ree 


The Blacks - 


goon-gar-re. 


Head - 


- alloc. 


A Blaokfellow - 








A Black woman - 


mar-boora. 


Eye - 


- ma-el. 


Nose - 


oro. 


Ear - 


- "pinna. 



CLEVELAND BAY. 



447 





No. 124.— Cleveland Bay— contimted 




Mouth 


- d'tha. 


Boomerang - 




Teeth - 


- reera. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


- moo-loin. 


Wood - 




Beard 


- d'thub-barr. 


Stone - 


burree. 


Thunder - 


- d'the-go-ro. 


Camp - 


oo-gi. 


Grass - 


- boo-gun. 


Yea - 


ud-d'tha. 


Tongue 


- kal-line. 


No - - - 


aou-woo. 


Stomach 


- kee-la. 


I - - - 




Breasts 


- ngammoon. 




Thigh 


- d'tharra. 


You - 




Foot - 


- d'thinna. 


Bark - - - 




Bone - 


- doo-ree. 


Good - 




Blood - 


- goon-bunna. 


Bad - 


kou-un-ju-ga. 


Skin - - 


- d'thal-goor. 


Sweet - 


koo-bun. 


Fat - 


- tammee. 


Pood - 


koou-jan-na. 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


ooline. 


Excrement - 


- koona. 


Thirsty 


boogar-go. 


War- spear - 


- kul-gi. 


Eat - 




Reed-spear - 


- but-thurr. 


Sleep - 




Wommera or 


koola. 


Drink - 




thro wing-stick 




Walk - 




SUeld 


- bingone. 


See - 




Tomahawk - 


- bun-una. 


Sit - 




Canoe - 


- woo-roo. 






Sun - 


- ooba. 


Yesterday - 


ma-rul-a-go. 


Moon - 


- kun-gine. 


To-day 


cud-geen. 


Star - 


- oobun-jella. 


To-morrow 


kur-ul-a-go. 


Light - 


- moo-rone. 


Where are the 


un dthnngo 


Dark - 


- mung-urr. 


Blacks ? 


burra minya 


Cold - 


- kid-doo. 


I don't know 


a-oo-gud-tha. 


Heat - 


- ungurra. 


Plenty 


mindi-yarra. 


Day - 


- oo-ba. 


Big - - 


moo-ga. 


Night - 


- ned-dee. 


Little - 


bun- j ah. 


Fire - 


- ar-a-bee. 


Dead - 


ola-na. 


Water 


- kammoo. 


By-and-by - 


lur-ga. 


Smoke 


- poo-uoo. 


Come on 


oo-rine. 


Ground 


- ky-ee. 


Milk - 




Wind- 


- wirra-wirra. 






Rain - 


- ko-a. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


_ 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


_ 


Wife - 


- 



448 THE AUSTRALIAN EACE: 



No. 125.— MOUNT ELLIOTT. 

Pkom a Pamphlet entitled "Sketch or the Residence of James 
moebill among the aborigines of noetheen queensland egk 
Seventeen Yeaes," etc. 

By Edmund Geegoet. 

The following items of information in connection with the 
language and customs of the tribe of which Mount Elliott 
is the head-quarters, and which frequents also at intervals 
the coast at and near Cape Cleveland, were obtained from 
James Murrells (commonly called Morrill), and recorded in 
the pamphlet by Edmund Grregory named above. That 
fuller particulars of Murrells' experiences were not preserved 
is to be regretted. Of those which we have, the chief points 
of interest are as follows : — 

In 1846 several persons in a very exhausted state landed 
at Cape Cleveland from a raft, on which they had made 
their escape from a vessel which had been wrecked six weeks 
previously on a reef considerably to the eastward of that 
point. Amongst them was a young sailor named James 
Murrells, who shortly became the sole survivor of the party. 
He relates that they were received by the Mount EUiott 
people, who were then on the coast, with a sort of rough 
hospitality, being well fed, and sheltered from the sun in 
huts made of boughs, but were robbed by those children of 



MOUNT ELLIOTT. 449 

Nature of almost everything they possessed. The reason of 
the unfortunates finding favor with the tribe appears to 
have been that the latter, having no idea that any race save 
their own existed in the world, thought the new arrivals 
were formerly defunct members of their tribe come to life 
again. With this tribe Murrells lived as one of themselves 
for seventeen years, acquiring both their language and 
habits, until, hearing of the arrival of some squatting 
pioneers with their flocks and herds on the Mall-mall or 
Burdekin Eiver, he made his way to their hut, with the con- 
sent of the tribe, and returned to- civilization. After the 
lapse of a few months, Murrells married, received the 
appointment of Customs officer at Bowen, where he must 
have died not very long after, as the date of the pamphlet in 
which that event is mentioned is 1865. The following facts 
are gleaned fram Mr. Gregory's account of Murrells. 

Polygamy exists in the Mount Elliott tribe, a few of the 
men having as many as eight or nine wives. In three or 
four instances twins were born. The food-supply, consisting 
of animals, fish, and roots, is both varied and abundant. 
Cannibalism prevails, those of their own tribe who are killed 
in battle or by accident being eaten by their kinsfolk, but 
not the enemies whom they slay. There seem to have been 
eight distinct tribes living in association at and near Mount 
Elliott, all of whose dialects Murrells spoke. 

"The different animals," says the pamphlet, "are 
arranged according to the size of their feet, hence the sheep 
have the same name as their wallabies {cargoon). All 
kinds of sailing vessels have the same name as their canoes, 
viz., woolgoora, because they float on the water. The 
heavenly bodies are named differently; the sun is ingin, which 
they think is a body of fire, because of its warmth, and 
especially so since they saw us light a rag with a burning- 
glass. The moon (werboonburra) they say is a human being 
Uke themselves, and comes down on the earth, and they 
sometimes meet it in some of their fishing excursions. 
They say one tribe throws it up, and it gradually rises and 

VOL. II, 2 F 



450 THE AUSTRALIAN EACE : 

then comes down again, when another tribe catches it to 
save it from hurting itself. They accordingly think there 
is a new sun and moon every day and night. There is 
a large open space on Mount Elliott with not a vestige 
of vegetation on it, whilst up to the very margin of 
it is a thick scrub; and they told James Murrells it was 
done by the moon, who threw his circle-stick round it 
(meaning his boomerang), and cut it off. Throwing the sun 
and moon up by one tribe, and catching them by another, 
will easily be recognized as their explanation of the rising 
and setting of these bodies. They have no knowledge of the 
earth beyond the locality they inhabit. .... 

They think all the heavenly bodies are under their control, 
and when there is an eclipse some of their tribe hide it with 
a sheet of bark to frighten the rest. There was about six 
years before Murrells' restoration an eclipse of the sun, 
nearly a total eclipse — the only one he saw — about four 
o'clock in the afternoon. He asked an old man what it 
meant, and he told him his son had hid it (the sun) to 
frighten another of his tribe. But they were very uneasy 
during its continuance. They picked up a piece of grass and 
bit it, making a mumbling noise, keeping their eyes steadily 
fixed on it till it passed over, when they became easy again. 
They think they have power over the rain (durgun) to make 
it come and go as they like. The rainbow (terebare) they 
think is the clouds spewing fish in the lagoons, and roots 
on the hills, or something for their good, wherever the end 

points They told me that their 

forefathers witnessed a great flood, and nearly all were 
drowned, only those who got on a very high mountain 
{Bibbiringda, which is inland of the north bay of Cape 
Cleveland) were saved. He understood them to refer to the 
flood mentioned in Scripture, especially as they say only a 
few were allowed to go up." One of the ceremonies prac- 
tised, when admitting lads to the status of men, is tying up 
the arms above the elbow, as is done on the west coast. 
Many other practices already referred to in these pages are 



MOUNT Ea^LIOTT. 451 

also mentioned by Murrells. Following are given the few 
words which appear in the pamphlet and are found in my 
Common Vocabulary. 



2 F 2 



452 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 125.— MOUNT ELLIOTT. 



Kangaroo - 

Opossum - - moongun. 

Tame dog - 

Wild dog - 

Emu - - - koondoola. 

Black duck - yamara. 

Wood duck 

Pelican 

Laughing jackass 

Native companion phorogwan. 

White cockatoo - 

Crow 

Swan 

Egg ■ 

Track of a foot - 

Fish - 

Lobster 

Csayfish 

Mosquito - 

Fly - - - 

Snake- 

The Blacks 

A Blackfellow - munya. 

A Black woman - youngoora. 

Nose - 



Hand - 


kaban kaban 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


woggin. 


Two - 


boolray. 


Three 


goodjoo. 


Four - 


murrwool. 


Father 




Mother 




Sister-Elder 




„ Younger - 




Brother-Elder - 




„ Younger 




A young man 




An old man 




An old woman - 




A baby 


colamar. 


A White man - 




Children - 




Head - 


coode. 


Eye - 


teeburra. 


Ear - 


deeragun, 



MOUNT ELLIOTT. 



453 





No. 125.— Mount Elliott— continued. 


Mouth 


■ 


Boomerang - 


. 


Teeth- 


■ 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


■ weir. 


Wood - 




Beard - 


- 


Stone - 




Thunder 
Grass - 


- teegoora. 


Camp - 
Yes - 




Tongue 


- telli. 






Stomach 


- booloo. 


No - - 


- 


Breasts 


- urga, namoon. 


I- 


- 


Thigh - 


- 


You - 


- 


Foot - 


- deena. 


Bark - 


- 


Bone - 


. 


Good - 


- 


Blood - 


. 


Bad - 


- 


Skin - 




Sweet - 


- 


Pat - 


- 


Food - 


- 


Bowels 


- 


Hungry 


- 


Excrement - 


- 


Thirsty 


- 


War-spear - 


- 


Eat - 


- 


B«ed-spear - 


- 


Sleep - 


„ 


Wommera or 




Drink - 


. 


- throwing-stick 




Walk - 




Shield - 












See - 


_ 


Tomahawk - 


- buUgoo. 


Sit - 




Canoe - 


■ woolgoora. 




Sun - - 


- injin. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Moon - 


■ wurboonburra. 


To-day 


- 


Star - 


mUgoolerburda. 


To-morrow - 


- 


Light - 




Where are 


the 


Dark - 




Blacks? 




Cold - 




I don't know 


- 


Heat - 




Plenty 


- qneerarilla. 


Day - 




Big - - 


- wadoolbil. 


Night - - 




Little - 


- waboora. 


Tue 


ejugaba. 


Dead - 


. . 


Water - 
Smoke- 


- doongalla. 


By and-by - 


- 


Ground 


mannie. 


Come on 


- 


Wind - 




Milk - 


- 


Raia - 


■ durgun. 


Eaglehawk 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- mooraynburra 


Ghosts 




Wife - 


. 



454 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 126.— MOUTHS OF THE BURDEKIN RIVER. 



By J. O'CoNNOE, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


arragoo. 


Hand - 


- wurrumby. 


Opossum 


onehunger. 


2 Blacks - 


- blarin dulgooh. 


Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 


oodoodoo. 


3 Blacks - 


- wungoo dulgooh 


Emu - 


karboonmillery. 


One - 


- warrin. 


Black duck - 


hoorooburry. 


Two - 


- blarin. 


Wood duck - 


culburh. 


Three - 


- wungoo. 


Pelican 


dooroomuUy. 


Four - 


- muiragi. 


Laughing jackass 


karcoobura. 


Father 


- abah. 


Native companion kooroogowgun. 


Mother 




White cockatoo - 


bunginna. 


- yunguma. 


Crow - 


wombugah. 


Sister-Elder 


- kooda. 


SwEin - 




,, Younger 


- 


Egg - 


gunnoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- kudun. 


Track of a foot 


yulmun. 


„ Younger 


Fish - 


weambura. 


A young man 


- deebahgul. 


Lobster 


boogurrie. 


An old man 


- nuganugamun. 


Crayfish 


inundah. 


An old woman 


- bundeyun. 


Mosquito 


hoonhoono. 




Fly - - - 


nin. 


A baby 


- cowla. 


Snake - 


boongi (carpet). 


A White man 


- yuarroo. 


The Blacks - 


dulgooh. 


Children 


- moolaramoo. 


A Blackf ellow 


dulgooh. 


Head - 


- karboyan. 


A Black woman 


tudgegun. 


Eye - 


- deebara. 


Nose - 


wuneary. 


Ear - 


- kungun. 



MOUTHS OF THE BURDEKIN RIVER, 



455 



No. 126 


. — Mouths of the Bukdekin Rivee- 


—continued. 


Mouth 


- unga. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


• dinguU. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- targuinn. 


Wood - 


- moora. 


Beard - 


- talba. 


Stone - 


- bungil. 


Thunder - 


- burrahroo. 


Camp - 


- midera. 


Grass - 


- narahminie. 


Yes - 


- yu yow. 






No - 


- karbil. 


Tongue 


- dulling. 


I 


- uda. 


Stomach 


- boonda. 






Breasts 


- dulnbinn. 


You - 


- ninda. 


Thigh - 


- duburrin. 


Bark - 


- bulgun. 


Foot - 


- dingooburra. 


Good - 


- boongoon. 


Bone - 


- mimmoon. 


Bad - - 


- diga. 


Blood - 


- queeberry. 


Sweet - 


- goondi. 


Skin - 


- tnindeer. 


Food - 


- dunggee, ogoo 


Fat - 


- boongaroo. 


Hungry 


- garoo. 


Bowels 


- yabboo. 


Thirsty 


- , armboo yul- 


Excrement - 


- guno. 




burana. 


War-spear - 


- woolunbura. 


Eat - 


- dulgee ogoo. 


Reed-spear - 


- (none used). 


Sleep - 


- boog oggba. 


Wommera or 


buddurrie. 










Drink - 


- kudge ogoo. 


throwing-stiok 








Shield 


- poodda poodda. 


Walk - 


- warin. 


Tomahawk - 


- oolun. 


See 


- na. 


Canoe - 


- karbeyal. 


Sit - 


- duri. 


Sun - 


- mnlloun. 


Yesterday - 


- dirrierih. 


Moon - 


- waboonburra. 


To-day 


- cudgin. 


Star - - 


- dirilger. 


To-morrow - 


- burrigunda. 


Light - 


- baragunna. 


Where are the ulba dalgul ? 


Dark - 


- wuUmrrie. 


Blacks? 




Cold .- 


- orbehgun. 


I don't know 


- carbilbrather. 


Heat - 


- moondo moondo. 


Plenty 


- murrgi. 


Day - 


- unbur. 


Big - 


- yunga. 


Night - 


- 


Little - 


- arbooro. 


Fire - 


- neebuU. 


Dead - 


- walgoon. 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 


- dunjun. 

- doongin. 

- dingur. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 


- boodinhi. 

- kooa. 


Wind- 


- uinne. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - 


- marroo. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


God - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


- 



456 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



No. 127.— PORTER'S RANGE. 



Bt Montagu Curb, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


woora. 


Hand 


- malla. 


Opossum - 


thangaroo. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


Tame dog - 


moora. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 








Emu 


koondooloo. 


One - 


- wigin. 


Black duck 


koberri. 


Two - 


- poolaroo. 


Wood duck 


jimaju. 


Three - 


- koorburra 


Pelican 


pooloon. 


Pour - 


- 


Laughing jackass 


kakoburra. 


Father 


- yabbo. 


Native companioi] 
White cockatoo - 


■ 
therone. 


Mother 


- yanga. 


Crow - 


wooralta. 


Sister-Elder 


- koodtha. 


Swan - 




„ Younger 


- 


Egg - - - 


koomurra. 


Brother-Elder 


- waboo. 


Track of a foot - 


yalga. 


„ Young 


er 


Fish - 


kooyo. 


A young man 


- kowala. 


Lobster 
Crayfish 


wagooramoo. 


An old man 


- magoora. 


Mosquito - 


kooa. 


An old woman 


- wumpan. 






A baby 


- kundoo. 


Fly - 


- ninga. 






Snake 


noonda. 


A White man 


- miggolo. 


The Blacks - 


kooroon. 


Children 


- webburru 


A Blackfellow 


murree. 


Head - 


- kowro. 


A Black woman - 


wangu. 


Eye - 


- dthille. 


Nose - 


nindee. 


Ear - 


- walloo. 



PORTER'S RANGE. 



457 



No. 127.— Poetek's 



Mouth 


- dtha. 


Teeth - 


- yeera. 


Hair of the head 


- kudtha. 


Beard - 


- iiTiga. 


Thunder - 


- moandhilla 


Grass - 


- boogun. 


Tongue 


- dthallan. 


Stomach 


- buima. 


Breasts 


- bilbille. 


Thigh 


- yungurra. 


Foot - 


- deena. 


Bone - 


- bulbun. 


Blood - 


- kooma. 


Skm - 


- miniun. 


Fat ■ 


- tammy. 


Bowels 


- nambo. 


Excrement - 


- koonua. 


War-spear - 


- kalka. 


Reed-spear - 


- moongul. 


Wommera or 


bingo. 


throwing-atick 




Shield - 


- koolmaree. 


Tomahawk ■ 


- balko. 


Canoe - 


- 


Sun - 


- kyee. 


Moon - 


- ebarra. 


Star - 


- botho. 


Light - 


- bunning. 


Dark - 


- oonoo. 


Cold - 


- winua. 


Heat - 


- mungurra. 


Day - 


- kurringo. 


Night - 


- oonoo 


Fu-e. - 


- booree. 


Water 


- kamoo. 


Smoke 


- dthoga. 


Ground . 


- nauee. 


Wind- 


- eburra. 


Rain - 


- komoo. 


God - 


. 


Ghosts 


_ 



Range — continued. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Hill ■ 


- 


Wood - 


- dthoola. 


Stone - 


- byee. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Yes - 


- wyee. 


No - 


- gurra. 


I 


- ngiar. 


You - 


- inda. 


:Bark - 


- koka. 


Good - 


- booroolera. 


Bad - 


- magora. 


Sweet 


- 


Pood - 


- uree. 


Hungry 


- karamoonoo. 


Thirsty 


- woola. 


Eat - 


- uguUa. 


Sleep - 


- bomburra. 


Drink - 


- uganago. 


Walk - 


- tooago. 


See - 


- mug-gul-a. 


Sit - 


- naboo. 


Yesterday - 


- 


To-day 


- 


To-morrow - 


- wirraroo. 


Where are 


the wundthamurree? 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- gnia gurra yim- 




billa. 


Plenty 


- boolgun. 


Big - 


- 


Little - 


- walidgero. 


Dead - 


- woolanoo. 


By-and-by - 


- dthango. 


Come on 


- kannee. 


Milk - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Wife - 





458 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 128.— CHARTERS TOWERS. 



From the Chief Commissionbe of Police, Brisbane. 



The equivalent for the word 
tribe, now long extinct. There is 



is the same as that of the Sydney 
but one word to express hill and stcyne. 



Kangaroo - 


oora. 


Opossum- 


tandroo. 


Tame dog - 


ooda. 


Wild dog - 




Emu - 


kondoolo. 


Black duck - 


kubbrie. 


Wood duck - 




Pelican 


weeda. 


Laughing jackass 




Native companion 




White cockatoo - 


doorona. 


Crow - 


warralba. 


Swan - 




Egg - - . 


kookabeck. 


Track of a foot 


dinna. 


Pish - 


koorie. 


Lobster 




Crayfish 




Mosquito - 


kooa. 


Ply - - ■ 




Snake - 




The Blacks - 


mankill. 


A Blackfellow - 


marria. 


A Black woman 




Nose - 


uinde. 



Hand - 


- muUa. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- 


Two - 


- 


Three - 


- 


Pour - 


- 


Pather 


- yabba. 


Mother 


- yanga. 


Sister-Elder 


- 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- kudena 


,, Younger wappo. 


A young man 


- 


An old man 


- prengul 


An old woman 


- 


A baby 


- wappo. 


A White man 


- 


Children - 


- 


Head - 


- kudda. 


Eye - 


- dillie. 


Ear - 


- walloo 



CHARTERS TOWERS. 



459 



No. 128. — Chapters 

Mouth - - da. 

Teeth- - - alia. 
Hair of the head- kudda. 

Beard- - - ongar. 
Thunder 

Grass - - - woomba. 

Tongue - - alia. 

Stomach - - bona. 

Breasts - - mombot. 

Thigh- - - thurra. 
Foot - 

Bone - - - yangarra. 
Blood - 

Skin - - - milqut. 
Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 

War-spear - - konda. 
Eeed-spear - 
Wommera or 
throwing- stick 

Shield - - heelaman. 

Tomahawk - balgo. 
Canoe - 

Sun . - - kurra. 

Moon - - - kooqurra. 

Star - - - budda. 

Light - - - oona. 

Dark - - - oonock 

Cold - - - weeda. 

Heat - - - 

Day - - - 
Night - 

Fire - - - borra. 

Water - - abra. 

Smoke - - doogar. 

Ground - - nana. 
Wind - 

Rain - - . cobra. 
God - 

Ghosts - - gooie. 



To^iEBS— continued. 


Boomerang - 


- warangal 


Hill - 


- barrie. 


Wood - 


- budda. 


Stone - 


- barrie. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Yes - 


- 


No - 


- 


I 


- 


You - 


- 


Bark - 


- bulgut. 


Good - 


- nooda. 


Bad - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Pood - 


- 


Hungry 


- curquna. 


Thirsty 


- abra. 


Eat - 


- 


Sleep - 


- yamba. 


Drink 


- abra. 


Walk - 


- 


See - 


- 


Sit - 


- 


Yesterday - 


- 


To day 


- 


To-morrow - 


- 


Where are 


the 


Blacks ? 




I don't know 


- 


Plenty 


- 


Big - - 


- 


Little - 


- coa. 


Dead - 


- oUa. 


By-and-by • 


- 


Come on 


- 


Milk - 


- ommoon. 


Baglehawk - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- burcum. 


Wife - 


- berguna. 



460 



THE AUSTRALIAN BACE : 



No. 129.— UPPER FLINDERS, HUGHENDEN, 
BUTTON RIVER, ETC. 

By Montagu Cueb, Esq., ajsb Edwabd Cube. Esq. 

Of the dialects of the Upper Flinders and Dutton Rivers I 
have received two specimens from my brother and son named 
above. The name of the language is Pooroga. It mnch 
resembles that of Tower Hill and Cornish Creek, and has 
many words found in the Porter's Range, Diamantina and 
Thomson Rivers languages. The two samples produced of 
the Pooroga agree very well, though obtained probably 
from persons of distinct tribes. 



No. 129.— UPPER FLINDERS, HUGHENDEN, AND DUTTON 
RIVER. 





By Montagu Cure, Esq. 




Kangaroo - 


gooroo. 


Hand - 


murra. 


Opossiim 


cudthra. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


cobboora. 


3 Blacks 




Wild dog - 








Emu - 




One - 




Black duck - 


oooburree. 


Two - 


boolurroo. 


Wood duck - 




Three - 


boorka. 


Pelican 




Four - 




Laughing jackass 


co-ca-burra. 






Native companion bilbungala. 


Father 


mareera. 


White cockatoo - 


mooranga. 


Mother 


marrunka. 


Crow - 


wagunna. 


Sister-Elder 


cudthuuna 


Swan - 




,, Younger 




Egg - 

Track of a foot ■ 


dthaudoo. 


Brother-Elder 


moogoona. 


Fish - 


cooyoo. 


,, Younger 




Lobster 


marooroo. 


A young man 


nyunka. 


Crayfish - 




An old man 


baboora. 


Mosquito - 


coongoona. 


An old woman 




Fly - 
Snake - 


ngingya. 
moonda. 


A baby 


dgellaroo. 


The Blacks - 


murree 


A White man 






(doubtful). 


Children 




A Blackfellow 




Head - 




A Black woman - 


ngyunga. 


Eye - 


dthilli. 


Nose - 


wangoye. 


Bar - 


munta. 



UPPER FLINDERS, HUGHENDEN, ETC. 



461 



No. 129. — Upper Flinders, Htjghenden, and Ddtton River — 
crnitinued. 



Mouth 


dthowa. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


ulgulla. 


Hill - 




Hair of the head 


cudthagoorun. 


Wood - 




Beard 


unga. 


Stone - 


- but-thuUa. 


Thunder - 


■ ge-i. 






Grass ■ 


yagoo. 


Camp - 


- wongo. 


Tongue 


- koogunya. 


Yes - 


- eea. 


Stomach 


- yagoora. 


No - 


- 


Breasts 




I 




Thigh 
Foot - 


- d'tharroo. 

- d'thinna. 


You - 


■ 


Bone - 


- goomgooma. 


Bark - 


- magoora. 


Blood - 


- eergurra. 


Good - 




Skin - 


- magoora. 


Bad - 


- 


Fat - 


- dthoona. 


Sweet - 


. 


Bowels 




Food - 


- minna. 


Excrement - 


- koomia. 










Hungry 


- win-giu-a-roo 


War-spear - 
Eeed-spear 


- moorga. 


Thirsty 
Eat - 


- kunga. 


Wommera or 






throwing-stick 




Sleep - 




Shield- - 


- coolmurree. 


Drink - 




Tomahawk - 


- coodja. 


Walk - 




Canoe - 


- 


See - 




Sun - 


. knmba. 


Sit - 


- 


Moon - 


- kogurra. 


Yesterday - 


- 


Star - - 


- d'the-gul-cood- 


To-day 


. 


Light - 


tha. 


To-morrow - 


- djinroo. 


Dark - 


- burgun. 


Where are the 
Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- inguano. 






Heat - 




I don't know 




Day 




Plenty 




Night - - 


- 


Big - 




Fire - 


- booree. 


Little - 




Water- 


- kamoo. 


Dead - 


- ooranoo. 


Smoke 


- dthooga. 


By-and-by - 




Ground 


- goondee. 


Come on 




Wind - 


- poodtha. 


Milk - 




Rain 


- kamoo. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 





462 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 129.— UPPER FLINDERS, HUGHBNDEN, AND DUTTON 
RIVER. 

By Edwaed CuiiK, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


gooroo. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum 


kathara. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 


kabburra. 

ooloarri. 
koo-daboora. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 
Two - 


- ungarr. 

- boolarri, poole. 


Wood duck - 


narawool. 


Three - 


- goorboore. 


Pelican 


tarraroo. 


Four - 


- poorooga. 


Laughing jackass 


kakooburra. 


Father 


- maruna, marri. 


Native companion 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - 


bilbungara. 

murroin. 

wadda. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- yamgin, yanga. 

- ngamalla. 


Swan - 




„ Younger 


- wabagoo. 


Egg - 


tarndoo. 


Brother-Elder 


- muggi. 


Track of a foot - 


tinna. 


,, Younger wabagoo. 


Fish - 


kooyoo. 


A young man 


- wangoor, balba. 


Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - - 
Snake - 


koongain. 

yilna. 

moouda. 


An old man 
An old woman 
A baby 
A White man 


- eyara. 

- mangoor. 

- gallaroo. 

- yerby. 


The Blacks - 


yalgaburra. 


Children 


- ooranga. 


A Blackfellow 




Head - 


- paragna, parryn 


A Black woman 


wooroona. 


Eye ■ 


- timmari. 


Nose - 


gooni. 


Ear - 


- munga. 



UPPER FLINDERS, HUGHENDEN, ETC. 



463 



No. 129. — Upper Plindebs, Hughenden,. and Button Rivbr- 
contimied. 



Mouth- 


- dt-hawa. 


Boomerang - 


- kulga. 


Teeth - 


- nugala. 


Hill • - 


- undoothala. 


Hair of the head 


■ wooroo. 


Wood - 


- boorri. 


Beard - 


- nunga. 


Stone - 


- yanandoro. 


Thunder - 


- pimanoo. 


Camp - 


■ warngo. 


Grass - 
Tongue 


- yakoo. 

- kookanya. 


Yes - 


- yae. 


Stomach 


- koogingara. 


No 


- nowa. 


Breasts 


- yammoon. 


I 


- yo. 


Thigh - 


- yangara. 


You - 


- ioo. 


Foot - 


- tiima. 


Bark - 


- mindana, yoo- 


Bone - 


- koongoona. 




arna. 


Blood - 


"- yirgoora. 


Good - 


- tarrili, dtharil 


Skin - 


- magoora. 


Bad - 


- al-i-goo. 


Fat - 


- toodda. 


Sweet - 




Bowels 


- padanna. 


Pood - 


- minna, purga. 


Excrement - 


- koonna. 


Hungry 


- karamulberri. 


War-spear - 


- moorga. 


Thirsty 


- karraga. 


Reed-spear - 
Wommera or 


- kaygooma. 
koonbinna. 


Eat - 


■ yooga. 


throwing-stick 




Sleep - 


- wilgida. 


Shield - 


- koolmurri. 


Drink - 


- yoogangaoo. 






Walk - 


- kabonaoo. 


Tomahawk - 


- kooga. 


See 


- tillilma. 


Canoe - 
Sun - 


- karri. 


Sit 


- yinda. 


Moon - 


- tagara, ka,gara. 


Yesterday - 
To-day 


- kageam. 

- waabedunga. 


Star - 


■ tigalnagoo. 










To-morrow - 


- waanga. 


Light - 


- waa. 


Where are 


the ninaya nagaoo. 


Dark - 


- oonno. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - 


- wirra, weda. 


I don't know 


- nawadi. 


Heat - 
Day - 

Night - 


- wanginna. 

- nambimbidoo. 


Plenty 
Big - 


- yangamara, 

pooroga. 

- walbagna. 


Fire - 


- boorri. 


Little - 


- wabigoo. 


Water- 


- kammoo. 


Dead - 


- oola, cunga. 


Smoke 


- tooka. 






Ground 


- koondi. 


By-and-by - 


- 






Come on 


- kawayi. 


Wind - 


- parooga. 






Rain - 


- kammoo, woor- 


Milk - 


- kooma. 




alba. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God . - 


_ 


Wild turkey 


- pragam. 


Ghosts 


, 


Wife - 


- nadunda. 



464 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 130.— THE WATERSHED AND UPPER PORTION 
OF THE CAPE RIVER. 

By M. Armstrong, Inspector op Police. 

FoK the foUowing account of the Mungerra tribe, which 
inhabits the watershed and upper portion of the Cape River, 
I am indebted to the Commissioner of PoUce in Queensland, 
and to Inspector M. Armstrong. The extent of country 
belonging to the tribe is said to be about 300 square nules; 
and its numbers are — 70 men, 30 women, 30 boys, and 20 
girls, in all 150 souls. When their country was first 
occupied by the Whites in 1860, their numbers were estimated 
at 360. The decrease is attributed to the diseases always 
introduced by the Whites, and to influenza, sMn disease, 
want of food, and probably to the atrocities of the Black 
Police, which are not mentioned, however. My informant 
says that this tribe wear no clothes; that the height of the 
men is about five feet seven inches, and that of the women 
four feet eleven inches ; and that few live to be over forty 
years of age. That the stature, strength, and duration of 
life amongst the Blacks of Northern Queensland are less 
than in the southern portion of the continent, I find to be 
the opinion of several of my correspondents, Mr. Armstrong 
amongst them. 

For ornaments, the Mungerra tribe wear a bone through 
the septum of the nose, a mussel-shell on the forehead, and 
a necklace of small reeds cut into short lengths. On 
occasions of corroborees, deaths, and fights, the men smear 
their persons with the usual grease and red ochre or pipe- 
clay, according to circumstances. Their implements are 
baskets, knives which resemble chisels in shape, and stone 



WATERSHED AND PORTION OF CAPE RIVER. 465 

tomahawks ground to an edge. They have also nets for the 
capture of kangaroo, emu, .and fish. Their weapons are 
jagged war-spears thrown with the hand, and reed-spears 
thrown with the wommera; also boomerangs of both sorts, 
and the inevitable nuUa-nuUa or club, which last is the only- 
weapon they decorate with carving. Their meat they cook 
on the coals; ovens are not found amongst them. No traces 
of small-pox have been observed. 

My informant remarks that this tribe are cannibals to a 
limited degree, and when sorely pinched by hunger have 
been known to kill and eat some of their female children. 
They have no objection to tell their names. Marriages are 
made both in and out of the tribe. The males are allowed 
to get wives at from seventeen to twenty years of age if they 
are able, and the females become wives at eleven to fourteen 
years of age, and have been known to have children at 
twelve years. About one-fifth of the men who have wives 
have more than one. Children belong to the tribe . of the 
father. In youth, the males and females have their skins 
orn'amented with scars. When the period of adolescence is 
past, a front tooth is knocked out of the upper jaw of the 
males and the lower jaw of the females. Circumcision and 
other rites of the sort are not practised in this tribe, but on . 
occasions of mourning they cut- and gash themselves in 
various places. They have a great fear of a Supernatural 
Being, and also of the dead. They make young men on the 
occasion of their corroborees. Their dead are buried, but 
not at any great depth, and the friends of the deceased paint 
portions of their bodies -with pipe-clay on such occasions. 
Disagreements are settled by pitched battles, single -combats, 
or arbitration. " I have known," says Mr. Armstrong, " a 
•message to be sent over one hundred miles on a stick about 
four inches long, notched all over -with diamond-shaped 
marks. The stick was about one inch in circumference." 

So far as has been observed, no government exists in the 
tribe. The names of the neighbouring tribes are Bulla, 
TumbuUa, Mungubra, Queebinbirra, and Mungabirra. 

VOL. II. 2 G 



466 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 130— WATERSHED AND UPPER PORTION OE CAPE 
RIVER. 



Kangaroo - 


tikkara. 


Opossum 




Tame dog - 




Wild dog - 




Emu - - . - 


goberri. 


Black duck - 


kotubra. 


Wood duck- 


barcoma. 


Pelican_ 


bilbungra. 


Laughing jackass 


obbirri. 


Native colnpanion 


tarrooroo. 


White cockatoo - 


chikeri. 


Crow - 


wawteringa. 


Swan - 




Egg - - - 


thando. 


Track of a foot - 


tri. 


Pish - 


kooyoo. 


Lobster 




Crayfish ■ - 


- 


Mosquito - 


kogunnia. 


Fly - - - 


nunga. 


Snake - 


thrana. 


The Blacks 


meanna. 


A Blaokfellow - 




A Black woman ■ 


uugoo. 


Nose - 


ungne. 



Hand - 


mobrey. 


2 Blacks - 




3 Blacks - 




One - 


wongra. 


Two - ' - 


booUi. 


Three - 




Pour - - ■ - 


goodberri 


Father 


marena. 


Mother 


■ younga. 


Sister-Elder 


omula. 


„ Younger - 


kathna. 


Brother-Elder - 


mugenna. 


„ Youngei 


tombua. 


A young man 


ulora. 


An old man 


nathua. 


An old- woman 


babina. 


A baby 


■ galaroo. 


A White man 




Children ■ 


ama. 


Head 


yabinga. 


Eye - 


- dilli. 


Ear - 


■ mungua. 



WATERSHED AND PORTION OF CAPE RIVER. 



467 



No. 130— V 


T'atershed and Upp 


BR Portion of 


Cape River — 




contimmd. 




Mouth 


■ tooga. 


Boomerang - 


- gulga. 


Teeth - 


- era. 


Hill - 


- mungna. 


Hair of the head 


- yoUi. 


Wood - 


- thoola. 


Beard - 


- nunda. 


Stone - 


- pathilla. 


Thunder - 


- gurru. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- yago. 


Yes - 


- yalguma. 


Tongue 


- kaae. 


' No - 


- nowa. 


Stomach 


- koona. 


I 


- iu. 


Breasts 


- thungoo 


You - - 


- wolaga. 


Thigh 


- mogo. 


Bark - 


- koka. 


Foot ■ ■ 


- thinna. 


Good - 


- tharibra. 


Bone - 


- gunguna. 


Bad - - 


- kicha. 


Blood - 


- ugra. 


Sweet - 


- tharibra. 


Skin - 


- mokra. 






Fat - 


- tommi. 


Food - 


- mooa. 


Bowels 


- thunga. 


Hungry 


- kajnunga. 


Excrement - 


- goomia. 


Thirsty 


- kurena. 


War-spear - 


- bilgi. 


Eat - 


- maionuna. 


E^ed-spear - 


- warda 


Sleep - 


- olkitta. 


Wommera - 


- thoomulla. 


Drink - 


- mangena. 


Shield 


- gullmerri. 


Walk - 


- tooa. 


Tomahawk - 


- koooha. 


See - 


- parrari. 


Canoe 


- 


Sit - 


- endana. . 


Sun - 


- winganna. 


Yesterday - 


- kalkura. 


Moon - 


- kokkra. 






Star - 


- buttu. 


To-day 
To-morrow - 


- nakka. 


Light - 


- nnnu. 






Dark - 


. 


Where are the 


kurra murra ? 


Cold - 


- wida. ■ 


Blacks? 




Heat - 


- thowri. 


I don't know 


- natu. 


Day - 


- nnnu. 


Plenty 


- yanunga. 


Night - - 


- waberri. 


Big - 


- baabirra. 


Fire - : 


- bree. 


Little - 


- kokoro. 


Water 


- kanamo. 


Dead - 


- woligi. . 


Smoke 


- dungunna. 


By-and-by - 


- guragura. 


Ground 


- gunay. 


Come on 


- thourakabona. 


Wind- 


- parretta. 


Milk - 


- nommuima. 


Rain - 


- kammo. 


Eaglehawk - 


- umbilla. 


God - - 


- 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- yarri. 

2 


Wife - 

3r2 


- wouna. 



468 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

No. 131.— NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE EIVER. 

By F. M. -ToMPSON, Esq., and William Chatpield, Jun., Esq. 

Of the laaguage of the Pegulloburra tribe, which is called 
Eneby, I have received two vocabularies, one from Mr. F. M. 
Tompson, Inspector of Police, and the other from Mr. Wm. 
Chatfield, jun., of Natal Downs Station. This latter gentle- 
man, who has taken much kindly interest in my inquiries, 
has also furnished me with such information as has enabled 
me to give the following account of the tribe. 

In country watered by the Cape Eiver, and measuring 
about one hundred miles square (i.e., ten thousand square 
miles, or six million four hundred thousand acres), dwell six 
burra, or tribes, who speak, with smaU dialectic differences, 
what they call the Eneby language. The names of these 
tribes are: — 

1. Yukkaburra, supposed to be the original stock. 

2. Pegulloburra. 

3. Wokkulburra (i.e., Eel people). 

4. Mungooburra. 

5. MunguUaburra (Spinifex people). 

6. Goondoolooburra (Emu people). 

Each of these tribes is subdivided into four classes. Every 
class has its representative bird, animal, or reptile (com- 
monly called totem or crest), and, says Mr. Chatfield, every 
member of the tribe, male or female, has imprinted on his 
or her person on arriving at puberty a mark which identifies 
the class to which he or she belongs. This statement, I think, 
requires confirmation before it can be accepted. The follow- 
ing are the names of the classes in the Yukkaburra tribe, 
with their crests or totems, of which some have two: — 

Utheroo - . . . Crest— Emu or carpet snake. 

Multheroo - - - - Crest — Iguana. 

Yungaroo - - - . Cresfh-Opossum. 

Goorgilla - - . . Crest— Scrub turkey. 



NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE RIVER. . 469 

These class-names are given in the masculine gender; 
when applied to women, each has a feminine termination or 
equivalent. 

Many words in the Eneby vocabulary are commonly met 
with as far as Broad Sound. In the vocabulary of these 
tribes are also words prevalent on the Upper Flinders. The 
word munkine, young woman, is found on the Norman River, 
on Spear Creek, at Cleveland Bay, at Townsville, and other 
places. Amongst the Additional Words will be foitnd 
bomar = beat, which is met with on the Burnett and also in 
Western Australia but slightly altered. 

The territory of the Pegulloburra, Mr. Chatfield informs 
me, was first occupied as a station in 1863, but the tribe was 
not what is technically called let in until 1868. Generally, 
after the first occupation of a tract of country by a settler, 
from three to ten years elapse before the tribe or tribes to 
which the land has belonged from time immemorial is let in, 
that is, is allowed to come to the homestead, or seek for food 
within a radius of five or ten miles of it. During this period 
the squatter's party and the tribe live in a state of warfare; 
the former shooting down a savage now and then when 
opportunity ofi'ers, and calling in the aid of the Black Police 
from time to time to- avenge in a wholesale way the killing 
or frightening of stock off the run by the tribe. Acting on 
the well-known feature of aboriginal ethics, that every male 
stranger is an enemy, who must, if possible, be slain, the 
Queensland Grovernment has largely availed itself of its 
aboriginal population for the jpurpose of punishing aboriginal 
agressions. The stereotyped proceedings which follow the 
taking up of a run may be described in this way, and if I 
mention them, it is only on the chance that further publicity 
— for they are well known — may possibly contribute to the 
adoption of more humane measures. 

When the settler then locates his stock on a piece of 
country hitherto in the sole possession of a tribe, the roots, 
grass-seeds, and game on which the people habitually live 
quickly fail. Then come hunger and also anger, for amongst 



470 . THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 

themselves the hunting or gathering of food by a tribe on 
land which does not belong to it is always considered a 
casus belli by the rightful proprietors; just as in our case to 
take or destroy a neighbour's sheep or cabbages is a punish- 
able act. Then some cattle are speared, or frightened off 
the run by the mere presence of the Blacks in search of 
food. In either of these events the Blacks are attacked 
and some of them shot down. In revenge, a shepherd 
or ' stockman is speared. Recourse is then had to the 
Government; half-a-dozen or more young Blacks in some 
part of the colony remote from the scene of the out- 
rage are enlisted, mounted, armed, liberally supplied 
with ball cartridges, and despatched to the spot under the 
charge of a Sub-inspector of Police. Hot for blood, the Black 
troopers are laid on the trail of the tribe ; then follow the 
careful tracking, the surprise, the shooting at a distance 
safe from spears, the deaths of many of the males, the 
capture of the women, who know that if they abstain from 
flight they will be spared ; the gratified lust of the savage, 
and the Sub-inspector's report that the tribe has been 
'^dispersed," for such is the official term used to convey the 
occurrence of* these proceedings. When the tribe has gone 
through several repetitions of this experience, and the chief 
part of its young men' been butchered, the women, the 
remnant of the men, and such children as the Black troopers 
have not troubled themselves to shoot, are let in, or allowed 
to come to the settler's homestead, and the war is at an end. 
Finally, a shameful disease is introduced, and finishes what 
the rifle began. The PeguUoburra were not let in until 1868, 
having in the interim, Mr. Chatfield says, "been murdered 
bj Whites and Native Police wherever seen." When they 
were let in, there were only 125 able-bodied men left, the 
numbers of the women -and children being considerably 
greater. Measles also ravaged the tribe, so that the 
PelguUoburra at the time of Mr. Chatfield's writing 
reckoned only thirty men, fifty women, and some few 
children, for infanticide has become general amongst them. 



NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE RIVER. 47 L 

Amongst the whole of the six hurra, or tribes, there still 
remained, however, in 1880 at least 200 men, and a much 
larger number of women. 

A good many of this tribe, both men and women, lived, 
as far as my informant could judge, to be fifty or sixty years 
of age. Some of them have opossum-rugs, with which 
they cover themselves at night, but none use any cover- 
ing during the day, and, as usual in the north, all sleep 
surrounded by several small fires. Their principal orna- 
ments are sea shells, worn in the hair and round the neck, 
which they obtain by barter from the Kokleburra or 
Wokkulburra tribes, which occasionally visit the sea-coast. 
At corroborees they also wear waist-belts made of opossum- 
fur, chaplets of the teeth of wild dogs or kangaroo, and also 
■plumes of feathers. Of course they smear the person with 
grease whenever they can get it, for this is a custom common 
to the whole of the Australian tribes ; besides, they paint 
themselves at corroborees with red ochre and pipe-clay, and 
rub the skin with charcoal when in mourning. 

Of nets they have several descriptions, manufactured from 
the bark of the Kurrajong-tree ; kangaroo nets, wallaby nets, 
and fishing nets. Fish-hooks are unknown. They have also 
vessels of wood and bags of bark in which they carry water. 
The bags in which they convey their few belongings when 
on the march are made of grass; and what little sewing they 
do is with the common bone awl, the needle being unknown. 
Their knives are of flint, chipped and never ground to an 
edge. Their chisel consists of a handle of wood, about six 
inches long, which is split at one end, has a flake of flint or 
volcanic glass inserted in the split, and is then tied and 
covered with gum or beeswax. Sometimes the flint is merely 
fastened to the end of the stick with gum or wax, without a 
split. Their tomahawks are of diorite, first chipped and 
then ground sharp at the edge, with handles of vines, split 
and bent once round the stone, and secured where they meet 
with a seizing of twine, wax being thickly laid on to prevent 
slipping. Throughout the continent, as far as is known. 



472 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

there is always a difficulty in uniting the heads of toma- 
hawks and chisels with their handles, which is partly met 
by the use of wax or gum. Mr. Chatfield thinks that toma- 
hawk-heads which are picked up underground are merely 
unfinished articles, and not tools of an earlier date, as some 
have supposed. He adds — " There is a large quarry thirty 
miles from this with thousands of unfinished flawed toma- 
hawks lying about, as is also the case in many of the camps 
for miles around. May not many of the unpolished stone . 
hatchets of the so-called Palaeolithic period consist of rejected 
articles such as these ? Tn Figuier's Primitive Man, page 
154, figure 108, there is a drawing of a rubber for making 
tomahawks and bone needles, and did I not know where the 
stone represented was found, I should have thought it came 
from this run. Before we introduced iron tools, every camp 
had a stone of this kind." A curious implement of this 
tribe is the emu-call, a hollow piece of wood about two feet 
long and three inches in diameter, partially closed with wax 
at the small end. By blowing through this they make a 
sort of bellowing sound, sufficiently like the emu's voice to 
attract the bird at night within spear range or inside of 
kangaroo nets which have been set for the purpose. This 
call is not very common. Amongst their belongings are 
also head-bands made of strong cobwebs, and others of spun 
opossum fur, and waist bands of the last named material ; 
also small fringes worn round their middles by the women 
on festive occasions. 

Hence the love, of ornamental covering exists, whilst the 
first claims of decency are nearly, but not entirely, disre- 
garded. That there survives, even amongst people who have 
never worn any covering, an occasional shame of nakedness, 
I have noticed myself ; and one of my Barcoo correspondents, 
speaking of a tribe with which he is acquainted, remarks the 
same thing. Men and women seem never entirely to forget 
their nakedness. 

Of the weapons of the tribe, one is the boomerang which 
returns when thrown. Mr. Chatfield describes it as flat on 



NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE RIVER'. 473 

one side and convex on the other, as usual. On the convex 
side is carved a diamond-shaped pattern or one of parallel 
zig-zag lines, after the usual style of the ahoriginal artist. 
Their spears are light ones of grass-tree (or, perhaps, partly 
of grass-tree, as in the South), thrown with the wommera, 
and heavy wooden ones thrown by hand. Some of both kinds 
are barbed. In some cases the barbs are cut out of the soHd, 
and in others made of a piece of- hard wood, or of a flint, or 
a fish-bone, or a porcupine quill, neatly lashed to the point. 
Spears which are not barbed are covered with the gum of the 
gidyah-tree, which is supposed to aggravate the wound, a 
circumstance which reminds us of the poisoned arrows of 
some savages. 

Mr. Chatfield adds, as worthy of remark, that the tribes of 
the Nogoa and Dawson, though they sometimes meet the Cape 
River tribes at Peak Downs, never use the wommera, though 
they have plenty of grass-trees to make light spears of ; and 
do not barb their spears, which remark he also extends to 
the Wide Bay, Brisbane, and Burnett tribes. Any one who 
has had what I may call a general experience of the race, how- 
ever, must have noticed that, though an intense family like- 
ness in customs prevails throughout, most tribes have some 
peculiarities to which they cling with much pertinacity. 
Another weapon of these tribes is a wooden sword, about 
three feet six inches in length, which much resembles a 
boomerang in shape, and is wielded with both hands. They 
have also clubs of many varieties, each of which, as usual, 
has a distinct name. They have likewise shields. Their 
weapons are always colored. 

The food of these tribes is very various. Amongst other 
articles they have emu, kangaroo, wallaby, opossums, snakes, 
and birds ; in fact, all living things found in their country. 
But each season of the year has its particular article of food. 
At one time there is the nut of a cycas, which is prepared 
by first steeping in water, then roasting, and finally grinding 
like wheat, and cooking like our dampers. At another 
season there is the root of a water-lily, and also its seed. 



474 ■ . THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 

which is ground, and looks something like rice. Wild 
honey is likewise obtained in considerable quantities. In 
winter they have a sort of yam, and so on. As usual, there 
are many restrictions connected with food.. Emu and eels, 
for instance, are eaten only by full-blown warriors. Eggs 
are prohibited to young men and young women. Much of 
the food is cooked by means of heated stones in extemporized 
ovens. The more permanent ovens, or ash-heaps of the 
South, are not found in the PeguUoburra country. No 
marks of small-pox exist in these tribes. Cannibalism is of 
undoubted but of rare occurrence. For instance, should a 
fat man fall from a tree and break his neck, he is eaten. 

Marriages are regulated within the tribe by classes, men 
exchanging their daughters and sisters for females of the 
proper classes, who become their wives. Women are also 
exchanged with other tribes, and sometimes acquired by 
capture. When the country was first settled by us, many 
of the men were in" possession of two wives, whilst some had 
sis, and the majority none. 

Female children become wives at seven and mothers at 
twelve years of age. Widows, if not too old, go to brothers 
of their defunct husbands, or in default are seized upon by 
some strong man. The women rear (or used to do) about 
three children each, which belong to the tribe of the father, 
but to the class of the mother. Infanticide has much 
increased since the coming of the Whites; prior to that 
only such children were destroyed as their mothers were 
unable to carry with them on the march. 

The principal diseases are those usually introduced by 
the Whites and consumption, and of late years the low 
feVer from which the Whites in those parts suffer, which 
used to be but little known amongst the tribe in their wild 
state. 

These Cape River tribes, like perhaps all others, scar 
their persons. The operation is performed with a flint, and 
the wound filled -with feathers or down. Men scar their 



NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE RIVER. 475 

backs and shoulders in this way; the women are scarred 
shghtly between the breasts and across the stomach. Scars 
are made generally on the left thigh both of the men and 
women, continues Mr. Chatfield, but occasionally on the 
right, for the purpose of denoting the particular class to 
which they belong ; but as such a practice would conflict with 
the custom prevalent throughout the continent, as far as 
known, which is to make these marks for ornament alone, 
the statement cannot be received without further evidence. 
The tribe does not circumcise, nor does that rite obtain at 
any place, says my informant, mthin one hundred and fifty 
miles of their country. A front tooth used always to be 
knocked out, but, like other native customs, this one has 
been going out of vogue since the coming of the Whites. 

Mr. Chatfield informs me that the Cape Eiver tribes, ot 
which we are speaking, have a vivid belief in a future life. 
When a Blackfellow dies whose actions during life have 
been what they hold to be good, he is said to ascend to 
Boorala {i.e., to the Creator, literally good), where he lives 
much as he did on earth, less the usual terrestrial discomforts. 
The Milky Way, which is called Tugar {i.e., smoke), is said 
to be the smoke proceeding from celestial grass, set fire to 
by departed women, who by this signal direct the ghosts of 
the deceased. (as they did their husbands of old to their bush 
camp) to the eternal camp-fires of the tribe. It is strange 
that the Eucla people, so far away, should also regard the 
Milky Way as connected with themselves, as well as the 
Narrinyeri tribe.* To the man who has led a bad life, death 
is thought to be simple annihilation. Goin, the evil spirit, 
is said to be an old mau, with claws like an eagle and feet 
like an alligator, who occasionally, in the dark, tears people 
to pieces. They much fear the ghosts of their departed 
kinsfolk, and, if they think one is near, will sometimes rush 
at night from their camps in the wildest dismay, each to 
hide where best he can. 

* See Taplin's Folklm-e, p. 39. 



476 THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 

In sandstone caves, which are numerous in their country, 
the PeguUoburra make drawings of emu and kangaroo, and 
also imprints of their hands daubed with red. These latter 
are found on the almost inaccessible faces of the white 
sandstone cliffs. On the Cape Eiver, these red hands are 
called beera, a word which Mr. Chatfield correctly says 
means hand on the Burnett, 500 miles south. About these 
red hands he could never get any information, but circum- 
stances which he mentions led him at last to conjecture that 
they are connected with some superstitious custom or belief. 
This, however, I think, needs confirmation, and I fancy my 
informant was mistaken ; for we know that to made imprints 
of their feet on sand or muddy ground is common to the 
Blacks, little and big, everywhere ; and also to imprint their 
greasy hands on any object which will receive the impression. 
I have often noticed that the sight of such impressions gives 
them pleasure, and I look on the practice as an early stage 
of that love of art which is inherent in man. By pictures 
and images the Australian is greatly attracted. 

The PeguUoburra are a tallish people, with straight hair 
generally, and some few curly heads incline to be woolly. 
The practice of making young men by secret ceremonies is in 
vogue. When a man dies, his heart, bowels, liver, &c., are 
taken out and buried in the ground. The corpse is buried 
separately. After three or four weeks it is disinterred, and 
any flesh which may be left cleaned off the bones. The skull 
and bones are then generally broken and tied up in ti-tree 
bark. Over these for a few nights there is much lamenting. 
The parcel of bones is then placed on a platform made- in a 
tree, where it remains for three months or so. After that, 
the female relatives of the deceased, if he have any, carry the 
bones about thus tied up until tired of the encumbrance, or 
until they have ceased to cherish the memory of the deceased. 
The bodies of boys, women, and girls are sometimes buried 
and sometimes burnt. But little ceremony and one good 
cry take place. Immediately after a death, the camp is 
shifted for fear of ghosts. 



NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE RIVER. 



477 



The causes of war are the murder of stragglers, the 
stealing of -womeh, but, alaove all, the belief in deaths from 
incantations. When both sides are tired of killing stragglers, 
and have haid enough of war, the fighting-men hold a council, 
and choose two or three to meet the other side. The matter 
is then arranged, and the weaker party give some nets and 
women to make matters up. 

The practice of sending a notched stick with a messenger 
to another tribe is in use. Mr. Chatfield expresses himself 
as having a fancy that there are some faint traces of 
freemasonry amongst the tribe. He has not seen or heard 
of any Albinos. Witchcraft is practised. Old m6n pretend 
to extract crystals from the bodies of the sick by sucking. 

Amongst the Pegulloburra there is a vague tradition 
that their country once belonged to another tribe whom their 
ancestor conquered. Many of the names of places in their 
territory are those given by the- former occupants, and 
have meanings ; as moonyor-moonya = bats ; wolomina = 
_ cr mi -place; kurgiringa = Hawks' -place, and so on. In 
counting, the fingers and sometimes the toes are used to 
represent numbers. Mr. Chatfield gives the following 
Additional Words : — 





Adbitional Words. 




Kangaroo net 


boojoroo, boo- 


A stick 


- tular. 




garoo. 


Flowers 


- mujiga. 


Wallaby net 


wyang. 


Lily root - 


- coomy. 


Fish net 


mabbe. 


Lily seed 


- pundy,. pundoo. 


Net worn on fore - 


tarwoo. 


Cabbage-tree 


- ungun. 


head 




Bottle-tree 


- binge. 


Net baga made of 


widgee 


Mulga-tree ■ 


- boonaroo. 


grass 




Gidyah-tree 


- coobarool. 


Men's waist-belt 


moogooba. 


Yams - 


- monilla, cuthia 


Fringe worn as an 


womby. 


Cycas nut 


- deweel. 


apron by the 




Rock kangaroo 


- kargool. 


women 




Forest wallaby 


- tomba. 


Spinifex 


mungnlla. 


Rook wallaby 


- gooniooloo. 


Tree - _ - 


boboro. 


Kangaroo-rat 


- wier. 


Leaves 


di-i. 


Flying squirrel 


- mungoroo. 



478 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE 



Bush rat 

Rabbit-rat 

Flying fox 

Porcupine 

Bandicoot 

Iguana 

Alligator 

iguana) 
Dew or Jew lizard 
Lice - 
Wooden ' water 

vessel 
Bone needles or 



Additional Woii,i)S--continiied. 

Diamond snake - 
Water snake 
Black-head snake 
Deaf adder 
Black snake 



(long 



mabberoo. 

tubberoo. 

goondi. 

bubbera. 

uguUa. 

tukkin. 

tukkina. 



Flakes of flint - 

Emu-call 
Flint knife - 
Chisel 

Opossum-rug 
A spear barb 
Grass-tree spear - 
Sword 
NuUa-nuUa or club 



Honey 

Three sorts of 

wild bees 
Pigeon 

Common hawk - 
Sparrow-hawk - 
Quail 
Scrub turkey • - 

Bat- 
ch dear ! 
Feathers 

Snake in general - 
Carpet snake 
Green snake (tree) 
Brown snake 



bungara. 
kooleen. 
egara. 

pegooroo. 

tarine (i.e., 

sharp), 
boothera. 
kunga. 

tango, tangoroq. 
coomby. 
minke. 
culga. 
quinkum. 
mirroo, 

dimmy-dimmy, 

bullen-buUen. 
carpa. 
carpa, wothul, 

gooara. 
marmala. 
peiga. 
kurgine. 
burrandool. 
coocoobeen (i.e., 

eggs), 
moonya- moonya. 
yukkii I 
boona. 
moonda. 
carbool. 
warrowa. 
yabbeya. 



"Black bream 
Eel - 
Dew-flsh 
Fresh-water 
turtle 
Throat 
Chest 
Arms - 

Lower part of leg 
Knee and elbow - 
The liver - 
Togo 
To sing 
To hear 

To hunt 
To smell - 

To flog 

To beat (to excel) 

To come back 

To bite 

To pretend - 

To tie up - 

To cry 

To cooee 

To wipe 

To lose 

To laugh - 

To hide 

To dream - 

To kill 

Scrub 

Plains 

Charcoal 

Ashes 

Perspiration 



moongilly. 

ammoondoro 

goyogoro. 

munnum. 

coobree. 

weaner. 

wakul. 

doongooloo. 

congerree. 

booa. 
toonga. 
peigar. 
yungera. 
magia. 
yarkery. 
ninbago. 
mombo. 
walloogo, 
nuggalee. 
yimgundiana. 
ninde go 



wummera. 

boomali. 

yandogoingalle. 

curraburra. 

ugatharingo. 

ondigano. 

barry 

congul. 

ongo. 

umbuUy. 

yie. 

niroo. 

pidgoring. 

goondaty. 

muther. 

burguUa. 

mether. 

booan. 

culgara. 



NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE RIVER. 



479 



Additional Wo 


BDS — continued. 


White- - - bumbera. 


There or here - uUe. 


Black - - - coorebila. 


Where ? - - undee ? 


Red - - - nameroo. 


A long way - yurgo. 


Green - - boorba. 


Near - - - yathan. 


Grey - - - bingara. 


Fight - ■ - uthuUa, 


Sand ■ - - 9ulba;. 


I have had enough bunner uthuUa. 


A sandy creek - culbara. 


to eat; literally. 


A native hut - bulgunna. 


stomach-tight 


Salt-water or- sea- commo cungal, 


Tii'ed - - - dilnurra. 


ooogera. 


A large person - ballongo. 


A young woman - munkine. 


A wild person - bungineme. 


A maid - . - oolbo. 


Long - - goorgan. 


Uncle T ■ - mamy. 


Short - - - wapitu. 


Aunt - - - tabina. 


Quick - - - wokker. 


Male cousin - kungun. 


To break - - coongelee. 


Female cousin - kunguna. 


To tumble down - coongeringo. 


Husband - - goongul. 


Begone. - - munga-munga. 


God, also good - boorala. 


Go on - - - umbaga. 


Evil spirit ■ - goee, goin. 


New - - - yagilla. 


A bad man • - murre goee. 


Old - - - coolbaroo. 


Ghost - ■ - yungal. 


Stop - - - mungoindee. 


The Milky Way ■ tugar(lit. smoke). 


Sharp - - - tarrine. 


The Southern goondooloo (lit. 


What is yovtr uumbera inder ? 


Cross emu). 


name? 


Pleiades - - munkine (lit. a 


What is your annyburra inder? 


young woman). 


tribe? 


Mine - - - ichu. * 


Sunset - - kie burra. 


Yours- - - uno. 


Sunrise - - kie wedera. 


Come here - - uUumbago. 


Noon - - - kie kungat. 


Put down - - star. 


Lightning - - betmallen. 


Names of Men. 


Names of Eemales. 


YuTigadoo. 


Woolinu. 


Moogathoo. 


Bingwee. 


Tbomble. 


Nunguree. 


Moimoorga. 


Bubalinga. 


Moorgan. 


Indalinga. 


Tandeningo. 


Emar. 


Indamingo. 


Pinchallu. 


BuUamiago. 


Toonombinga. . 


Bibinothe. 


Milga. 


Goonbody. 


Nooky. 



These names are said to have no meaning. 



480 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 131.— CAPE RIVER. 



By p. M. Tompson, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


hoora. 


Hand - 


- bu-ka. 


Opossum 


thung-er-oo. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


noota. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 




Emu - 


gun-du-la. 




Black duck - 


coo-Md-dy. 


Two - 


buller. 


Wood duck - 


now-wow. 


Three ■ 


goolburra. 


Pelican 


bool-loo. 


Four - 


moorga. 


Laughing jackass 


ka-koo-burra. 


Father . - 


yabbo. 


Native companion gool-du-ra. 
White cockatoo - dick-a-ry. 


Mother 


yung-er. 


Crow - 


wuth-a. 


Sister-Elder 


goothoona. 


Swan - 


(none). 


,, Younger 




Egg - - ■ 


wun-buUa. 


Brother-Elder 


cu-than. 


Track of a foot 


wun-da. 


„ Youngei 




Fish - 


coo-e-yu. 


A young man 


cowla. 


Lobster 


(none inland). 


An old man 


brin-gul-lo. 


Crayfish 


(unknown). 


An old woman 


boorrung-un 


Mosquito - 


cooa. 


A baby 


gundoo. 


Fly . 


nin. 


A White man 


coo-in. 


Snake - 


moon-da. 






The Blacks - 


murry. 


Children 


cul-burroo. 


A Blaokfellow 




Head - 


cuth-a. 


A Black woman 


noolba. 


Eye - 


thilly. 


Nose - 


nindy. 


Bar - 


wuUoo. 



NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE- RIVER. 



481 





No. 131.^Capb River — continued. 




Mouth 


- thar. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth - 


- e-ar. 


mil - 


- 


Hair of the head 


- boo-e-lia6. 


Wood - 


- thoo-la. 


Beard - 


- ren-ga. 


Stone - 


- burray. 


Thunder - 


- moo-ral-la. 


Camp - 


- yam-ba. 


Grass - 


- bookun. 


Yea - 


- ya. 


Tongue 


- thuUi. 


No - 


- cur-ra. 


Stomach 


- bunna. 


I 


- i-ar. 


Breasts 


- am-moon. 


You - - • 


- yin-da. 


Thigh 


- thur-ra. 


Bark - 


- bul-gun. 


Foot - 


- thin-na. 


Good - 


- thur-ril. 


Bone - 


- bul-bun. 


Bad - 


- muc-coo-ra. 


Blood - 


- coo-ma. 


Sweet - 


- goon-gil-win. 


Skin - 


- bit-ty. 


Pood - 


- mun-dar-uri. 


Fat - 


- thum-my. 


Hungry 


- cun-gun-oo. 


Bowels 


- yung-er-um. 


Thirsty 


- eu-ka. 


Excrement - 


- goona. 


Eat - - 


- bun-jul. 


War-spear - 


- cul-ga. 


Sleep - 


- oo-ka. 


Reed-spear - 


- coo-be-roo. 






Wommera or 


thoo-miilla,. 


Drink - 


- brung-gul. 


throwing-stiok 




Walk - 


- thoo-a. 


Shield ■ - 


- cool-merry. 


See - 


- nuth-uUa. 


Tomahawk - 


- balgo. 


Sit 


- in da. 


Canoe - 


- koo-ga. 


Yesterday - 


- coom-bool- 


Sun - 


- cur-ray. 




boong-a 


Moon - 


- bul-la-no. 


To-day 


- ad-gilla. 


Star - 


- buth-oo. 


To-morrow - 


- we-dar-roo. 


Light - 


- bun-ney. 


Where are the 


murry-un-da ? 


Dark - 


- coo-ra. 


Blacks? 




Cold - 


- we-da. 


I don't know 


- unda-wira. 


Heat - 


- wTil-lee-ry. 


Plenty 


- coor-un-by. 


Day - - 


- ad-ge-la. 


Big - 


- boonga. 


Night - 


- goo-rung-a. 


Little - 


- wab-ba-roo. 


Fire - 


- bur-ree. 






Water 


- com-mo. 


Dead - 


- goon-ga. 


Smoke 


- thoog-er. 


By-and by - 


- thuc-co. 


Ground 


- nanny. 


Come on 


- cow-a. 


Wind ■ 


- ebur. 


Milk - 


- 


Rain - -' 


- tha-cow. 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


God - 




Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 




Wife - 




VOL. II. 


2 


H 





482 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 131.— CAPE RIVER. 



By Wm. Chatmeld, Jun, 



Kangaroo ■ 
Oposaum 
Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 
Pelican 

Laughing jackass 
Native companion 
White cockatoo - 

Crow - 

Swan - ■ - 

Egg - 

Track of a foot - 

Fish ■ - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito - 

Fly - - - 

Snake - 

The Blacks - 

A Blackfellow - 

A Black woman - 

Nose - 



oora. 
tungaroo. 
wunti,'moora. 
wunti. 
goondooloo. 
oooberri. 
ungue. 
booloon. 
go-goberri. 
kooltheroo. 
teroon or 
deegoon. 
wathuu. 
(none), 
koocoobeen. 
diner, 
goyo. 
(none), 
cunder. 
boothun. 
nein. 
moonda. 
murri. 
murri. 

wongo, munkine. 
ninde. 



Hand 


- muUa. 


2 Blacks - 


- 


3 Blacks - 


- 


One - 


- wigin. 


Two - 


- bullaroo. 


Three - 


- goolburra. 


Pour or more 


- moorga. 


Father 


- yaboo. 


Mother 


- yunguTia. 


Sister -Elder 


- koothoona. 


,, Younger 


- 


Brother-Elder 


- cuthun. 


„ Younger wabo. 


A young man 


- cowla. 


An old man 


■ boorgam. 


An old woman 


■ boorgam. 


A baby 


- 


A White man 


- macro. 


Children - 


- cundoojwongora 


Head - 


- kutha. 


Eye - 


■ dille. 


Ear - 


- walloo. 



NATAL DOWNS STATION, CAPE RIVER. 



483 



No. 131. — Cape River — continued. 



Mouth- 


- mai. 


Teeth 


- ear. 


Hair of the head 


- kuthy. 


Beard - 


- unga or yarrang 


Thunder - 


- pulbine. 


Grass - 


- boorgan, mooloo 


Tongue 


- tarrine. 


Stomach 


- bunner. 


Breasts 


- ammoona. 


Thigh- - 


- yungra. 


Foot - 


- diner. 


Bone - 


- bulbun. 


Blood - - 


- kooma, goor. 


Skin - - 


- peetee. 


Fat - 


- tommi. 


Bowels 


- 


Excrement • 


- goonna. 


War-spear - 


- moorga. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Wommera or 


tumuUa. 


throwing-stick 




Shield- - 


- koobnurray. 


Tomahawk - 


- polgo. 


Canoe - 




Sun - 


- kurri, kie. 


Moon - 


- buUanoo, kug- 




gera. 


Star - - 


- buthi. 


Light - 




Dark - 




Cold - 


- wera. 


Heat - 


- kie. 


Day - 


- quongolu. 


Night - - 




Fire - 


- burry. 


Water 


kommo, ammoo. 


Smoke- 


■ tugar. 


Ground 


- nannee. 


Wind- - 


ebara. 


Raia - 


yoongaloo. 


God . . . 


boorala. 


Ghosts 


youngal. 





Boomerang - 


- wongul. 




Hill - 


- byee. 




Wood 


- tular. 




Stone - 


- byee. 




Camp - 


- yaambaa. 




Yea - 


- yie, yee. 




No - 


- kurra. 




I 


- ia. 




You - 


- iuda. 




Bark - 


- goga. 




Good - 


- boorala. 




Bad - 


- wotoru. 




Sweet 






Pood - 


- murga, munda. 




Hungry 


- congono. 




Thirsty 


- commo boomul 




Eat - 


- bungul. 




Sleep - 


- umbera. 




. Drink 


- boomul. 




Walk - 


- denergo. 




See - 


- naggalee. 




Sit - 


- biuda. 




Yesterday - 






To-day 






To-morrow - 


- werowa. 




Wbere are the 


murri undee ? 




Blacks? 






I don't know 


- inuggalu kurra 




Plenty 


- moorga. 




Big - - 


- buUongo. 




Little - 


• wapitu. 




Dead - 


- goonga. 




By-and-by - 


- 




Come on 


- wingialla. 




Milk - 


- ammoona. 




Eaglehawk 


- coorathuUa, 
cooraga 




Wild turkey 


- burkum. 




Wife - 


- pigoona. 


B 


[2 • 





484 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 132.— RAVENSWOOD, UPPER BURDEKIN. 
By W. H. Kent, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


woora. 


Hand - 


- 




Opossum 


meerambera. 


2 Blacks - 


_ 




Tame dog - 
Wild dog - 
Emu - 


ngoora. 
goondooloo. 


3 Blacks - 
One - 


- 




Black duck - 




Two - 


- 




Wood duck 




Three - 


- 




Pelican 


booloongurra. 


Four - 


. 




Laughing jackass 


kookooburra. 


Father 


_ 




Native companior 
White cockatoo - 
Crow - 


thickeree. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 


- 




Swan - 




,, Younger 


■ 




Egg . - - 


wanraurra. 


Brother-Elder 


- 




Track of a foot - 
Pish - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Ply ■ - 


wena, 


, , Younger 
A young man 
An old man- 
An old woman • 
A baby 


guhnburra 


Snake - 


cahbool. 


A White man 


- 




The Blacks - 




Children 


- 




A Blackfellow - 




Head - 


- 


katha. 


A Black woman 




Eye - 


- 


taiie. 


Nose - 


mamboo. 


Ear - 


. 


walloo. 



RAVENSWOOD, UPPER BURDEKM. 



485 



No. 132 


— Ravenswood, Upper Buedekin- 


—contimied. 


Mouth 




Boomerang - 


- boonool. 


Teeth - - : 


yerra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head 




Wood 


- wongal. 


Beard ■ 


• 


Stone - 


- burrie. 


Thunder - 




Camp - 


- 


Grass - 




Yes - 


- 


Tongue 


tuUi. 


No • - 


- 


Stomach 


banna. 


I 


, 


Breasts 




You - 


- 


Thigh - - - 


ngurgo. 


Bark - '- 


- 


Foot - 


teera. 


Good - 


- 


Bone - 




Bad - 


_ 


Blood - 
Skin - 
Fat - 
Bowels 
Excrement - 
War-spear - 


gooma. 

- koonna. 

- buggurra. 


. Sweet - 
Food - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat - 


- bunjuU. 


Reed-spear - 




Sleep - 


- 


Wommera or 




Drink - 


- 


throwing-stick 
Shield - 


- goolmurri. 


Walk - 

See - 




Tomahawk - 




Sit - 


- 


Canoe 
Sun - 
Moon - ■ - 
Star - 
Light - 
Dark - 
Cold - - 


- kurrie. 

- -kuggurra. 

- woora. 


Yesterday - 
To-day 
To-morrow - 
Where are i 
Blacks ? 
I don't know 


.he 


Heat - 




Plenty 


- 


Day - 




Big - 


- 


Night - - 




Little - 




Fire - 


- booree. 


Dead - 


- 


Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind - - 
Rain - 
God - 


- kurra. 

- mooloo. 

- eburra. 

- kamo. 


By-and-by - 
Come on 
Milk - 
Eaglehawk - 
Wild turkey 


- bandurra. 

- thoona gongall 


Ghosts 


. 


Wife - 


- 



486 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 133.— MOUNT BLACK. 

FOKWAEDED BY THE GoVBBNMENT OP QUEENSLAND. 

Of the manners • and customs of .the Oriba-Kulba tribe I' 
received a short account in 1881 from, the Government of 
Queensland. In it, however, there is -nothing worthy of 
note, except that the sole survivors of the tribe were two 
men and five women, and that no marks of small-pox 
existed amongst them. Accompanying the account of the 
tribe were also two vocabularies, which agree so well that I 
have only inserted 'one of them. The following Additional 
Words were also given: — 



Girls - 


- marbura. 


We - 


- ngana. 


Husband - 


- koorangle. 


They - - 


- tanna. 


Frog - 
Neck - 


- pugarin. 

- manno. 


He, she 


- noola. 


Opossum-cloak 


- kumbi. 


When, where 


- unda. 




No. 133.— MO 


DNT BLACK. 




Kangaroo - 


- yoori. 


Hand - 


- murra. 


Opossum - 


- kathurra. 


2 Blacks - 


- poolari ngoomba 


Tame dog - 


- kowla. 


3 Blacks - 


- koolkurra • 


Wild dog - 


- kowla (?) 




ngoomba. 


Emu - 
Black duck - 
Wood duck - 


- koondoolo. 

- yamaroo. 

- tipia. 


One - 
Two - 


- anga. 

- poolari. 


Pelican 


- bulloon. 


Three - 


- koolkurra. 


Laughing jackass kowragurra. 


Four - 


'- toorko. 


Native companion nOgorabal. 


Father 


- aboo. 


White cockatoo 


- tingari. 


Mother 


- ammi. 


Crow - ■ - 


- wokkun, wog- 


Sister-Elder 


- yungoian, auta. 


Swan - 


gan. 


, , Younger 


- amberoian. 


■ 


Brother-Elder 


- mukkidoo. 


Egg - - 
Track of a foot 


- kotoo. 

- pakula. 


„ Younger talboo. 


Fish - 


- koio. 


A young man 


- tipukkal. 


Lobster • - 


- reri-reri, mokin. 


An old man 


- orabarbi. 


Crayfish - 


- tararukau. 


An old woman 


- koolaloo. 


Mosquito - 


- kaika. 


A baby 


- moolooramo. 


Fly - 


- nenga. 


A White man 


- mikkolo. 


Snake - 
The Blacks - 


- tumbal. 

- ngoomba-kora. 


Children - 




A Blackfellow 


- ngoomba. 


Head - 


- katta. 


A Black woman 


- mungan. 


Eye - 


- telle. 


Noae - 


- ko, koo. 


Ear - 


- arlo. 



MOUNT BLACK. 



487 





No. 133.— Mount 'Black.— continued. 


Mouth 


■ tu, taw. 


Boomerang - 


- wongal. 


Teeth - 


- yerra. 


Hill - 


- aboro, palkara 


Hair of the head 


- tingo tego. 


Wood - 


- toolani. 


Beard - 


- talba. 


Stone - 


- dalkara. 


Thunder - 


- pulbarri, pal- 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Grass - 


- wombo, kolko. 


Yes - 


- yi, oroka. 


Tongue 


- tallavy. 


No - 


- kara. 


Stomach 


- banna, rolgo. 


I- 


- ngaia. 


Breasts 


- ooko, kao. 


You - 


- inda. 


Thigh - 


- tara. 


Bark - 


- bila. 


Foot - 


- tinna. 


Good - 


- pumbarra. 


Bone - 
Blood - 


- pipo. 

- kooma. 


Bad - 


- amgo. 


Skin - 


- ngoorokal. 


Sweet - 


- kauga. 


Fat - 


- toocha. 


Food - 


- mada, munda. 


Bowels 


- koomia, pooloo. 


Hungry 


- clung. . 


Excrement - 
War-spear - 


- koomia. 

- kalka. 


Thirsty 


- poomal. 


Eeed-spear - 


- pat r, tooka- 


Eat - 


- mutanyo. 




bun. 


Sleep - 


- ookako. 


Wommera or 


pangila. 


Drink - 


- pitamyo. 


throwing-stlck 




Walk - 


- makanyo. 


Shield- - 
Tomahawk - 


- koobathal. 

- ngoolan. 


See - 


- nakanyo. 


Canoe - 


- oolkooroo. 


Sit - 


- tamanyo. 


Sun - 


- oomba, ooba. 


Yesterday - 


- orokolongrega. 


Moon - 


- pulanoo. 


To-day 


- nila. 


Star - 


- yoko. 


To-morrow - 


- ^garlara. 


Light - 


- patchun, kar- 


Where are 


the undi ngoomba f 




gauni. 


Blacks? 




Dark - 


- tillingono. 


I don't know 


- audeaton. 


Cold - 


- wira-wira. 


Plenty 


- koora. 


Heat - 


- kanjara. 


Big - - 


- yoongo. 


Day - 


- uba, kurrangun. 


Little - 


- aboodjirro, 


Night - 


- ngona. 




aburoo. 


Fire - 


- pori. 


Dead - 


- koongal, oolala. 


Water 


- kamoo, kam. 






Smoke 


- tooka. 


By-and-by - 


- karrka. 


Ground 


- nanni. 


Come on 


- arrauni. 


Wmd- 


- kindo'. 


Milk - 


- koodrarr. 


Eain - 


- ukun, yukan. 


Eaglehawk 


- korethaUa. 


God - 


. 


Wild turkey 


- 


Ghosts 


- 


Wife - 


-'perro, preko. 



488 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



No. 134.— LOWER BURDEKIN. 



By E. Cunningham, Esq., and F. J. Gokton, Esq. 



In addition to the two vocabularies inserted of the Lower Burdekin 
languages, I have received a third from W. Carr Boyd, Esq., which so 
much resembles that of Mr. E. Cunningham, that I have not thought it 
necessary to give it. ■ 



Kangaroo - 


- hoora. 


Hand - 


- mobirra. 


Opossum 


- moonganna. 


2 Blacks - 


_ 


Tame dog • 


. oogier. 


3 Blacks - 


. 


Wild dog - 
Emu - 
Black duck t 


- kowvverra. 

- yammooroo. 


One - 
Two - 


- warmina. 

- blareena. 


Wood duck - 


- mumboogooba. 


Three - 


- kudjua. 


Pelican 


- boloona. 


Four - 


- kulburra. 


Laughing jackass kowurgurra. 


Father 


- kiya. 


Native companioit braroogan. 


Mother 


- younga. 


White cockatoo 
Crow - 
Swan - 
Egg - - 


- digooi. 

- wyaguna. 

- woergerella. 

- wyoorda. 


Sister-Elder 

„ Younger 
Brother-Elder 


- kootha. 

- wabooa. 


Track of a foot 


- dooigooburra. 


,, Younger 


Fish - 


- weenburra. 


A young man 


- karrebella. 


Lobster 


- koongooya. 


An old man- 


- booingermuima. 


Crayfish 
Mosquito - 
Fly - 
Snake - 


- goombarroo. 

- kowearoo. 

- karoovella. 

- oonguUaba. 


An old woman 

A baby 

A White man 


- boingergunna. 

- muUererammoo. 

- yooarroo. 


The Blacks - 


- murre. 


Children 


- erroomunna. 


A Blackf ellow 


. 


Head - 


- kurria. 


A Black woman 


- wurrungooa. 


Eye - 


- mudjura. 


Nose - 


urrooa. 


Ear - 


- awbilla. 



LOWER BURDEKIN. 



489 



No. 134.— Lower Bhebekin— comtwiteti. 


Mouth 


da. 


Boomerang - 


- 


Teeth 


- irra. 


Hill - 


- 


Hair of the head- 


gunnarri. 


Wood - 


- doola. 


Beard - 


thungier. 


Stone - 


- burreea, 


Thunder - 


degoroo. 


Camp - 


- yaamba. 


Grass - 


wudthoor. 


Yes - 


- yea. 


Tongue 


thuUamia. 


No - 


- kurra. 


Stomach 


- bunboona. 


I - 


- iyooa. 


Breasts 


- woorga. 


You - 


- yindooa. 


Thigh - 


- toomburra. 


Bark - 


- bulgan. 


Foot - 


- dingooburra. 


Good - 




Bone - 


- bulbanna. 










Bad - 


- kooyooa. 


Blood- 


- gwiburri. 






Skm - 


- yoolanna. 


Sweet - 


- kowangubba. 


Fat - 


- towia. 


Food - 


- igango. 


Bowels 


- gurroona. 


Hungry 


- nangoora. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


Thirsty 


- dthunginna. 


War-spear - 


- nirremoo. 


Eat - 


- igango. 


Reed-spear - 


- wollaburra. 


Sleep - 


- boogoora. 


Wommera or 


birrana. 


Drink - 


- bithungo. 


throwing -stick 




Walk - 


- kunnaigo. 


Shield 


- goolmurri. 


See - 


- timmi. 


Tomahawk - 


- bulgooa. 










Sit 


- thunnango. 


Canoe - 


- kobbetheba. 






Sun - 


- burgdrri. 


Yesterday - 


- yambowerroe 


Moon - 


- bowarri. 


To-day 


- nilla. 


Star - 


- bunjoldi. 


To-morrow - 


- burgenda. 


Light - 


- burgungubba. 


Where are 


the ondia murre ? 


Dark - 


- wooroowobba. 


Blacks ? 




Cold - - 


- didoora. 


I don't know 


- kurra mira. 


Heat - 


- towarroo. 


Plenty 


- qniarilla. 


Day - 


- woorabunda. 


Big ■ - 


- 


Night - 


- wooroonga. 


Little - 


- wa-baw-au- 


Fire - 


- wygunna. 




boona. 


Water - 


- kowara. 


Dead - 


- waulgoona. 


Smoke 


- toogar. 


By-and-by - 


- thagoo. 


Groiiud 


- nannier. 


Come on 


- kowa. 


Wind - 


- quioona. 


Milk - - 


- 


Rain - 


- yoogana. 


Eaglehawk - 




God - 


- 


Wild turkey 




Ghosts 


- 


Wife ■ 


- 



490 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



No. 134.— LOWER BURDEKIN. 



By F. J. GoKTON, Esq. 



Kangaroo - 


wootha. 


Hand - 


mulbroo. 


Opossum 


goong. 


2 Blacks - 




Tame dog - 


minde. 


3 Blacks - 




Wild dog - 




One - 




Emu - 
Black duck - 


gocgidaloo. . 
buggininulli. 


Two - 
Three - 


bool. 
ka. 


Wood duck - 
Pelican 
Laughing jackass 


detto. 

booloon. 

kookaburra. 


Four - 

Father 


yaba, yabo 


Native companion buberenuUi. 


Mother 


yanga. 


White cockatoo - 


bugina. 


Sister-Elder 




Crow - 


wethergun. 


„ Younger 




Swan - 




Brother-Elder ■ 




Egg - 

Track of a foot - 


werroo. 


,, Younger 




Pish - 


kooia. 


A young man 


thillagal. 


Lobster 


goonaway. 


An old man 


bunganan. 


Crayfish 




An old woman - 


bulnagun. 


Mosquito - 


dee. 


A baby 




Ply - 
Snake - 
The Blacks - 
A Blackf ellow ■ 


wormbaloo. 


A White man 
Children 
Head - 


kabbon. 


A Black woman 


gungan. 


Eye - 


deburri 


Nose -' - 


woodroo. 


Ear - 


wobbilla. 



LOWER BIIRDEKIN. 



491 



No. 134. — Lower Bttrdekin — continued. 



Mouth 


yawirra. 


Teeth - 


woonung. 


Hair of the head 




Beard - 


- thungi." 


Thunder - 


- digoro. 


Grass - 


■: quwytho. 


Tongue 


- 


Stomach 


- boric. 


Breasts 


- wuggunna. 


Thigh - 


- toombur. 


Foot - 


- bulliger. 


Bone - 


- 


Blood - 


- moondtha. 


Skin - 


- uline. 


Fat - - 


- koonoo, goomo. 


Boweln - ' 


- kullinga. 


Excrement - 


- goonna. 


War-spear - 


- woomburro. 


Reed-spear - 


- 


Wommera or 




throwiag-stick 




Shield - 


- gooldinare. 


Tomahawk - 


- nubanin. 


Canoe - 


- bettel-bettel. 


Sun - 


- kartri. 


Moon - 


- 


Star - 


- tor, bangala. 


Light - 


- • 


Dark - 


- moonoo. 


Cold - 


- detto. 


Heat - 


. 


Day - 


- 


Night - 


- woormooga. 


Fire - 


- booninin. 


Water- 


- thoolanoo. 


Smoke 


. 


Ground 


- numera 


Wind - 


- queeyoh. 


Rain - 


- broothi. 


God - 


. 


Ghosts 


- 



Boomerang - 


- 


Hill - 


- 


Wood - 


- duUa. 


Stone - 


- burtheroo. 


Camp - 


- yamba. 


Yes ■ 


- umba. 


No - 


- kateka. 


I 


- 


You - 


- 


Bark - 


- boogoo. 


Good - 


- 


Bad - 


- 


Sweet - 


- 


Pood - 


- 


Hungry 


- kabbil. 


Thirsty 


- 


Eat - 


- 


Sleep - 


■ boogooroo. 


Drink - 


- bitthana. 


Walk - 


- 


See - 


- thimmi 


Sit - - 


- thunara. 


Yesterday - 


- 


To-day 


- nilla. 


To-mprrow - 


- burringa. 


Where are the 


Blacks? 




I don't know 


- 


Plenty 


- 


Big - - 


- wiarra. 


Little - 


- wabungam 


Dead - 


- wolgoon. 


By-and-by - 


■ 


Come on 


- 


JVIilk - 


- 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


Wilk turkey 


- 


Wife - 


- 



492 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



No. 135.— BUEDEKIN EIVEE^VAEIOUS TEIBES. 



By the late J. Hall Scott. 



The following vocabulary was one of many kindly forwarded 
to me by P. E. Gordon, Esq., Chief Inspector of Stock, 
Brisbane. It was drawn up, I am informed, by the late J. 
Hall Scott, who collected the words indiscriminately from 
the eleven following tribes: — Perenbba, Euronbba, Wal- 
mundi, Bendalgubber, Cumarinia, Culbaingella, Cobblebob- 
ber, Cartoolounger, Toolkemburra, Carbineyinburra, and 
TinguljuUer: — 

A. 



Apple-tree - 


towrowbilla. 


Ant-hills - 


culnba cummo. 


Alligator - 


tukunion. 


Ant-eater - 


burbeera. 


Angry 


colie-coogillie 




crier. 


Arm - 


muUa. 


Alive - 


toomberee. 


Blackfellow 


murrey, mureer. 


(old) 


- moorabuun. 


Beat - 


coonda, coolunga, 




balkunna. 


Belonging to me 


- iju, igoar. 


,.you 


innoo, innoor. 


Beads - 


cambourra.unerie, 




coulgurra. 


Blanket 


combey, marbal 




eooyarra,urunna. 


Belly - 


boulow, bunna- 




bunna. 


Boomerang - 


■wungulla, naugal. 



Ashes - 


- culboo. 


Ants - 


- turinnia. 


Anthill, Mt. 


- yannuounda. 


Abbot, Mt. - 


- parkungga. 


All of you - 


- uva. 


Armpit 


- carbunna. 


Altogether - 


- norogul. 


By-and-by 


- kulkerpurtoo 




ooombooloo. 


Breast 


- amoona. 


Brother 


- cooloona, outha 


Breath 


- adthou. 


Break - 


- ooondinga. 


Bloodwood-tree 


- cumbuburra. 


Big, large - 


- bonugunna. 


Boy - . - 


- walburra. 


Box-tree 


■ bilgurra. 


Blood - 


- coongar, 




queberry, 




coonoonurra, 




cooma. 



BURDEKIN RIVER. 



493 



B. 



Blight 


- boognlla. 


By yourself 


yuingya. 


Break - 


- ooolmunga. 


Bird's nest - 


yacko. 


Bell - 


- coolalinga, troun- 


Belonging to him 


noungow. 




gurra. 


Boat - 


bullera. 


Bite - 


■ pattunga. 


Burnt feed - 


boodarra. 


Blow - 


- booubunga. 


„ country - 


boorboona. 


Bed - 


- coona. 


Bathe - - 


nanballuiger. 


Black - 


- cooroolbilla. 


Behind 


coora. 


Brigalow ■ 


- bunnooroo. 


Beech, Mt. - 


talmaringga. 


Bandicoot - 


- ouiella. 


Burdekin River — 




Blow out (v.) 


- ougarunbunga. 


At Leichardt 


camelinigga. 


Bellow (cattle) 

Beef - 

Brush - 

Blaokfellow — 
Young - 
Middle-aged 

Butterfly - 

Bone ■ 


- noongoona. 

- tunjeera. 

- neekalinga. 

- cowalla. 

- margurra. 

- coolumbria. 

- bulbuna. 


dist. 
Above Mt. Dal- 

rymple 
At Jarvisfield ■ 
Bowen (Port) 
Both together 
Black bream (fish 

Barrowinnudi 
(fish) 


ounberubba. 

mal-mal. 

coondaudrabia. 

eveller. 

wOQJamunna. 

bidjangubber. 


Back - 


- oungoulea. 


Between 


manner. 


Boil - 


- tingillener. 


Bread-fruit 


Dundee, dewal. 


Bark of trees 


- cooraroo, balkun. 


Brand 


toomberringa. 


Catch - 


( 
- munna. 


Coral-tree - 


nurga. 


Creek - 


- peroo. 


Cockatoo (white) 


tekurray. 


Come here - 


- cowa. 


Curlew 


peyounga. 


Cattle 


- boomooalea, too- ' 


Chia - 


unga. 




moobra. 


Cork-tree - 


wadthon. 


Cow - - • 


- gJTineenna. 


Coming to you - 


indimga, ogod. 


Calf ■ 


- micheninedibmer 


,, this way 


yamdoo. 


Camp - 


- youmba, kouoar, 


Crow - ■ - 


wattama. 




yumbarlo. 


Come on - 


nooree. 


Calabash 


- igurra. 


Cockatoo (black) 


carundy. 


Cry - - 


- parreena. 


Cry out 


oungoonoo. 


Cough 


- carlunnia. 


Cooee - 


coongoona, cun 


Chop - 


- oulunna, bal- 




gully. 




goungOjWebulla, 


Close - 


beeree. 




balbunga. 


Cloud - 


yunguUa. 


Cut - - 


- nardoo, nunga, 


Centipede - 


toongur. 




patteminda. 


Clay (white) 


muggera. 



494 



THE . AUSTRALIAN RACE : 



C. 



Clay (red) - 


- boonba. 


Cape Station 


- tingkerungga, 


Cap - 


balgoa-balgoa. 




tingurra. 


Cheek - 


nallow. 


Coming up (seeds) derabee. 


Calf of leg - 


yungiirra. 


Cabbage-tree 


•- bogga, bogga. 


Cold - 


wera. 


Crane (gigantic) 


- timgararer. 


Cape Upstart 


budgerungga. 


,, (alate-col - 
ored) 


tidrooper. 


Country (tim- 


toolabea. 


Charcoal 


- mitta. 


bered) 




Chisel 


- toonggoowongo. 


Country (plain) 


bargulla, pia. 


Cloudy weather 


- coongooror, unal- 


Crooked 


bungo, cungunna. 




bingga. 


Cover up - 


cumballinger. 


Come off 


- ingnaringo. 


Dalrymple, Mt. 


1 
boomarulla. 


Dig - 


- buggulla. 


Dog - 


ourungarung. 


Done - 


- wya, annoo. 


Directly 


tarkay, tago. 


Deaf adder - 


- wineudie. 


Dray - 


rowrer. 


Diliy-bag - 


- widgee. 


Dead - 


walgoonoo. 


Dream 


- pickhere. 


Dead tree - 


walla. 


Drive - 


- ouUerunga. 


Drop - 


bungunga. 


Down - 


- boolooroo. 


Dive - 


- moongaringia. 


Door - 


- dilli. 


Day (one) - 


warbinjella. 


Dark - 


- culbroo. 


„ (two) - 


boolarinjella. 


Dry - 


- walla. 


„ (three or 


cooburanjella. 


Don't go away 


- yuUa. 


more) 




Deep - 


- mourga. 


„ (great many 


culberanjella. 


'Duck - 


- coobeeree. 


Eye - - - 


dilli. 


Empty 


- narranna, culgur. 


Emu - 


coondooloo. 


Exclamation ! 


- yacki ! cowitchi 1 


Ear - 


walloo. 










Eel - 


- woggurry. 


Eat - 


eugunga. . 






Egg - - 


cunnoo. 


Eyebrows - 


- deena. 


Finished 


I 
wya, annoo. 


Eat (hard) - 


■ tummier, goung. 


Fire - 


booree, 


Feathers 


- boolburrie. 




wygunnia. 


Finger-nails 


- pekar. 


Foot, foot-traoks- 


dinna. 


Fire-arms - 


- ourrabia, mirka, 


Fish -■ - 


cooyou. 




mergin. 


Fat (soft) ■ 


carmoona. 


Fishing-hook 


- minkey. 



BURDEKIN RIVER. 



495 



Figs (black) 


yoombooroo. 


Forehead - 


yundee. 


Fallen timber 


coonburra. 


Fresh - 


yagilgar. 


(dead) 




Flood - " - 


crunna. 


Fly - 


- neena. 


Fill - 


trikkunna. 


Frog (water) 


- coongunnia 


Female 


wumgoo. 


„ (tree) - 


- partiiroo. 


First, front - 


walga. 


Footsteps up trees nindoo. 


Fight - 


- coonducki. 


Flame - 


- barginia. 


Flowers 


boolboona. 


Forget 


- Valloogolania. 


Flour - 


boorilla. 


Frightened - 


- ederunga, culgi, 


Pishing net 


mubbe. 




boonoordun- 


Fly - 


coolmallinga. 




gmner. 


Fork (stick, tree)- 


nulloo. 


Father 


- yaboona, kiyar. 


Fin<i - 


tingurra. 


Fowl - 


- cocobineai 


Fruit (in sandal 


werbinburra. 


Flank - 


- perinnia. 


wood) 




Fence - 


- mirooloo, warra. 


Fruit (Uke cocoa 


barboora. 


Foot (cattle) 


- moolderania. 


nut) 




Grass (short) 


G 

- coomoona. 


Great many 


culburra, 


Gin (young) 


margnnmun, 




margina. 




wymarmgun. 


Grub (of cedar- 


tubburrie. 


Girl - - 


cumbriella. 


tree) 




Grass-tree - 


boongurra. 


Gate - 


dilU. 


Ground 


nannie. 


Gregory's Range 


duarungga. 


Grass (long) 


cudjerra. 


Grow - 


tager. 


Go on - 


waggia. 


Goose (wild) 


ougooreller. 


Give • 


wooninga. 


Glass (bottle) 


boodooloo. 


Grey hair - 


boolboona, binga. 


„ (to scrape 


boodooloongo. 


Game of all kinds 


urie-urie. 


with) 




Going away 


yagnnga, yarroo, 


Good - 


goodjilea. 




coondoey. 


Ghost - 


quingunga. 




cunnear. 


J, country 


armoungamouya 


Hand - 


H 
muUa. 


[. 
Horns - 


tekoo. 


Hat - 


werkie-werkie. 


Hole (in ground)- 


nooloona-una. 


Hair . 


oorie. 


Hide (cattle) 


beelbarra. 


Head - 


cutdd. 


Hot (sun) - 


ejeia. 


Honeysuckle-tree munbo. 


Hear - 


imbunga. 


Hornets 


omburroo, 


Hold - 


murma. 




boorgurrie. 


Howl 


wonggorra. 


Heart - 


tekoona. 


Husband - 


bulgin. 



496 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE; 



H. 



Heat of sun 


ounjanidoo. 


Heavy- 


ingurra. 


Hut - 


bulgunna. 


Hole - 


battee. 


Heel - . 


morunga. 


Hair (short) 


nidi. 


Handkerchief (or 


pengeroo. 


Hailstones - 


burbleburra. 


any bit of cloth) 




Hawk (Buzzard) - 


beju. 


How many - 


unning-brurie. 


„ (Eagle) - 


cooleengy. 


Holiday 


cunguUa. 


Honey- 


carba. 


Hand (right) 


toolmallagunger. 


Here - 


nulalba, nala. 


Hot - 


tamboora. 


Here it is - 


yalarry. 


Iron - 


I, 

minkey. 


J. 

Jew-fish 


buyoora. 


Ironbark-tree 


cumbooroo. 


Tukermann, Mt. - 


ebee-ober. 


Jump - 


wonggalingga. 


Jarvisfield - 


mal-mal. 


Inside - 
I, me - 
I don't know 


oulounga. 
iu (aye you), 
kurrame. 


Itch - 

Ibis - - - 


ekeer. 
inigulduller. 


I say - 


nungo. 


Iguana 


tukkunnia. 


Kill - 


E 

belganurr, par- 


Kangaroo-rat 


taldon. 




chenna. 


Know - 


imber. 


Kangaroo - 


oog. 


Kirknil Creek - 


werbeelinda. 


,, (female) 


balbamma. - 


Knife (to work oi 


nunga, patter- 


Knife - 


me. 


cut with) 


munda. 


Leg - - 


I 

boonguUa. 


J. 
Let go 


eduTiga. 


Large -' 


boungunna. 


Look out 


eleereena. 


Lily seed - 


counda-counda. 


Long - 


uroolow. 


Like this 


yemmar. 


Lose, lost - 


ountarroo. 


Lily seed (reed) - 


talma. 


Tiirard (tree) 


wongoo, 


Laugh - 

-Laughing jackass 


yattee. 
cowergurra. 


„ (sleeping)- 


cummurrey. 

wallunduUa, bun- 
gurra. 

bunbennia. 

euermo. 

- brenner. 

toonginde. 


Leiohardt tree 
Lay down - 
Long way off 
Long time ago 


cubattee. 

wegoonunga. 

cowwarry. 

■ moree-moree- 
bouden. 


Light (not heavy 
Leiohardt Downs 
Leaves- 
Lagoon (Dalrym 
pie) 

Lizard (Jew) 
Louse - 


Lightning - 
Little - 


- carmeeno. 

- warbidgeroo- 

aberoo. 


- biuarra. 

- coolena. 


■Lend - 


■ murrumbinger. 


Lily roots - 


- tourka. 


Liver ■ 


- yachoorie. 


Leave it 


- wandonga. 



BURDEKIN EIVER. 



497 



M. 



Me - - - 


in, igo. 


Mount Elliott - 


bungolunga. 


„ (belonging to] 


iju, igoer. 


Morning 


nooroobunda. 


„ (belonging to 


innoo, innoor. 


Mother-in-law 


waminder. 


you) 

Mother 
Mangroves - 
Mountain - 
Muscles 

Marbles (yam) ■ 


younger, 
epeter. 
parree. 

carrunia, oudge- 
gurri. 
kiye. 


Male - 
Mine - 
Me and you- 
Melon - 

Marble grounds- 
Jar visfield 


bommer. 
oringa. 
allee. 
bumbarmbo. 

tamboungga. 


Moon - 


karkurra, 


Woodstock 


coonarunga. 


Mouth- 


tunga. 


Molonglo Creek - 


booburymunda. 


Moustache - 


mooney. 


Middle of the day 


cunguUa. 


Moreton Bay ash- 


tooroolburra. 


Make a fire - 


ijounga boor- 




tooroom. 




ingga. 


Mend - 


pattilla. 


Make a light 


ijounga barjinn 


Mosquito - 


pekinna, tee, cun- 


Moon (new) 


nulla. 




nadra. 


„ (full) 


bowwarrydulla. 


Mud - 


tubburra. 


„ (setting) 


tarkunga. 



N. 



Near - 
NuUa-nuUa (or 

club) 
No - 
Nonsense, lie 
Nose ■ - 
Native companion boowunia. 
Night - - - nooroo. 
New - - - yagil-como, 
yagil-goo. 



- beeree. 
dimi-dimi. 

- kurra. 

- kutella,coonabia. 

- mumboo. 



Native robin 

Neck - 
Net (fishing) 
,, (kangaroo) 
Never - 



diokadeera, dick- 

angoura. 
munno. 
mobbee. 
woogooroo. 
raooreeroo. 



Knife to work or nunga patter- 
cut with nunda. 



0. 



Orange-tree 
One • 



Old (not new) 
Over there - 
Orange-tree- 

VOL. II, 



bingelinia 

- wagin, weerber. 

- moongunna, 

moongun. 

- moretella. 

- onee. 

- ulareenia. 



Outside 
Oak-tree 
Opening in a hut; 

door, window, 

&c. 

Over, top - 
Open - 



wandaranga. 

turoo. 

dim. 



warna. 
ouranga. 



21 



498 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



P. 



Plenty- 


- oulburra, mar- 


Put in 


-tukunna. . 




giiie. 


,, down - 


edunga. 


Pint pot or any 


townjourna, 


Pig-weed - 


enena, 


water vessel 


dowlinga. 


Push, press - 


tanoonga. 


Policeman - 


- poolerymen. 


Press down - 


oringa. 


Poplar-gum 


- coomoobella. 


Pour out ' - 


culgur, culgur- 


Parrot 


- bera. 




umbunger. 


Pigeon 


- yubburra. 


Put. on 


tuchumbanger. 


Plum-tree - 


- tebooroo, 








oulubba. 


Presently - 


tago. 


Pandanus-tree 


- peckey. 


Paunch 


coona. 


Pick up 


- munnuga. 


Play - ■ 


cuttinga.. 


Pelican 


- booloongoora. 


,, in the water 


narballinger. 


Picaninnyorbaby boogella. 


Pheasant (swamp) bulboo. 


Pinch - 


- nimbunga. 


Pull - 


youlberringo. 



Quick 



Q. 



- wogginggo, ilga pekilly, eiln>ia. 



R. 



Raw ■ 


- coongar, que- 


Ride - 


- 


ooroo. 




berry. 


Ribs - 


- 


meeree. 


Road - 
Rush of water 
Rain - 
Rusty gun - 
Ramrod 


- yelga. 

- ourunna. 

- turgan. 

- karkadalla. 

- pekoona. 


Rub • 
Rump.- 
Rat (white 
Roundbaok 


tail) 
Mt. 


- eurounga. 

- mourgon, moula 

- tooroo. 

- deeryunga. 


Red fig 


- talloobooroo. 


Rope - 




- mirijouroo, 


River gum - 


- ourunna. 


Rainbow 




- toolgurra. 


Run - 


- wagga, delum- 
burra. 


Red cattle 




- oungurra, cui- 
jerra. 


Red cloth - 


- toolooberry. 


Rat - 


■ 


- tibbooroo. 


Swelling 


• boguUa. 


Swim - 




- wyeinnga. 


Sun - 


- cunjane. 


Stink - 


- 


- boucar. 


Shears 


- bilgoora. 


Station, Mount 


- coolnungda. 


Swallow 


- bundalla. 


Sit down 


- 


- dunna. 


Steal - 


- ouraringa, 


Shirt - 




- muUaberry. 


Skin - 


- cooraroo. 


Sleep - 


- 


- oumburra. 



BURDEKIN RIVBR. 



499 



S. 



Sing -. - 


iey, bairee. 


Spit - 


cunja. 


Stars (small) 


boongjouelbee. 


Spider (red rump) 


toolah barginia. 


Spear (fighting) 


milranna. 


Snake (whip) 


moonda. 


„ (cattle) 


- wyaninedoo. 


Salt-pans - 


edinda. 


„ to(v.) 


mu.nggunga. 


Shouting in camp cungarra. 


Sword (wooden) 


coobooroo. 


Sleepy- 


oumbargo. 


Snake (brown) 


cooleeree, 


Slow - 


muudooru. 




talmoona. 


Side (this) - 


eninburroo. 


Sandalwood 


- wungera. 


,, ■ (the other) - 


quaimlarro. 


Sneeze 


duree. 


Stamp 


oringo. 


Smoke 


- tookar. 


Stop • 


coonjung. 


Stump 


- tunga. 


Ship, boat - 


buUera. 


Sore - 


- woodee, neemo. 


Straight 


turjerra. 


Sheep ■ 


- wonga. 


Shoulder 


carbilla-billa. 


Shade 


- cudarree. 


• Stokes Eange 


- coolumbria. 


Sunset 


- boodeera. 


Strathalbyn Sta 


beeandee. 


Sunrise 


- burrumbury. 


tion 




Stand- 


- dundeinga, 


Strathbogie Sta 


tool-kenunga. 




dunderee. 


tion 




Sharpen 


■ euroringa. 


Salisbury Plains 


worrul-burral. 


String 


- oooburra. 


Station 




Sit(cros3-legged) 


- coombirra. 


Scratch 


ekeemballinger. 


Slip rails - 


- merriloo. 


Shrimp 


battee-battee. 


Sulky - 


- dooney. 


Skin - 


cooraroo. 


Shut - 


- oumbunga, 


Sister 


coothanna. 


Sand - 


- eulburra. 


Steep bank - 


wandineia. 


Stone 


- wargia. 


Son-in-law - 


towunguUy. 


Sharpening - 


- eginder. 


Soft - 


boonarunga. 


Spill ■ 


- oulgurrunda. 


Snake trail - 


booroona. 


Scrub (river) 


- monta. 


Sunshine - 


burgarry. 


Snake (water) 


- cooraoomaller- 


Short 


coulcooroo. 




cawbella. 


Spider's web 


currer. 


Smile - 


- nootoonga. 


Stars (large) 


curarra. 


Sweat 


- wunyerrer. 


Spotted (cattle) - 


oumoonamoonoo 


Snake (tree) 


- coombella. 


Son - 


woolboora. 


Scorpion ■ 


- cooligee-cooligee. 


■ Stop or sit down yulia. 


Sick - 


- bunjeira trin- 


here 






gindoo. 


Sitting down or yularry. 


Sea 


- abin-abin. 


camping ovei 




See - 


- dimmi, nayulla. 


there 




Shoot - 


- muka, • 


Squirrel (flying) 


cundebool.- 



500 



THE AUSTRALIAN RACE: 



T. 



Take - 


- munna, 


Three - 


- koorburra. 




wanjumber. 


Turtle 


- dewyer. 


Thirsty 


- warrabinia. 


Tortoise 


- bungoora. 


Turkey (scrub) 


- wundoora. 


Teeth - 


- era. 


Tattoo (or scar) 
Two - 

Talk, tell - 


- mumboona. 

- boolarroo, 

boolarry. 

- wadger, 

kutchell. 


Thigh joint 
Take oflf - 
Turn over - 
• ,, round 


- weelera. 

- orunga, inta. 

- wyelimbunger. 




yemmuUy. 


Take away 


- cundinga. 


Tomahawk - 


- balgon, oulan. 


Tear - 


- battee. 


Thigh 


- turra. 


Tongue 


- tunbelainea. 


Tail (horse) 


- werkie. 


To-morrow - 


- delioona. 


Turkey (plain) 


worka. 


Top - ' - 


- warna. 


Tea-tree 


- konkar. 


Tail - 


- toonguljbounger 


Throw 


- yabbunga. 


Thick (applied 


to mubbabilla. 


„ away 


- yabbunga. 


milk, blood. 


Tickle 


- meebunbunga. 


water, &g.) 




Tree - 


- toola. 


Tomahawk 


(to balgoungoo 


Tired 


- oumbargo. 


cut or chop w 


ith) oulunna. • 


Tie - 


- moolbinga. 


Two together 


- alluna. 


Thunder - 


- bulbunna. 


This one 


- youlounnoo. 


Think 


- pitohere. 


The other one 


- wadgeraboudoo. 


Understand 


- imber. 


r. ■ 

Under 


- bnrrunnia. 


Unticj undo 
Up - - 


- oarer or ourunga. 

- pindee. 


Uncle 


- culna, 


Wax of wild bees coomurra. 


Whip - 


- meyouroo. 


Wind 


- gwarrie. 


Wake up - 


- oundarinnea. 


Where- 


- wanda. 


White 


- karkarigie. 




omidee, 


Whirlwind - 


- boolboorooroo. 




winyar. 


WaUaby - 


- tookabella. 


Wood 


- toola. 


,, (rook) '- cungouloti. 


Wife - 


- tekoonee. 


Whistle - 


- corbeela. 


White man - 


- miocolo. 


White cedar-tree mirkambilla. 




buUimuna. 


Where are 


you cundaroegb? 


Whiskers - 


- nareena. 


going? 




Walk - 


- tonar. 


Where is it ? 


- outage? 





BURDEKIN RIVER. 


501 




W. 




Wann 

Window 

Woodstock Sta- 
tion 


tamboora. 

dilli. 

youngoomurra. 


Wet 
Water 


- ginger. 
cummo,narburra 
cawtora. 


Woodhouse- Sta- 
tion 


coolnungda. 


'We - 
Waddy 


alleena. 
meroo. 




Y. 




Yard (for cattle) miloola, warra. 
You - - - indoo, indoor. 


Yesterday - 
Yam (mountain) 


- muloungee. 

- malboon. 


Yes - - - yar. . 
Yam (yellow flower) moonilla 


Young bird 
(chicken) 


nongoora. 


,, (convolvulus 


) bungulti. 


Yam 


- dnidurra. 


,, (all kinds) 


munda. 




mannoona, 


You and me 


allee. 

SUNI 


BIES. 


coonooma. 


Don't go 


yuUa. 


Here it is - 


- yoularey. 


Son-in-law 


torooungully- 


Pour out - 


■ culgurunbuyer. 


Both together 


eveller. 


Here - 


millalla. 


Over there - 


onee. 


No good 


- muggera. 


To point a piece 


bunbanya. 


Small 


- mubbooroo. 


of wood 




Lazy - 


- kyalingga. 



END OF VOLUME 11. 



Melbourne: John Ferres, Grovernment Printer.